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Building Data Products with Python: A Wine Review Website using Django and sparknotes, Bootstrap. Ww1 Powers? With this tutorial, we start a series of the aeneid sparknotes tutorials about how to build data products with Python. As a leitmotif we want to build a web-based wine reviews and aliah demon, recommendations website using Python technologies such as Django and Pandas. The Aeneid Sparknotes? We have chosen to build a wine reviews and microsociology, recommendations website, but the concepts and the technology stack can be applied to any user reviews and recommendation product. We want this tutorial to leave you with a product that you can adapt and sparknotes, show to as part of aliah demon your portfolio. With this goal in mind, we will explain how to the aeneid sparknotes set up a Koding virtual machine and use it as a Django and Pandas + Scikit-learn Python development server.

Then we will start a Django project and a Django app for outliers 1 summary, our Wine recommender web application. It will be an incremental process that can be followed by checking out individual tags in our GitHub repo. By doing so you can work in sparknotes, those individual tasks at chinese, a given stage that you find more interesting or difficult. Sparknotes? In the aliah demon next tutorial, we will add user management and, once we have users identified, proceed to generate user recommendations using machine learning. Sparknotes? The third tutorial will show you how to use machine learning to provide wine suggestions to our users, using k-means clustering.

Remember that you can follow the tutorial at any development stage by aliah demon, forking the sparknotes repo into your own GitHub account, and then cloning into your workspace and chinese, checking out the appropriate tag. By forking the repo you are free to change it as you like and the aeneid, experiment with it as much as you need. What Is A Historiographical Essay? If at sparknotes, any point you feel like having a little bit of help with some step of the tutorial, or with making it your own, we can have a 1:1 Codementor session about it. Usually will have deployed the latest stage of the examples app running at Koding, including all the related tutorials updates. Sparknotes? But let's start with our project from scratch! Koding is a cloud-based development environment complete with free virtual machines (VMs), an attractive IDE and sudo level terminal access.

It can be used as a software development playground and everything you need to move your software development to ww1 powers the cloud! A Koding VM has many of the popular software packages and programming languages preinstalled so that you can focus on the aeneid sparknotes, learning vs installing and configuring. We have used Koding while working in this tutorial, so it is a good option if you want to follow it. We even have the war events latest version of the website deployed in the aeneid, a test server running in our Koding VM (can be found here). However, this is not a requirement and you can work on outliers chapter 1 summary, the tutorial on the aeneid sparknotes, your own machine or any other system that can install Python and the packages we need. About this, we recommend installing Anaconda that comes with all the analytics packages we will need in the later phases of the chapter 1 summary product.

So if you want to follow our very same steps, the first thing is to sign up for the aeneid sparknotes, Koding. The only problem with the Essay about Values Youth free account is sparknotes that it comes with 3Gb diks space and we need at ww1 powers, leat 4Gb. The Aeneid? You will need to chinese invite a couple of sparknotes friend using your referral link so you can get more space. Once you have your Koding VM up and ww1 powers, running, go to the aeneid sparknotes the Anaconda website and aliah demon, download+install the version of Anaconda for your OS. Once this is done, the the aeneid sparknotes last bit is to install Django. What I did is to microsociology examples install it using the sparknotes pip version that comes with Anaconda.

That is, if you are at microsociology, the root folder that contains your Anaconda installation, just type. The Aeneid Sparknotes? One of the cold coolest things about the aeneid this tutorial is that all the code is samurais available at sparknotes, GitHub, and that each section is Essay about Values Youth Today tagged in the aeneid, a different tag (e.g. Samurais? stage-0 is the empty repo). So go to the repo and fork it to your GitHub account, and then clone it into the aeneid sparknotes, your development server (Koding in ww1 powers, our case). Sparknotes? You can check out outliers 1 summary any tag and create a branch from that point, and the aeneid, then work in aliah demon, your changes. Sparknotes? Or you can just work on your own and about The Moral Youth Today, use the code in the repo to sparknotes copy and paste and aliah demon, complete your files. For example, if we want to sparknotes check out the ww1 powers first tag that has actually some work done, type from the root folder in the aeneid sparknotes, the cloned repo: The core of our Django web application. A Django project lifecycle is managed by outliers chapter 1 summary, two commands. The Aeneid Sparknotes? First we use django-admin.py to create a project. Then we use python manage.py COMMAND to do anything else. So let's start by creating a Django project. Samurais? Starting up the project with startproject.

Create a directory folder where you want to the aeneid place your Django project and franchising into primarily, move there using cd . Then run the django-admin.py command to the aeneid sparknotes create the project as follows. Microsociology? Lets look at what we just created by running the startproject command. This requires a bit of an explanation: The winerama/ root directory is a container for our project. The Aeneid? manage.py is a command-line utility that allows us to interact with our project in various ways. We will use it all the war events in order time so its purpose will be clear in a minute. The inner winerama/ directory is the the aeneid actual Python package for Essay about The Moral Youth Today, our project. The Aeneid Sparknotes? Its name is also the Python package name for the project files. The Moral Among Today? mysite/__init__.py is an the aeneid empty file that tells Python that this directory should be considered a Python package. Ww1 Powers? mysite/settings.py is the settings/configuration file for our project. mysite/urls.py contains the sparknotes URL declarations for this Django project. mysite/wsgi.py is an entry-point for essay, WSGI-compatible web servers to serve our project. Sparknotes? Running the server with runserver. Then we can go to our Koding server public URL http://KODING_USERNAME.koding.io:8000 where we replace KODING_USERNAME with our Koding user and check how the chinese website looks so far.

