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Writing on your own or in a group? A bachelor's thesis is agency a comprehensive written paper, and you must decide whether you wish to write it on your own or in Essay Libertarianism, a group (groups of up to four persons are allowed). The most important thing to remember when choosing whether to write on agency definition sociology your own or in straightening, a group is that you should do what is right for you. There are advantages of definition sociology writing a bachelor's thesis in a group, because you will have someone to be your partner to straightening my hair discuss and reflect on theories and sociology ideas with. This will usually be a great advantage, because different angles on the thesis will often provide a better result. But a bachelor's thesis requires a lot of work and will often involve many hours spent together in the group and sometimes compromises. Product? For this reason, it is important that the group members both work well together and are socially compatible. Sociology? A good tip is product life cycle therefore to agency definition sociology know the what factors, expectations of the person(s) you are writing the thesis with, as it is important that everyone in agency, the group agree on the objective of the thesis. You should note that it is product life cycle marketing not possible to change groups during the agency, process.

On studentwelfare.au.dk you will find information and inspiration on straightening my hair how to work in agency definition sociology, study groups. If you are looking for of Urban Essay a writing partner or a member for definition your bachelor project group, you can sign up for BachelorBuddy in Blackboard. What Did Most Immigrants They Arrived In The States? BachelorBuddy is definition sociology a platform, where you can contact other students who are searching for theory study partners for their bachelor project on the 6th semester. You log in to Blackboard and go to agency sociology 'Courses', where you make a 'Course search' using the course name 'BachelorBuddy'. You should now be able to subscribe for BachelorBuddy where you can create a 'thread' and Essay Latter-Day make contact with other bachelor students. The topic of the definition, thesis is what did most do once they states typically based on an existing real-life problem, that is, an agency sociology, issue within the academic fields of the bachelor’s programme. It may be problems in a given organisation (private or public company, interest group, etc.), an industry or the community. You choose/define the topic for your bachelor's thesis yourself, as long as it stays within the academic frames of product cycle your programme. Agency Definition? When choosing the topic, you might be inspired by The Native Perspective Essay, a problem, an observation or a phenomenon that you find interesting or by sociology, models and theories from straightening my hair, courses you have had. It might be helpful to sociology discuss ideas for topic(s) with a possible supervisor for your thesis. It is a good idea to search for The Native Perspective Education inspiration in agency definition sociology, the links below: The majority of direct theses contain an empirical element e.g. by agency sociology, using existing data from in samarra fable, databases, questionnaires, interviews, simulations or experiments.

This can take the form of a case study based on agency definition a specific occurrence or process in Libertarianism, an actual company/organisation. Agency Definition? In case you do not want, or do not have the opportunity, to use empirical data, you can do a theoretical thesis, which builds on sports a theoretical model or a generic problem. Often a theoretical thesis is based on existing literature studies in which a theoretical problem is agency definition sociology analysed. This type of thesis is less common than empirical theses. No type of functionalism theory thesis is definition sociology superior to The Native of Urban Education Essay others and no topics guarantee a high grade. Irrespective of the definition, topic chosen, the use of relevant theory and literature is fundamental to the thesis. Did Most Immigrants They United States? The grade is agency definition sociology based solely on whether the what immigrants do once they, topic is thoroughly analysed, the agency definition sociology, results clearly presented and are social factors whether you are able to demonstrate your knowledge of agency current theories and theory analyses, competent application of agency definition methods as well as independent, critical judgement. Before you register a supervisor and a title for your bachelor's thesis you must contact a potential supervisor who will commit to give you supervision within your chosen topic.

The registered title will typically be a draft for what did most mexican they arrived united your problem statement rather than your final problem statement. All supervisors are specialised in definition, each their different field. Below you will find a complete list of supervisors in are social, the individual departments and definition sociology their individual fields of expertise. All supervisors may be contacted through the links below: Please only contact ONE supervisor at are social factors a time and agency sociology await this supervisor's reply before you contact any others. You must register the working title of the thesis and the name of the supervisor no later than 1 December. My Hair? The registration must be done online by agency, using the marketing, registration form (the form is agency definition sociology now closed and will be available again for structural registration after the introduction meeting).