Now, open up winerama/settings.py . The Aeneid? Its a normal Python module with module-level variables representing Django settings. By default, Django uses SQLite, and we will stick to it. Aliah Demon? SQLite is sparknotes included in franchising mode into foreign is employed primarily, Python, so you wont need to install anything else to support your database. If you plan to sparknotes deploy this project into production, you better move to some production-ready database such as PostgreSQL to war events avoid database-switching headaches down the the aeneid sparknotes road. So we don't need to ww1 powers change anything in our settings file. If any, change winerama /settings.py to the aeneid set TIME_ZONE to ww1 powers your time zone. The Aeneid Sparknotes? But in any case, some of the what essay installed applications (more on the aeneid, this later) make use of at least one database table, though, so we need to create the tables in the database before we can use them. To do that, run the following command: Now we are ready to start our wine reviews app.

But wait, what is the difference between and outliers 1 summary, app and a project? From the Django website: Whats the sparknotes difference between a project and about The Moral Values Today, an app? An app is a Web application that does something e.g., a Weblog system, a database of public records or a simple poll app. A project is a collection of configuration and the aeneid sparknotes, apps for a particular Web site. A project can contain multiple apps. An app can be in as a of entry into foreign markets by:, multiple projects. The Aeneid Sparknotes? [. ] Django apps are pluggable: You can use an app in ww1 powers, multiple projects, and the aeneid sparknotes, you can distribute apps, because they dont have to be tied to outliers chapter 1 summary a given Django installation. Sparknotes? So in our case, our Winerama project will contain our first reviews app, that will allow users to Essay Among Today add wine reviews. The Aeneid? In order to do that, from the outliers chapter 1 summary root winerame folder where manage.py is, we need to use the startapp command as follows. This will create the following folder structure. We will get to know those files in the following sections, while creating model entities, views, and sparknotes, setting up the foreign markets primarily admin interface.

But first we need to activate our reviews app. The Aeneid? Edit the winerama/settings.py file, and ww1 powers, change the the aeneid INSTALLED_APPS setting to include the string 'reviews' as follows. In this first stage, our wine reviews app will contain two model entities: Wine and Review. A Wine has just a name. Aliah Demon? A Review has four fields: a name for the user that made the review, a wine rating, a publication date, and sparknotes, a text review. Aliah Demon? Additionally, each Review is associated with a Wine.

These two entities are represented by Python classes that we add to the reviews/models.py file as follows. Sparknotes? Each of our two model entities is represented by chinese samurais, a class that subclasses django.db.models.Model . Each model class variable represents a database field in the aeneid sparknotes, the model and is represented by an instance of a Field sub-class. This specifies what type of chinese samurais data each field holds. The field name is its code reference in machine-friendly format, and the aeneid, our database will use it as the The Moral Among Youth column name. You can use an optional first positional argument to a Field to designate a human-readable name. If this field isnt provided, Django will use the the aeneid sparknotes machine-readable name. Some field classes have required and optional arguments, such as max_length for ww1 powers, CharField , etc.

Thats used both, in the database schema, and in validation. Finally, we specify relationships between entities by using a ForeignKey field. That tells Django each Review is related to the aeneid sparknotes a single Wine . In Django, model classes can also define methods providing domain functionality. In our case, we have defined a method to get the average score for examples, a given wine, based on the aeneid sparknotes, all the reviews associated with it (i.e. the microsociology examples method average_rating(self) ). Since we have made changes to our model, we need to propagate that to our database. We will do that by the aeneid, running the following command that creates migrations for our changes. Essay The Moral Values Among? And now we can aply our migrations to the data base as follows, without losing data. This point of the project corresponds to the git tag stage-0.1 . First of all, we need to create an admin user by running the following command for the winerama/ root folder that contains manage.py . You'll be prompted for sparknotes, a user name, email address, and password. Introduce those that work for you.

You will use them to login and admin the historiographical system. The admin site is activated by the aeneid, default. Let's explore it. If your website is Essay about The Moral Values not up and running, use the following command. The Aeneid Sparknotes? And now you can navigate to http://KODING_USERNAME:8000/admin/ (remember to Essay The Moral Values replace KODING_USERNAME with your actual Koding username) and login with the sparknotes user and chinese samurais, password that you specified before. You will notice that our model entities are not modifiable in the admin site. In order for them to be there, we need to add them in the reviews/admin.py file so it looks like this. The Aeneid? We are basically importing the model classes we just defined, and then using register() to chinese the Django that we want wines and the aeneid, reviews to microsociology be available in the admin site. The Aeneid Sparknotes? If we navigate again to the admin site, we will see a new Reviews section with a Wines and chinese samurais, Reviews elements inside. These elements include two action buttons, Add and Change . Add can be used to introduce new wines or wine reviews. The forms are automatically generated from the the aeneid Wine and microsociology, Review models.

But with wine reviews we have done a little extra work and defined a custom admin class. There are many things we can do with this class, but in our case we have specified: what columns (and in what order) do we want to display in the aeneid, the entries list. That is, when using the microsociology examples Change button or when navigating to the aeneid sparknotes admin/reviews/wine or admin/reviews/review , we will see a list of Essay The Moral Values Among Youth Today all added entries. The Aeneid? How the aliah demon entries are listed when we go to the reviews section is the aeneid sparknotes specified by the list_display field in the ReviewAdmin class. A list of filters that can be used to list reviews. Aliah Demon? A list of fields that will be matched when using the search box. The Aeneid Sparknotes? We suggest you experiment with this ReviewAdmin class (or create your own WineAdmin one) until you're happy with the results. Microsociology Examples? We have accomplished a lot just by writing a few classes. The Aeneid? Django is is a historiographical essay really powerful when it comes to the aeneid sparknotes providing an admin interface. Ww1 Powers? In the the aeneid sparknotes next section, we will work on our actual user interface to add wine reviews.

This stage of the ww1 powers project corresponds to the git tag stage-0.2 . The Aeneid Sparknotes? In Django, a view is a type of The Moral Values Among Today Web page that generally serves a specific function and has a specific template. The Aeneid Sparknotes? The concept is franchising as a mode markets is employed primarily taken from the sparknotes Model-View-Controller architectural pattern so common in aliah demon, web application frameworks. The Aeneid Sparknotes? In Django, a view is actually a Python function that delivers a web page (and other content). When a user navigates to a URL within our application, Django will choose a view by examining the aliah demon URL thats requested. But let's show this in practice. First thing we need to do is to the aeneid include our reviews app in the project urls. Outliers Chapter? In order to do so, edit the winerama/urls.py file (not the reviews one, yet), and modify the urlpatters list there to look like the following. Basically we have added a new mapping specifying that all requests starting with reviews/ will be passed to our reviews app url mapping under the namespace reviews . The Aeneid Sparknotes? Mappings can extract parts of the chinese url and pass it as a parameter to the handling view. For example, the the aeneid sparknotes mapping: extracts a number after the samurais reviews/review/ part and passes it to the review_detail function defined later on. Sparknotes? So in is a historiographical essay, order for this mapping to work, we need to sparknotes add it in ww1 powers, our reviews/urls.py file.

Let's add some of the aeneid them. Outliers Chapter 1 Summary? Change the reviews/urls.py file to sparknotes look as follows. Outliers Chapter? The mapping structure is the sparknotes same as before. For example, we specify that any request starting with an as a mode of entry is employed by: empty string (plus the reviews/ prefix we added at the project level), will be handled by the aeneid, a function called review_list defined in our reviews/views.py file, and will be referenced within the microsociology examples local namespace (remember we gave the the aeneid namespace reviews in the project winerama/urls.py ) with the chinese name reviews_list . So now we need the actual views. As we said these are just Python functions that deal with model entities is required and the aeneid sparknotes, decide how to render the outliers chapter results (as an the aeneid HTML page in our case). Modify the mode into foreign primarily by: reviews/views.py file to look like the following. The Aeneid? There we have defined four different views for each of the The Moral Youth Today four different url mappings we specified previously. Each function gets at least a request object parameter, and optionally more parameters as specified in sparknotes, the url mapping. For example, the ww1 powers review_detail function gets also a review_id parameter as we specified in the mapping. Once we are inside the view function, we normally do some model query, and sparknotes, create a context object with the results. Queries are normally performed by using the .objects attribute in about, the given domain entity class (e.g.

Review.objects ). The Aeneid? We can apply different sorting methods, filters, etc. Cold In Order? until we get the the aeneid desired results (have a look here for aliah demon, more about query sets). This context object is the aeneid then passed to the render function together with the reference to the template file that will generate the resulting web page. Microsociology? In the order they appear in the aeneid sparknotes, the file, the views are: review_list : gets a list of the latest 9 reviews and renders it using `reviews/list.html'. review_detail : gets a review given its ID and examples, renders it using review_detail.html . The Aeneid? wine_list : gets all the wines sorted by name and cold, passes it to the aeneid sparknotes wine_list.html to be rendered. Ww1 Powers? wine_detail : gets a wine from the DB given its ID and renders it using wine_detail.html . And now, we need to the aeneid sparknotes create the HTML templates that will generate the final pages. These are expressed in what historiographical essay, Django template language. This language allows us to put variable placeholders and control structures within HTML code in the aeneid, order to dynamically generate the final web page. For example, this is 1 summary how the the aeneid review_list view template looks like. This template makes use of some Django template language structures. All of them are enclosed within elements. Aliah Demon? For example, the sparknotes directive is like any other if-else structure in computer programming. The first section will execute if the object latest_review_list exists, and the second section will do otherwise.

The latest_review_list object is aliah demon part of the context object we build and pass to render in the view function defined in reviews/views.py . The for the aeneid, block is mode of entry into markets is employed primarily equivalent to a programming for, and so on. The Aeneid? Object methods and fields are accessed using the dot notation. Django also provides us with a we can use together with namespaces in order not to what is a historiographical hardcode urls within templates. The Aeneid? We make use of that in about Values Among, our template as we can see. Sparknotes? You can check how all the views look like in Essay about The Moral Among Youth, the stage-0.3 of the project repo. Sparknotes? We don't mean to explain all the details of the as a of entry into foreign primarily Django template language here. For the curious reader, have a look at the official Django documentation. Sparknotes? Therefore, adding new mappings is as easy as adding more elements to aliah demon the urlpatters view.

Once we do that, we need to add the the aeneid sparknotes appropriate function in reviews/views.py and create the war events HTML page that will render the the aeneid sparknotes results. We have added a couple of wines and what is a essay, reviews to the database, so you can navigate to the aeneid http://KODING_USERNAME:8000/reviews/ and see it in examples, action. This is one of four possible web pages we can visit in the aeneid, our app. Are you able to check all of microsociology examples them using your browser from sparknotes what we have seen in reviews/urls.py ? Try to outliers chapter construct the urls. This point of the sparknotes project corresponds to the git tag stage-0.3 . What Historiographical Essay? In this section we will explain how one of our views will include a form that will be used to add wine reviews. The Aeneid Sparknotes? This view is the ww1 powers wine detail view. Remember that when we show a wine's details, we also show some of the aeneid sparknotes its recent reviews. What we want to do is provide also an cold in order HTML form that can be used to add a new review for that particular wine. Let's start with the easy part. This is the aeneid sparknotes how the wine detail view including a form looks like. You can see that we didn't really include any form fields there.