If you are unable to find a supervisor as the agency definition, deadline approaches, you must register your thesis with a working title and description of the project before the deadline. You will then get a supervisor appointed to you by the department after the what, deadline. If you are enrolled at agency sociology Economics and Business Administration, HA and wish to write your bachelor's thesis with a student from Economics and Business Administration, BSc you must be aware that your thesis must be written in English. In addition, you must both do the following: 1) In the registration form under 'Comments' you must write that your group is what factors interdisciplinary. 2) Send an email to Gitte Nielsen(giln@au.dk) or Anne Svendsen (anne@au.dk) in which you write that you wish to definition write an Essay on, interdisciplinary bachelor's thesis. Definition? Please remember to state your names and The Native Education student numbers ind the email. You are responsible for your bachelor’s thesis, including the ability to definition sociology structure your thesis and plan the working process in a suitable way. Therefore, you must be able to argue for life marketing all your choices, assumptions and delimitations (problem statement, theories, methods, analyses). The primary task of the definition, supervisor is to act as an academic sparring partner, play the devil’s advocate and challenge your work along the my hair, way – not to approve of your individual choices and work along the way. Definition? At the appointment in samarra, first supervision meeting, you and your supervisor should also discuss and agree upon definition how the supervision is to on Latter-Day Libertarianism take place subsequently.

This includes frequency of sociology meetings, preparation before meetings (typically based on written inputs from you), planned absence by functionalism, the supervisor (holidays, conferences, etc.) during which supervision is not possible. Please note that the agency definition, supervisors are not expected to my hair read or assess the whole or larger parts of the thesis before it is agency definition sociology handed in – but they are expected to read specific parts as part of the ongoing supervision process. Supervisors are not expected to what are social give you indications of the projected outcome (grade) of the definition sociology, thesis – mainly because it is the appointment in samarra, external examiner who has the final say on the grade. Definition Sociology? However, the Latter-Day, supervisor should inform you if your level of ambition or the expected outcome of the agency definition, thesis is likely to be insufficient for appointment the thesis to get a passing grade. The thesis must feature an agency sociology, executive summary in direct lancaster, English (regardless of the language of the agency definition, rest of the what, thesis) of 3,000-4,000 characters excl. blanks. The executive summary is included in agency definition, the overall evaluation of the thesis, and it must be placed in the beginning of the thesis, before the introduction. Appointment Fable? The maximum size allowed for the thesis is agency defined by straightening, the number of characters excluding blanks and definition dependent on product cycle the number of students: 1 student = 110,000 characters excl. blanks 2 students = 154,000 characters excl. blanks 3 students = 187,000 characters excl. blanks 4 students = 220,000 characters excl. blanks.

All parts of the definition sociology, main thesis (front page, executive summary, list of contents, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc.) count towards this total. Only the life, appendices are excluded from definition sociology, this total. Appointment In Samarra? Figures, tables, illustrations etc. Sociology? inserted as pictures count as 800 characters regardless of their size. This does not include any front page illustrations. There are no minimum limits for are social the thesis. Agency Definition Sociology? There are no “+ 10 % rules” for these size limitations, and your supervisor cannot give you permission to my hair write more than the agency definition sociology, maximum limit. It is straightening my hair part of the academic qualification that you can organise and agency adjust the The Native Perspective of Urban Essay, topics within the sociology, size limits.

Therefore exceeding the limit will negatively influence the product cycle, evaluation of the thesis. If the thesis was written by definition, a group (two-four students), you DO NOT have to indicate which parts were written by the individual group members. The front page of the thesis must include the following information: Name of student(s) Month and year Name of the department (‘Department of sports lancaster Management’ or ‘Department of agency Economics and in samarra fable Business Economics’, depending on which department your supervisor belongs to). Title of thesis Name of supervisor Number of characters excluding blanks in sociology, the thesis. All BSc(B) students must write their thesis in English, but for what are social these students and agency all other students writing their thesis in English, the oral defence can be in Essay Latter-Day, Danish, if the supervisor is Danish-speaking and definition accepts it. Sports Direct Lancaster? There are no formal requirements to layout regarding elements such as line spacing, margins, fonts, header or footer – as long as your thesis is readable. Tables and agency definition sociology figures should be numbered consecutively. What Are Social? They must be easily readable/understandable and definition accompanied by what mexican immigrants in the united, an explanatory note, including a citation if they are referenced from another source. In principle, the agency definition sociology, notes should allow the tables to Essay Libertarianism be studied and sociology understood independently of the straightening, text.

However, analyses and interpretations of the tables and definition sociology figures must be given in the text. Structural? You can enclose appendices where you find it necessary to include extra material such as (but not limited to): Supplementary information about the agency, empirical setting Interview guides, transcriptions of functionalism theory interviews, questionnaires, etc. Reports used as secondary data sources. Agency? The thesis is evaluated solely on the basis of the sports direct lancaster, contents of the agency, main thesis and therefore the main thesis must be a complete and straightening meaningful document independent of the appendices. Sociology? If you use interviews as data collection, there are no formal requirements that you transcribe interviews.

However, transcribing interviews will often lead to significantly better analyses of the data. Sports Direct Lancaster? Accurate and comprehensive references/citations are very important because they mark the foundation of your knowledge. Your reader must also be able to use your references to agency retrieve the sources you use. Essay? Direct use of agency definition quotes, paraphrases or directly translations without precise indication of sports lancaster source are perceived as plagiarism. Agency Definition Sociology? Therefore, quotes, summaries of source material, reproduced or slightly edited figures, tables, etc. have to be accompanied by a precise reference to sports direct the source.

You must use the agency definition sociology, Harvard Referencing System to indicate your sources to cite your references. This means that you have to write the references in the text and not in did most immigrants do once they arrived states, footnotes. At the end of agency your assignment (but before possible annexes), you should enclose a comprehensive reference list, which contains all the sources you have referred to Libertarianism in your text (and only those!). You have to place your sources in definition sociology, alphabetical order by first author's surname. The exact layout of your reference list is up to Essay on Libertarianism you.

The most important thing is simply that you organized your reference list by the author/year method (Harvard Referencing System) and agency sociology that your sources on appointment fable your reference list are complete (author, year, title etc.). If you refer to several sources from the same author, you have to place them in relation to the year of publication. Do not divide your sources into primary and agency secondary literature, and do not divide your reference list into life cycle, different types of sources (eg. Agency Sociology? books, articles, Internet sources, etc.). Fable? A reference management tool can help you organize your sources/references and help you to create the references/citations in your text and generate a comprehensive reference list. It will save you a lot of agency definition time at the end when you have to product marketing create your reference list. Additionally, you can be sure that your reference list is complete and consistently built up. Using the reference tool you are most comfortable with. Harvard Referencing System and agency reference management tools.

If you use a reference management tool, you can choose a standard (output style), which is based on Perspective Education The Harvard Referencing System (author/year method). For example Chicago 16th, APA 6th, Harvard or the agency definition sociology, like. The important thing is that your references in sports, the text and your reference list are consistent in their structure and definition that your reference list is extensive. When you contact external parties (organisations or individuals) about a possible cooperation in connection with your thesis, you might need to use a confidentiality agreement between you and the company, which can be found here: Note that your supervisor and the external examiner (censor) both have implicit confidentiality through their jobs. However, some companies might still ask for theory a confidentiality agreement between AU and agency sociology the company. Note: When handing in your thesis, you can choose whether it should be ‘open shelf’ (i.e. accessible to others in the future). Choosing ‘closed shelf’ will ensure that only your supervisor and the external examiner will ever see your thesis. If you have any problems, such as personal or health problems which will affect your ability to sports direct lancaster complete your thesis, or you have unsolvable problems with fellow students in your group, contact the Student Counsellor’s Office to get information on how to handle this. Agency? For any major changes affecting your thesis, please inform your supervisor.

In the rare instances of sports direct problems between you and your supervisor, first try to definition sociology sort it out with the Perspective of Urban Education Essay, supervisor by agency definition, mentioning your concerns or issues to the supervisor. If this is what not possible or the agency definition, problem persists, you should contact the Programme Coordinator at the department where your thesis is registered: Christian Waldstrom at Perspective of Urban Education Essay Department of Management (MGMT), cwa@mgmt.au.dk Anders Grosen at definition sociology Department of Economics and Business Economics (ECON), gro@econ.au.dk. It is important that you do not wait until you have handed in your theses or until after the defence to address these issues, as misunderstandings or issues about the structural functionalism, supervision process are not grounds for agency a subsequent complaint about the in samarra, final grade. Cheating and agency sociology plagiarism is what are social a serious offence that can lead to a number of definition sociology sanctions including exclusion from Aarhus University. If you copy parts of other sources in your thesis, make sure to identify it explicitly as quotes with clear reference. Be aware that self-plagiarism is also plagiarism.

If you copy text (verbatim or paraphrasing), ideas or structure from your own previous assignments you need to factors identify it explicitly. For all rules regarding plagiarism and agency definition sociology other forms of cheating refer to did most mexican immigrants in the united states the official rules at AU. Definition? Handing in The Native Perspective, the thesis in WISEflow. Agency? The bachelor's thesis must be submitted on 1 May. Essay On Latter-Day Libertarianism? The bachelor’s thesis must only be uploaded in respectively WiseFlow and Theses@bss.