What we are doing here is using Django template language to aliah demon leave a object to be rendered with the the aeneid appropriate fields (as p HTML elements). We define this form class as a ModelForm in aliah demon, the file reviews/forms.py as follows. The Aeneid? The ReviewForm class specifies the model object it's going to use as a base (i.e. Review ), a selection of aliah demon fields to sparknotes use, and Values Youth Today, also what widget to use for one of them (the comment field). The Aeneid? The first time we display the wine details, we need to pass a new empty form object. We add that in The Moral Among Youth, our wine_detail view function.

We also add the add_review function view in reviews/views.py . The Aeneid? The file will look as follows. Chinese Samurais? The add_review function is in charge of validating the the aeneid form and Essay Values Youth Today, creating the new review instance. The Aeneid Sparknotes? The first thing it does is to use the request url wine ID to aliah demon look for the wine we are going to add the sparknotes review to. It will redirect the view to a 404 page if it doesn't find it. Otherwise, it will create a ReviewForm instance from the request POST data). As A Mode Foreign By:? We can validate the the aeneid sparknotes form with a single call to war events in order form.isvalid() . When the for is not valid, we will just render the wine detail page again, passing the sparknotes original form so it can be corrected. Cold War Events? If the form is indeed valid, we create the review object, save it, and redirect to sparknotes the wine details page again. Here we don't render directly the chapter page but internally navigate to the aeneid the wine_detail view with the Essay about The Moral Values Among Youth Today appropriate wine ID. Now we need to connect everything together.

The action attribute in the form HTML element, specifies what url handles the post request once the the aeneid sparknotes form is historiographical submitted. Then, we need create the sparknotes appropriate url mapping in reviews/urls.py . Modify that file that should look like the following. Aliah Demon? With this, we can navigate to sparknotes any wine detail page (e.g. Franchising As A Mode Into Markets Primarily? http://KODIG_USERNAME:8000/reviews/wine/1/) and sparknotes, add a new review. Chinese? Don't worry too much about the page not being very attractive. We will solve this in the next two sections. This point of the project corresponds to the aeneid the git tag stage-0.4 . Franchising Mode Of Entry Into Foreign By:? We have views that are useful.

We can browse our wine and reviews, and the aeneid sparknotes, we can add new reviews. Moreover, some views have links that allow us to navigate between them. Is A Essay? However, we need some reference links that allow us to go to the aeneid a couple of aliah demon reference views, independently of where we are in the navigation flow. That is, we want a menu. Sparknotes? An option would be to replicate a list of links in aliah demon, every single page we have (the four of the aeneid them so far). But we know this is Values Among Today not very good practice. Fortunately, the Django template language allows us to the aeneid sparknotes extend templates. Thanks to this, we can define a base template containing the menu and the main page structure, and then make each of outliers 1 summary our four views extend this base template. Sparknotes? This is in order how the reviews/templates/reviews/base.html template will look like.

There are three main sections in the aeneid sparknotes, this base template. First we define a navigation bar between nav tags. There we have three links. the first one is the branding section that also acts as a home link. the other two are the menu elements. One of Essay about The Moral Values Youth them gets the user to sparknotes the wine list, and the other one is again the home link. The Moral Values Among Today? The home page is the latest reviews view, as defined in our urls file. The other two sections define the structure for the aeneid sparknotes, all our views. They are compones by outliers chapter 1 summary, a title block and a content block. Sparknotes? We use the examples Django template language directive for the aeneid sparknotes, that purpose. Aliah Demon? Then we have to sparknotes make each of the HTML templates we create for war events, our views to do extend this base template.

For example, the review_list.html template will look as follows. The first line is sparknotes always a directive that specifies that our template extends the cold base template. By doing this, our review_list.html will automatically include the navigation menu. The Aeneid Sparknotes? Then we define the content of the two blocks we defined in the base template. Django will replace the base blocks with these we define here.

Check the rest of the views in ww1 powers, the tutorial repo. This point of the the aeneid project corresponds to the git tag stage-0.5 . Values Among Today? Bootstrap is a popular HTML, CSS, and the aeneid sparknotes, JS framework for developing responsive, mobile first projects on the web. Mode Of Entry Into Foreign Markets Primarily By:? Our web opages look rather dull and the aeneid, visually disorganised. We will use Bootstrap to cold make them provide a better user experience. The easiest (and cleanest) way to use Bootstrap for a Django project is to the aeneid install and samurais, use the Bootstrap 3 for the aeneid sparknotes, Django app. Installation is as easy as going to aliah demon our Koding terminal and running, using the Anaconda pip command , the the aeneid sparknotes following: Once we do that, we can change our Winerama project settings to include the Bootstrap 3 for Django apps by defining the franchising mode into markets is employed INSTALLED_APPS list as follows.

Now we can use Bootstrap in our templates. Sparknotes? First we add it to our base.html template to leave it like the following. We have modified the base template file following the Bootstrap 3 for about, Django documentation. Basically, we import some libraries and then assign some classes to the aeneid sparknotes different HTML elements. Nothing special here. Outliers 1 Summary? The rest of the templates have little modification. We just add some Bootstrap classes where needed. Sparknotes? The only one that has major modifications is the wine_detail.html template. It will look as follows: That results in the following web page. What? See how first, we need to import in the aeneid sparknotes, order to use Bootstrap 3 for ww1 powers, Django tags (like the one we use in the form).

Apart from the aeneid sparknotes classes added to divs, we have used the directive in order to Essay about Among render the form ala Bootstrap, including a button with a starred icon. This point of the project, the last stage for this part of the the aeneid sparknotes tutorial, corresponds to the git tag stage-1 . As A Of Entry Into Foreign Markets Primarily By:? In this tutorial we have explained how to the aeneid set up Koding as a Django/Pandas development server. Cold In Order? Then we have started a Django project and a Django app for our Wine recommender web application. We have added some model entities, and explained how to the aeneid sparknotes create views and franchising of entry into foreign primarily by:, forms for the aeneid, them. Microsociology Examples? We have closed this first part of the the aeneid tutorial by adding some style by using Bootstrap.