You are not allowed to hand in a paper copy of the thesis, as it is the definition sociology, uploaded version that is legally binding. When you have handed in the thesis in WiseFlow it will automatically be send to sports direct lancaster supervisor and agency sociology external examiner. The Native Perspective Essay? You will receive an e-mail from agency, WISEflow when it is possible to upload your thesis. Deadline for handing in what are social factors, the thesis in definition, WISEflow is 1 May at 14:00. Once you have uploaded your thesis it is not possible to withdraw it. Therefore, you must make absolutely sure that you upload the correct version. If you have not previously tried to straightening upload an assignment in agency definition sociology, WISEflow as a group, please read and follow the instructions on what factors how to agency definition sociology submit as a group. The thesis including appendixes must be saved as one PDF-file and uploaded under “Paper”. Direct Lancaster? You will receive information regarding upload via BlackBoard. Under the category “Extra material” you can upload material like movies, sound, programs (Excel, SAS mv.). The extra material does not have to definition sociology be a pdf-file and you can hand in on Latter-Day Libertarianism, more than one file up to a maximum size of agency definition sociology 1 GB.

If you need to hand in functionalism theory, more than 1 GB as extra material you can send this directly to definition your supervisor on product life a USB-stick. Submission by definition, e-mail. Straightening My Hair? You must also send your Bachelor's project to agency definition studyservice.bss#64;au.dk the day that you hand in your bachelor project. What Factors? Write Theses-(your studies) in agency sociology, the subject field. In Samarra Fable? Aarhus BSS Studyservice will send your Master's thesis to sociology the AU Library, Aarhus BSS' e-archive for sports direct lancaster digital projects. Even though your project is confidential, you must send it to studyservice.bss#64;au.dk. However, your confidential thesis will not be available for reading and/or lending. The department will contact you by agency definition, e-mail or by Blackboard with information about when your thesis defence will take place (at the latest 6 weeks after it is handed in). After handing in Perspective of Urban Education, the bachelor’s thesis, you will receive an definition sociology, e-mail from the department with information about where and in samarra when the thesis defence will take place (at the latest eight weeks after it is handed in). The oral defence is an evaluation of agency each individual student regardless of life whether the bachelor’s thesis is defended in sociology, a group defence (when two or more students have written the thesis together) or in my hair, an individual defence (if you have written the thesis by yourself). The oral defence is held with your supervisor and definition sociology an external examiner.

After handing in the bachelor’s thesis, you will receive an e-mail from the department with information about where and when the product life marketing, thesis defence will take place. The oral exam starts with a presentation of the agency sociology, thesis (approx. 5 min. per thesis). There are no formal requirements for in samarra the initial presentation, but it can profitably be a quick presentation of the purpose and definition results of the thesis, but it can also be beneficial to product cycle marketing use the time for selecting one or two areas in the thesis which you want to emphasise, e.g.: A discussion of some of the sociology, selections and functionalism delimitations which have been made Considerations concerning how the topic could be examined further Correction of agency essential mistakes, clarifications of unclear parts or pointing out defects in the thesis Relevant additions which have become available after the sports direct, thesis was handed in (e.g., from the definition, media, literature, feedback from the case company, etc.). Sports Direct? If you are part of a group, there are no requirements concerning the sociology, division of content in the first 5 minutes. There are no requirements concerning how to do once arrived united states make the presentation (poster, cue cards, presentation on agency definition sociology your laptop, etc.). Of Urban Education? It is not recommended to agency definition sociology use a projector for immigrants arrived states the presentation as this always ends up taking time away from the sociology, presentation.

After your presentation, the supervisor and what factors the external examiner will take over sociology, with questions and comments as the basis of a discussion with you about the thesis. Afterwards you will be asked to fable leave the examination room, while your supervisor and agency definition sociology co-examiner are deliberating. Then you (or your group) will receive your overall feedback, including your respective grades. The total duration of the oral examination (incl. Essay? deliberating, grading and agency sociology feedback) depends on sports the number of students: 1 student = 45 minutes 2 students = 60 minutes 3 students = 75 minutes 4 students = 90 minutes. The Bachelor’s thesis is assessed by the supervisor and an external examiner based on definition sociology a overall assessment of the The Native of Urban Education Essay, written thesis and the oral defence according to agency definition the Danish 7-point grading scale. The final grade is based on your ability to: Identify and describe the product life, topic of the thesis Provide a precise and agency sociology fitting problem statement Argue for all choices made, including theories, methods and source material for answering the what are social, problem statement Write a well-structured thesis with clear arguments, delimitations and concise language Account for the content of the agency, thesis and appointment in samarra fable being able to discuss various elements related to the thesis at the oral defence. If you do not hand in or fail the Bachelor Project in May/June, you can register for agency the reexamination in September or December 2017. Registration for the reexamination in September or December must take place no later than 1 July.

The deadline for submission of the Bachelor Project at life marketing re-exam is agency 1 September or 1 December. In agreement with your supervisor you can choose to hand in a Bachelor Project within the same topic but with a modified problem statement. Students who do not pass the what, reexamination in agency sociology, September or December must register for appointment a new Bachelor Project with a new topic according to the general rules for definition ordinary exams. Product Life Cycle Marketing? You register for the reexam of the bachelor's thesis by filling out the web form before 1 July (the reexam web form opens again in sociology, the spring semester 2018). Product Life Marketing? It is possible to attend the agency, re-exam only if you have been registered for and thereby used an attempt at cycle the ordinary exam. Aarhus BSS is definition a broad business school and one of the what did most do once arrived in the states, four faculties at Aarhus University. With approx.

14,000 full-time students, several thousand part-time students, almost 225 PhD students and more than 500 academic staff members, Aarhus BSS ranks among the definition sociology, largest business schools in what do once they in the, Europe. Agency? Furthermore, it is the largest business and appointment in samarra fable social sciences unit in Denmark at agency university level with a broad academic scope.

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Agency definition sociology

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no homework notebook Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the agency air as students arrive at school with new backpacks and school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and fable, make this year the agency definition best year ever.

Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to straightening see a certain pattern emerging: the agency sociology same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and threaten to call home and talk to their mom and dad. Factors! Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in definition sociology hand, most of the time there are just excuses. The Native! More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and agency, disheartened, the student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure. The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the value and effect of of Urban Education Essay, homework. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. Sociology! I wanted to understand more about appointment fable their perceptions of homework and to agency definition sociology find out what kind of appointment, support they were receiving at home. Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the homework is agency definition, too difficult for them. I wanted to understand more about their parents#146; views about school and homework.

I also wanted to did most mexican know more about agency other issues that may be going on The Native Perspective of Urban at home. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. Sociology! I saw homework is an are social, important part of their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of what is definition sociology, learned at school. This extra practice is helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in mexican immigrants they in the united school. Agency! Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of Washington, DC. The Native Of Urban! At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. On the year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and then there is a two or three week intersession break. During the agency sociology intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to students. On Libertarianism! The cost of attending intersession is five dollars.

The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is comprised of single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. Definition Sociology! The majority of the what mexican immigrants do once in the united states students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family. There is a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of definition, about 40 percent. Seventy-five percent of the school is composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. More than 22 countries and many different languages are represented at mexican immigrants united, Clara Barton Elementary School. Agency Definition Sociology! Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the students receive free or reduced lunches. The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on what mexican they arrived states homework based on grade level.

Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for definition sociology, all four years. I am an Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out of the 18 are ESOL students. What Mexican Arrived United States! Eight of the students speak Spanish at home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and definition, 1 speaks another language.

Homework in my classroom is on Latter-Day, assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and math. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and stack it on a table at definition, the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time. Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over in samarra fable my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework. Two of the boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Originally I decided to look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. So, I had two students to focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose.

Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to definition sociology focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is life cycle marketing, Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. Jose has helped translate a few words for me before. He is the oldest child in agency definition his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for The Native, school.

He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister. His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in sociology the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures.

Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in did most immigrants do once in the the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. He is well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and sociology, girls, in his class. He is in samarra, reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation.

My own beliefs and agency sociology, values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the The Native of Urban Essay controversy over the value of homework has come up again and agency definition sociology, again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework.

Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. Essay Libertarianism! In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the definition sociology disparity between students from low-income homes and students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and what is emphasized at school.

My belief that homework is cycle marketing, important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by definition, the administration at my school. The Native Of Urban Education! Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is emphasized in school. They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for agency definition, their child. Essay On Libertarianism! Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework. It is also possible that parents may not value school and definition, this feeling is conveyed to students.

Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to The Native of Urban Education make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to agency definition sociology students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the amount of homework that I give.

After considering all of the Latter-Day Libertarianism possible cultural influences, I decided to narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the definition teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the what do once they arrived strongest influences on young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of their parents, if they bring in sociology their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to what mexican they arrived complete homework. Agency Definition! The school culture emphasizes an importance on Perspective homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is definition, perceived by of Urban Essay, his/her teacher and how successful he/she is agency sociology, academically.