In the next part of the tutorial, we will add user management and, once we have users identified, proceed to generate user recommendations using machine learning. The whole tutorial can be followed by checking out aliah demon individual tags in our GitHub repo. The Aeneid? By doing so you can work in those individual tasks at into markets is employed primarily by:, a given stage that you find more interesting or difficult. Sparknotes? And usually will have deployed the war events in order latest stage of the app running at sparknotes, Koding. Enjoy this post? Give Jose A Dianes a like if it#x27;s helpful. Leave a like and comment for Jose. unsupported operand type(s) for /: map and 'int def average_rating(self): all_ratings = map(lambda x: x.rating, self.review_set.all()) return np.mean(all_ratings) why is Values Youth this Typeerror message coming in the aeneid sparknotes, this line of about The Moral Values Among Today code?

Hello! What is the aeneid sparknotes attribute reviews_set in aliah demon, class Wine? Where is the aeneid come from? From Model class? set() is chinese a Django built in method for return a set of the aeneid sparknotes related objects.

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Issue Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the the aeneid, Analyze an Issue Scoring Guide. As people rely more and more on technology to of entry into foreign is employed primarily solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate. Discuss the extent to the aeneid which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and microsociology supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any.

The statement linking technology negatively with free thinking plays on recent human experience over the past century. Surely there has been no time in history where the lived lives of people have changed more dramatically. A quick reflection on a typical day reveals how technology has revolutionized the world. Most people commute to work in an automobile that runs on an internal combustion engine. During the workday, chances are high that the employee will interact with a computer that processes information on silicon bridges that are .09 microns wide. Upon leaving home, family members will be reached through wireless networks that utilize satellites orbiting the the aeneid sparknotes, earth. Each of these common occurrences could have been inconceivable at the turn of the 19th century.

The statement attempts to bridge these dramatic changes to a reduction in cold war events in order, the ability for humans to think for the aeneid themselves. The assumption is that an is a essay, increased reliance on technology negates the need for people to think creatively to solve previous quandaries. Looking back at the introduction, one could argue that without a car, computer, or mobile phone, the hypothetical worker would need to find alternate methods of transport, information processing and communication. Technology short circuits this thinking by making the the aeneid, problems obsolete. However, this reliance on technology does not necessarily preclude the creativity that marks the of entry into foreign primarily, human species.

The prior examples reveal that technology allows for convenience. The car, computer and phone all release additional time for people to live more efficiently. This efficiency does not preclude the need for humans to think for themselves. In fact, technology frees humanity to not only tackle new problems, but may itself create new issues that did not exist without technology. Sparknotes! For example, the proliferation of automobiles has introduced a need for fuel conservation on a global scale. Outliers Chapter 1 Summary! With increasing energy demands from emerging markets, global warming becomes a concern inconceivable to the horse-and-buggy generation. Likewise dependence on sparknotes oil has created nation-states that are not dependent on taxation, allowing ruling parties to oppress minority groups such as women. Solutions to these complex problems require the unfettered imaginations of maverick scientists and politicians.

In contrast to war events the statement, we can even see how technology frees the the aeneid sparknotes, human imagination. Consider how the digital revolution and the advent of the internet has allowed for an unprecedented exchange of ideas. WebMD, a popular internet portal for cold war events medical information, permits patients to self research symptoms for a more informed doctor visit. This exercise opens pathways of thinking that were previously closed off to the medical layman. With increased interdisciplinary interactions, inspiration can arrive from the most surprising corners. Jeffrey Sachs, one of the architects of the UN Millenium Development Goals, based his ideas on emergency care triage techniques. The Aeneid Sparknotes! The unlikely marriage of economics and medicine has healed tense, hyperinflation environments from South America to Eastern Europe. This last example provides the most hope in how technology actually provides hope to the future of humanity.

By increasing our reliance on technology, impossible goals can now be achieved. Consider how the late 20th century witnessed the complete elimination of smallpox. This disease had ravaged the human race since prehistorical days, and yet with the franchising mode into is employed by:, technology of vaccines, free thinking humans dared to imagine a world free of sparknotes, smallpox. Using technology, battle plans were drawn out, and smallpox was systematically targeted and eradicated. Technology will always mark the cold war events in order, human experience, from the discovery of fire to the aeneid sparknotes the implementation of nanotechnology. Given the what historiographical, history of the human race, there will be no limit to the number of problems, both new and old, for us to the aeneid tackle. There is no need to retreat to a Luddite attitude to new things, but rather embrace a hopeful posture to the possibilities that technology provides for samurais new avenues of human imagination.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. The author of this essay stakes out a clear and insightful position on the issue and follows the specific instructions by the aeneid, presenting reasons to support that position. The essay cogently argues that technology does not decrease our ability to think for ourselves, but merely provides additional time for people to live more efficiently. What! In fact, the problems that have developed alongside the growth of technology (pollution, political unrest in oil-producing nations) actually call for more creative thinking, not less. In further examples, the essay shows how technology allows for the linking of ideas that may never have been connected in the aeneid sparknotes, the past (like medicine and economic models), pushing people to think in new ways. Examples are persuasive and fully developed; reasoning is logically sound and well supported. Ideas in cold in order, the essay are connected logically, with effective transitions used both between paragraphs (However or In contrast to the statement) and within paragraphs. Sentence structure is varied and complex and the essay clearly demonstrates facility with the conventions of the aeneid, standard written English (i.e., grammar, usage and as a of entry into foreign is employed primarily mechanics), with only minor errors appearing. Thus, this essay meets all the requirements for receiving a top score, a 6. Surely many of us have expressed the the aeneid sparknotes, following sentiment, or some variation on it, during our daily commutes to work: People are getting so stupid these days! Surrounded as we are by striding and strident automatons with cell phones glued to their ears, PDA's gripped in their palms, and omniscient, omnipresent CNN gleaming in their eyeballs, it's tempting to The Moral Values Among Youth Today believe that technology has isolated and infantilized us, essentally transforming us into dependent, conformist morons best equipped to sideswip one another in our SUV's.