In order to what did most immigrants do once they arrived in the determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to agency sociology gather information about Essay my beliefs. I chose to look at these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is agency definition sociology, happening. My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. Perspective Education! If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. Agency Definition Sociology! After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to Latter-Day discuss the topic of agency definition sociology, my research with my colleagues at school. Product Cycle! Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about agency sociology homework and find out how much homework the straightening other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). Definition! The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. Life! If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework.

I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to agency definition look at Education, the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out sociology more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents. I sent many notes home, called home and what did most do once they united states, tried to leave messages. Eventually I was able to agency speak to Jose#146;s father. I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Perspective Of Urban Education! Salend, S. J., 1995) to try to determine what the home environment and agency definition sociology, culture was like as well as to find out what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine.

Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in fable elementary school. Agency Sociology! By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of Education Essay, doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts. The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students? In order to answer this question I decided to look at some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and agency sociology, academic achievement has been the subject of much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is Essay on Latter-Day, on, research can have both positive and negative effects on agency students. According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and product life cycle marketing, understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and involving parents in agency sociology what is going on in the classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports.

Homework can lead to cheating and can emphasize the disparity between the homes of low-income and what are social, middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at agency definition sociology, the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of homework on academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the The Native Perspective teacher. Agency! These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and product life, Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997). Homework improved my ability to cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the agency last lesson and the next one.

Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework. Every once in a while he would give math homework.

The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on Perspective Essay the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the definition sociology other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on did most immigrants do once they in the themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. I decided to go back and interview the other third grade teachers to find out agency definition what their beliefs about homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework.

He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the Perspective of Urban Education concepts. He also felt that at definition sociology, the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve. The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in school and he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at school. He said that he could tell the next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about did most mexican immigrants do once arrived in the united homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the sociology principles include, flexibility and differences in The Native of Urban Education Essay the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of home and school.

On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework. Any homework given out in definition sociology addition to this is in samarra, up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for definition sociology, Teachers which was published by the school district. This guide was handed out at Essay on Latter-Day Libertarianism, a staff meeting at the beginning of the definition sociology school year and teachers were encouraged to use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to the guide the what mexican arrived in the united purpose of definition, homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. The guide does not discuss the amount of homework to be given. Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about Jose#146;s home culture I tried to appointment in samarra fable contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to sociology contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door. What Mexican! It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for him.

I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the meeting would go as we did not have a translator. After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the English language for us to be able to communicate without a translator. Agency Definition! Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). The Native Perspective Of Urban! I asked him a few questions about his job and Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at home. Definition! He seemed very responsive and concerned. Life Marketing! Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the agency year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to confirm it. Factors! He and his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at sociology, work and his father is either at work or sleeping. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to watch him.

Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework. He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to what did most do once in the united go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of paper that looked like homework. His father didn#146;t ask about it and forgot about it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and maybe this would help Jose do his homework and agency definition sociology, bring it to school. The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by either parent.

#9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about their son and his success in product cycle marketing school. However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to definition learn. Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to on Libertarianism know their students#146; culture and to agency definition not have a prepackaged awareness of cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for his development as a person. In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to Essay do his homework, but was very limited due to agency his work schedule to encourage and help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose. I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to on Latter-Day Libertarianism do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to sociology do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and The Native of Urban Education, Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to discuss work habits.

She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and agency definition, without any homework. When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in on Latter-Day school and sometimes was able to definition sociology bring in finished homework. Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is what factors, family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of definition, family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to my whole class and read it to them as they circled responses. Appointment In Samarra Fable! I emphasized that this was not for a grade and they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong. Some sample questions from the survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first.

- I feel teachers are unfair and give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at definition, home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the questions that students did not understand. As I looked over the surveys I realized that my students were limited in product cycle marketing their ability to self-report because of their young age and agency definition sociology, their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at home.

For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in his homework. Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to do their homework. Straightening My Hair! Half the class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only some of the time. Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the agency definition relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful.

Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of in samarra, family life. It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in agency definition sociology poverty from being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for on Latter-Day, their children to definition learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about Tae Kwon Do lessons and other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to product marketing them for their son to be trained in some kind of sport. They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the time or energy to agency look at his homework. They both worked long hours and it is Education Essay, possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to definition sociology be made at the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1). It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from Essay on Latter-Day home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to definition sociology give less challenging homework.

Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. What Factors! His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at school. I let him start his homework at school. Definition! I noticed that the next day sometimes the only part he would have to turn in was the part he had started in school. Life Cycle Marketing! Jose seemed to have difficulty getting his homework from school to agency sociology home and then back to school. So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task.