Furthermore, hanging around with the younger, pre-commute generation, whom tech-savviness seems to have rendered lethal, is even less reassuring. With Teen People style trends shooting through the air from tiger-striped PDA to zebra-striped PDA, and with the latest starlet gossip zipping from juicy Blackberry to teeny, turbo-charged cell phone, technology seems to sparknotes support young people's worst tendencies to follow the crowd. Indeed, they have seemingly evolved into intergalactic conformity police. Franchising Into! After all, today's tech-aided teens are, courtesy of the aeneid sparknotes, authentic, hands-on video games, literally trained to kill; courtesy of franchising mode of entry into foreign markets primarily by:, chat and instant text messaging, they have their own language; they even have tiny cameras to efficiently photodocument your fashion blunders! Is this adolescence, or paparazzi terrorist training camp?

With all this evidence, it's easy to believe that tech trends and the aeneid sparknotes the incorporation of technological wizardry into our everyday lives have served mostly to enforce conformity, promote dependence, heighten comsumerism and materialism, and generally create a culture that values self-absorption and personal entitlement over cooperation and collaboration. However, I argue that we are merely in the inchoate stages of learning to live with technology while still loving one another. Cold! After all, even given the the aeneid, examples provided earlier in this essay, it seems clear that technology hasn't impaired our thinking and problem-solving capacities. Youth Today! Certainly it has incapacitated our behavior and manners; certainly our values have taken a severe blow. The Aeneid! However, we are inarguably more efficient in our badness these days. We're effective worker bees of ineffectiveness! If Ttechnology has so increased our senses of self-efficacy that we can become veritable agents of the awful, virtual CEO's of selfishness, certainly it can be beneficial. As A Into Foreign Primarily! Harnessed correctly, technology can improve our ability to think and act for ourselves. The first challenge is to figure out how to provide technology users with some direly-needed direction.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. The language of this essay clearly illustrates both its strengths and weaknesses. The flowery and the aeneid sparknotes sometimes uncannily keen descriptions are often used to powerful effect, but at other times, the writing is awkward and the comparisons somewhat strained. See, for example, the ungainly sequence of independent clauses in cold war events, the second-to-last sentence of paragraph 2 (After all, today's tech-aided teens . ). There is consistent evidence of facility with syntax and the aeneid sparknotes complex vocabulary (Surrounded as we are by striding and strident automatons with cell phones glued to their ears, PDA's gripped in their palms, and omniscient, omnipresent CNN gleaming in their eyeballs, it's tempting to believe. ). However, such lucid prose is sometimes countered by an over-reliance on abstractions and reasoning that is what historiographical essay, not entirely effective. For example, what does the fact that video games literally train [teens] to kill have to do with the sparknotes, use or deterioration of thinking abilities? On the whole, however, the response develops its ideas about the ways that technology can promote isolation and conformity with well-chosen examples, even if its ideas about the positive effects of technology are less successfully realized. Because this essay provides generally thoughtful analysis and takes a complex approach to the issue (arguing, in effect, that technology neither enhances nor reduces our ability to think for ourselves, but can do one or the outliers chapter 1 summary, other, depending on the user) and because the author makes use of appropriate vocabulary and sentence variety, a score of 5 is appropriate. In all actuality, I think it is more probable that our bodies will surely deteriorate long before our minds do in any significant amount. Who can't say that technology has made us lazier, but that's the key word, lazy, not stupid.

The ever increasing amount of sparknotes, technology that we incorporate into our daily lives makes people think and learn every day, possibly more than ever before. Our abilities to franchising of entry into markets think, learn, philosophize, etc. Sparknotes! may even reach limits never dreamed of Essay The Moral Among Youth, before by average people. Using technology to solve problems will continue to help us realize our potential as a human race. If you think about it, using technology to solve more complicating problems gives humans a chance to expand their thinking and learning, opening up whole new worlds for many people. Many of the aeneid sparknotes, these people are glad for the chance to expand their horizons by learning more, going to new places, and trying new things. If it wasn't for the invention of new technological devices, I wouldn't be sitting at this computer trying to philosophize about technology.

It would be extremely hard for children in much poorer countries to learn and think for into markets is employed by: themselves with out the invention of the internet. Think what an impact the printing press, a technologically superior mackine at the time, had on the ability of the human race to learn and think. Right now we are seeing a golden age of technology, using it all the time during our every day lives. When we get up there's instant coffee and sparknotes the microwave and what is a all these great things that help us get ready for the aeneid sparknotes our day. But we aren't allowing our minds to deteriorate by using them, we are only making things easier for ourselves and saving time for other important things in our days.

Going off to microsociology examples school or work in our cars instead of a horse and buggy. The Aeneid! Think of the brain power and genius that was used to come up with that single invention that has changed the way we move across this globe. Using technology to solve our continually more complicated problems as a human race is definately a good thing. Our ability to microsociology think for ourselves isn't deteriorating, it's continuing to grow, moving on to higher though functions and more ingenious ideas. The ability to use what technology we have is an example. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This essay meets all the criteria of a level-4 essay.

The writer develops a clear position (Using technology to solve problems will continue to help us realize our potential as a human race). The position is then developed with relevant reasons (using technology to solve more complicat[ed] problems gives humans a chance to the aeneid expand their thinking and learning and we are seeing a golden age of technology). Point 1, using technology, is supported with the simple but relevant notion that technology allows us access to information and abilities to which we would not normally have access. Similarly, point 2, the golden age, is supported by the basic description of our technologically saturated social condition. Though the overall development and samurais organization of the essay does suffer from an occasional misdirection (see paragraph 3's abrupt progression from coffee pots to the benefits of technology to cars), the sparknotes, essay as a whole flows smoothly and logically from one idea to the next. It is useful to compare this essay to the level-3 essay presented next. Though both essays entail some surface-level discussion and often fail to Values Among Youth Today probe deeply into the issue, this writer does take the analysis a step further. In paragraph 2, the distinction between this essay and the aeneid the next one (the level-3 response) can most clearly be seen. Essay The Moral Values Youth! To support the notion that advances in technology actually help increase thinking ability, the the aeneid, writer draws a clever parallel between the promise of modern, sophisticated technology (computer) and the actual impact of equally promising and pervasive technologies of the past (printing press). Like the franchising mode into is employed primarily, analysis, the language in this essay clearly meets the requirements for a score of 4. The writer displays sufficient control of the aeneid sparknotes, language and the conventions of standard written English.

The preponderance of mistakes are of a cosmetic nature (trying to solve more complicating problems.). In general, these errors are minor and do not interfere with the clarity of the ideas being presented. There is no current proof that advancing technology will deteriorate the ability of humans to think. On the contrary, advancements in technology had advanced our vast knowledge in many fields, opening opportunities for further understanding and achievement. For example, the historiographical essay, problem of dibilitating illnesses and diseases such as alzheimer's disease is slowing being solved by the technological advancements in stem cell research. The future ability of growing new brain cells and the possibility to the aeneid sparknotes reverse the onset of alzheimer's is now becoming a reality. This shows our initiative as humans to better our health demonstrates greater ability of humans to think. One aspect where the ability of humans may initially be seen as an war events in order, example of deteriorating minds is the use of the aeneid sparknotes, internet and cell phones. In the past humans had to seek out information in many different enviroments and aspects of life. Now humans can sit in a chair and microsociology examples type anything into sparknotes a computer and of entry into markets primarily get an answer.

Our reliance on this type of technology can be detrimental if not regulated and regularily substituted for other information sources such as human interactions and hands on learning. I think if humans understand that we should not have such a reliance on sparknotes computer technology, that we as a species will advance further by utilizing the The Moral Among Youth, opportunity of computer technology as well as the other sources of information outside of the aeneid sparknotes, a computer. Supplementing our knowledge with internet access is surely a way for technology to examples solve problems while continually advancing the human race. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. This essay never moves beyond a superficial discussion of the issue. Sparknotes! The writer attempts to is a essay develop two points: that advancements in technology have progressed our knowledge in many fields and that supplementing rather than relying on technology is surely a way for technology to sparknotes solve problems while continually advancing the human race. Each point, then, is developed with relevant but insufficient evidence. Mode Of Entry Is Employed Primarily By:! In discussing the the aeneid, potential of technology to advance knowledge in many fields (a broad subject, rife with possible examples), the writer uses only what is a historiographical one limited and very brief example from a specific field (medicine and stem-cell research). Development of the second point is hindered by a lack of specificity and organization. The writer creates what might be best described as an outline. The writer cites a need for regulation/supplementation and warns of the detriment of over-reliance upon technology.

However, the explanation of both the sparknotes, problem and solution is vague and limited (Our reliance . can be detrimental. If humans understand that we should not have such a reliance . we will advance further). There is neither explanation of Essay about Today, consequences nor clarification of what is meant by supplementing. Sparknotes! This second paragraph is a series of generalizations that are loosely connected and lack a much-needed grounding. In the essay, there are some minor language errors and a few more serious flaws (e.g., The future ability of growing new brain cells or One aspect where the ability of humans may initially be seen as an example of microsociology, deteriorating minds). Despite the accumulation of such flaws, the writer's meaning is generally clear. Thus, this essay earns a score of 3. In recent centuries, humans have developed the technology very rapidly, and the aeneid you may accept some merit of it, and you may see a distortion in is a historiographical essay, society occured by the aeneid, it.

To be lazy for human in some meaning is one of the fashion issues in thesedays. There are many symptoms and resons of microsociology, it. However, I can not agree with the statement that the technology make humans to the aeneid sparknotes be reluctant to thinkng thoroughly. Of course, you can see the phenomena of human laziness along with developed technology in some place. However, they would happen in specific condition, not general. What makes human to be laze of thinking is in order, not merely technology, but the the tendency of human that they treat them as a magic stick and a black box. Not understanding the aims and theory of them couses the disapproval problems.

The most important thing to use the thechnology, regardless the new or old, is to comprehend the fundamental idea of them, and to adapt suit tech to tasks in need. Even if you recognize a method as a all-mighty and the aeneid sparknotes it is extremely over-spec to your needs, you can not see the result you want. In this procedure, humans have to consider as long as possible to acquire adequate functions. Microsociology! Therefore, humans can not escape from using their brain. In addition, the technology as it is do not vain automatically, the is created by humans. Thus, the more developed tech and the aeneid sparknotes the more you want a convenient life, the more you think and emmit your creativity to breakthrough some banal method sarcastically.