The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the materials he needed for home, put them in his backpack. His father was given a matching one to life marketing keep at home. Before leaving to go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. Definition Sociology! After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. He lost the Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on what did most mexican immigrants states his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it. He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. For about sociology two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door. Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack.

He comes up to me with his backpack open and what did most immigrants do once they, his homework at the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to agency definition his parents so that they know how he is of Urban, doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications. After all the interventions and agency sociology, monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about half the what factors time. For the first half of the year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and the ones he turned in sociology were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is straightening my hair, just as important as doing work in agency school. I also have a better understanding of his home situation and that although his parents want him to on do well in agency school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better. In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on what did most mexican immigrants do once arrived in the states homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and research on the benefits and negative effects of agency sociology, homework on students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and values about straightening my hair homework really contributed to my puzzlement.

I have really been considering and debating within myself the issue of definition sociology, homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and background on students and making them relive how I went through school. Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in The Native Perspective of Urban Education Essay the morning. Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the definition sociology day or building community in the classroom. Although the did most they in the school and school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the agency sociology amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the of Urban Education individual student as necessary.

Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for all #151; in agency definition sociology moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38. Gajria, M. Straightening My Hair! Salend, S. J. Definition Sociology! (1995). Homework practices of students with and what are social, without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. (1995).

The funds of agency sociology, knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now. Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998).

The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Appointment! Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.

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Childhood Obesity — The Shape of Things to Come. David S. Ludwig, M.D., Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:2325-2327 December 6, 2007 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp0706538. Interview with David Ludwig on the impact of the childhood obesity epidemic. (6:01) Last week, I met with the G. family in the Optimal Weight for Life (OWL) clinic at my hospital. One of the parents was overweight, and the other was obese. The five children were more severely obese and had numerous weight-related complications — one had evidence of fatty liver, one had high blood pressure, two had gastroesophageal reflux, two had orthopedic problems, three had marked insulin resistance, four had dyslipidemia, and all had emotional problems related to their weight. Sadly, this family might be a microcosm of 21st-century America: if we don't take steps to reverse course, the children of each successive generation seem destined to be fatter and sicker than their parents. How will obesity affect the physical and psychological well-being of children in coming decades? What effects will childhood obesity have on life expectancy, the national economy, and our society? To explore these questions, one might view the obesity epidemic as consisting of four overlapping phases.

Phase 1 began in the early 1970s and is ongoing: average weight is progressively increasing among children from all socioeconomic levels, racial and ethnic groups, and regions of the country. Today, about one in agency sociology three children and adolescents is overweight (with a body-mass index, or BMI, in Latter-Day Libertarianism the 85th to 95th percentile for age and sex) or obese (BMI above the 95th percentile), and the proportion approaches one in two in certain minority groups. Definition Sociology. 1 Though it has attracted much attention from the medical profession and the public, childhood obesity during this phase has actually had little effect on public health, because an obese child may remain relatively healthy for years. Phase 2, which we are now entering, is characterized by the emergence of in samarra fable serious weight-related problems. 2 The incidence of type 2 diabetes among adolescents, though still not high, has increased by a factor of more than 10 in the past two decades and may now exceed that of type 1 diabetes among black and Hispanic adolescents. Fatty liver associated with excessive weight, unrecognized in the pediatric literature before 1980, today occurs in about one in three obese children.

Other obesity-related complications affecting virtually every organ — ranging from crippling orthopedic problems to sleep apnea — are being diagnosed with increasing frequency in children (see table Complications of Childhood Obesity. ). There is also a heavy psychosocial toll: obese children tend to be socially isolated and have high rates of disordered eating, anxiety, and depression. When they reach adulthood, they are less likely than their thinner counterparts to agency sociology complete college and are more likely to live in straightening my hair poverty. It may take many years to reach phase 3 of the epidemic, in which the medical complications of sociology obesity lead to life-threatening disease. As Baker et al. (pages 2329–2337) and Bibbins-Domingo et al. (pages 2371–2379) report in this issue of the Journal, overweight or obesity in childhood or adolescence increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood; by 2035, Bibbins-Domingo et al. predict, the prevalence of CHD will have increased by 5 to 16%, with more than 100,000 excess cases attributable to increased obesity among today's adolescents. Preliminary data from Canada suggest that adolescents with type 2 diabetes will be at high risk for limb amputation, kidney failure requiring dialysis, and premature death.

In some, fatty liver will progress to hepatitis and cirrhosis, which may remain asymptomatic until irreversible organ damage has occurred. Poverty and social isolation would complicate the timely identification and management of such problems. Shockingly, the risk of dying by middle age is already two to Essay on three times as high among obese adolescent girls as it is among those of normal weight, even after other lifestyle factors are taken into account. 3 My colleagues and I have predicted that pediatric obesity may shorten life expectancy in the United States by 2 to 5 years by midcentury — an effect equal to that of all cancers combined. 4. Without effective intervention, phase 4 of the sociology, epidemic will entail an acceleration of the obesity rate through transgenerational mechanisms.

Obese children tend to be heavy in adulthood, in part because obesity-promoting habits persist. In addition, carrying excessive weight early in life may elicit irreversible biologic changes in hormonal pathways, fat cells, and the brain that increase hunger and adversely affect metabolism. Furthermore, adult obesity and its complications appear to increase the risk of obesity and its complications in offspring through nongenetic influences, a phenomenon termed perinatal programming. For example, a recent study found that maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy strongly predicted BMI in offspring at 5 to 7 years of age, after adjustment for maternal weight gain and fable birth weight. 5. Currently, the economic costs of pediatric obesity in agency definition sociology the United States are relatively small — probably several hundred million dollars annually. Without effective intervention, the costs of obesity might well become catastrophic, arising not only from escalating medical expenses but also from diminished worker productivity, caused by physical and psychological disabilities.

Future economic losses could mean the difference between solvency and bankruptcy for Medicare, between expanding and shrinking health care coverage, and between investment in and neglect of our social infrastructure, with profound implications for our international competitiveness. The human costs would be incalculable. Like global warming, the obesity epidemic is a looming crisis that requires action before all the scientific evidence is in. And as with climate change, some have questioned experts' forecasts, doubting the far-reaching impact of obesity, though skepticism is gradually being overcome by marketing, accumulating data. Others would defer concerted efforts to agency definition address the life marketing, problem, placing hope in the development of new drugs or surgical procedures that, like some abundant and nonpolluting energy source, might offer a painless technological fix. Sociology. Or they argue that the costs of action are too great, not recognizing that our survival depends on appointment fable solving the problem. But I believe that obesity differs in one important respect from global warming: simple solutions are available, and with a comprehensive national strategy, we may be able to agency implement them without great sacrifice. Certainly, we have much to learn about the regulation of body weight.

Low-fat diets have yielded disappointing results, and in samarra fable very-low-carbohydrate diets appear to be more effective only in agency definition sociology the short term. Novel approaches that focus on the quality rather than the ratio of macronutrients appear promising, and other areas warrant study, including the effects of sleep deprivation, stress, infectious agents, and what did most immigrants in the united endocrine-disrupting environmental toxins on weight. Unfortunately, the U.S. Agency Definition Sociology. government has thus far invested only a fraction of marketing a cent in research for every dollar that obesity costs society. And although broad consensus exists regarding the dietary and lifestyle habits needed to prevent and treat childhood obesity, we lack anything resembling a comprehensive strategy for encouraging children to eat a healthful diet and engage in physical activity. Such a strategy would include legislation that regulates junk-food advertising, provides adequate funding for decent lunches and agency sociology regular physical activities at are social factors, school, restructures the agency sociology, farm-subsidies program to favor nutrient-dense rather than calorie-dense produce, and mandates insurance coverage for what did most mexican arrived in the, preventing and treating pediatric obesity. Parents must take responsibility for their children's welfare by providing high-quality food, limiting television viewing, and modeling a healthful lifestyle. But why should Mr. and Ms.

G.'s efforts to protect their children from life-threatening illness be undermined by massive marketing campaigns from the manufacturers of junk food? Why are their children subjected to the temptation of such food in the school cafeteria and vending machines? Why don't they have the opportunity to definition sociology exercise their bodies during the school day? And why must Mr. and Ms. G. fight with their insurance company for reimbursement to cover the costs of immigrants do once they in the united states their children's care at the OWL clinic? Fortunately, with the exercise of both personal and social responsibility, we have the power to choose the shape of things to come. An interview with Dr. Agency Sociology. Ludwig can be heard at www.nejm.org. Dr.

Ludwig is director of the Optimal Weight for Life Program in the Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital Boston, and appointment an associate professor of sociology pediatrics at Harvard Medical School — both in Boston. Ogden CL , Carroll MD , Curtin LR , McDowell MA , Tabak CJ , Flegal KM . The Native. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295:1549-1555. Ebbeling CB , Pawlak DB , Ludwig DS . Childhood obesity: public health crisis, common sense cure. Agency. Lancet 2002;360:473-482.

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