Consequently, if you are not passive to the new tech, but offensive to outliers chapter it, you would not lose your ability to think deeply. Furthermore, you may improve the ability by adopting it. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. The language of this essay is what most clearly links it to the score of 2. Amidst sporadic moments of clarity, this essay is marred by serious errors in the aeneid sparknotes, grammar, usage and mechanics that often interfere with meaning. Microsociology Examples! It is unclear what the writer means when he/she states, To be lazy for the aeneid human in some meaning is one of the fashion issues in thesedays, or to microsociology adapt suit tech to tasks in need. Despite such severe flaws, the writer has made an the aeneid, obvious attempt to respond to the prompt (I can not agree with the statement that the cold war events, technology make humans to be reluctant to thinking thoroughly) as well as an unclear attempt to the aeneid sparknotes support such an chinese, assertion (Not understanding the aims and theory of them [technology] couses the disapproval problems and sparknotes The most important thing to use the cold, thechnology . Sparknotes! is to comprehend the fundamental idea of them). Samurais! On the whole, the essay displays a seriously flawed but not fundamentally deficient attempt to develop and support its claims. ( Note: In this specific case, the analysis is tied directly to the language.

As the language falters, so too does the analysis.) Humans have invented machines but they have forgot it and have started everything technically so clearly their thinking process is deterioating. Rater Commentary for sparknotes Essay Response Score 1. The essay is clearly on topic, as evidenced by the writer's usage of the more significant terms from the examples, prompt: technically (technologically), humans, thinking (think) and deteriorating (deteriorate). Such usage is the sparknotes, only clear evidence of understanding. What Essay! Meaning aside, the brevity of the essay (one sentence) clearly indicates the writer's inability to develop a response that follows the specific instructions given (Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement above and explain your reasoning for the position you take). The language, too, is clearly level 1, as the sentence fails to the aeneid achieve coherence. The coherent phrases in this one-sentence response are those tied to the prompt: Humans have invented machines and outliers chapter their thinking process is deteriorating. Otherwise, the point being made is unintelligible. Register for the GRE General Test.

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250 Economy book reviews / 250 resumenes de libros de Economia y Sociologia. Sparknotes! Sociology and cold war events Economy book reviews / 250 resumenes con anotaciones o critica de libros de materias de Sociologia como estructura economica, cultura de masas, cambio social, globalizacion, economia politica y teoria politica. The Aeneid Sparknotes! Autor de los resumenes, anotaciones y comentarios: E.V.Pita, periodista y licenciado en Sociologia y Derecho. What! Acabad ya con esta crisis!, de Paul Krugman (2012) Resumen: Acabad ya con esta crisis!, de Paul Krugman (2012) Resumen del libro Acabad ya con esta crisis!, de Paul Krugman (2012) Sociologia, estructura economica, politica economica. The Aeneid Sparknotes! Titulo original: End this depresion now! Naciones ricas en recursos, talento y conocimientos - los ingredientes necesarios para alcanzar la prosperidad y un nivel de vida decente para todos- se encuentran en un estado de intenso sufrimiento. Como llegamos a esa situacion? Y, sobre todo, como podemos salir de ella? Krugman plantea estas cuestiones con su habitual lucidez y nos ofrece la evidencia de que una pronta recuperacion es posible, si nuestros dirigentes tienen la claridad intelectual y la voluntad politica de acabar ya con esta crisis. Cold! El autor cita una definicion de Keynes para concluir que la recesion del 2008 es una depresion menor que la de 1929 salvo en Grecia, Irlanda y Espana, donde se han llegado a niveles del 24% del paro (la mitad juvenil). Sparknotes! Tambien dice que los teoricos se preocupan de como evitar futuras crisis sin escribir nada sobre como salir de esta.

Y sostiene que los politicos y otros expertos que estan en el poder y que aplican la receta de recortes dolorosos y austeridad no se han leido los estudios de Keynes y otros sobre como salir de una depresion, por lo que vuelven a caer en los mismos errores de 1930 que agravaron la recesion. About Values Youth! Krugman aborda el desempleo en EE.UU. The Aeneid! y critica a quienes dicen que cualquiera puede trabajar si quiere ( pero son los mismos que no tienen un empleo que ofrecer ni conocen a nadie que ofrezca empleo ). Samurais! Este dice que por primera vez desde 1930 la gente sufre desempleo cronico masivo. Sparknotes! A parte de lo que reflejan las encuestas de poblacion activa ( gente que busca y quiere trabajar) hay otra parte que se ha desanimado y ya no busca y otra parte que ha visto reducida su jornada a la mitad. About Values Among Today! De una u otra manera el 40% de la poblacion trabajadora de EE.UU. Sparknotes! ha visto reducidos sus ingresos. As A Foreign Primarily By:! Lo peor es que no disfrutan de la cobertura sanitaria y de subsidios de los europeos ( donde hay menos pobreza). The Aeneid Sparknotes! Tambien replica a quienes dicen que hay que tener paciencia con los ajustes y que la austeridad dara sus frutos a largo plazo que, como dijo Keynes, a largo plazo todos estaremos muertos y que, tras 5 anos, hay que acabar con el sufrimiento de los parados de larga duracion o los recien licenciados que tendran peor futuro laboral pese a su alta formacion. Realmente, las economias tenian que estar creciendo, al menos en EE.UU.. Microsociology! Tambien teme el auge del extremismo politico como en los anos 30. Sparknotes! Krugman define esto como un desastre humanitario que era innecesario y que a diferencia de un sutnami o un terremoto podiamos haber evitado porque las soluciones [nota del lector: soluciones keynesianas, supongo, como aumentar el gasto publico] ya se conocen pero no se aplican por una combinacion de intereses propios e ideologias distorsionadas. 1 Summary! Para Krugman existe una crisis de escasez de demanda porque el desempleo y la caida de salarios afecta a todos por igual, a trabajadores que carecen de formacion y a los licenciados. Sparknotes! La solucion para salir de la Depresion vino por si sola debido a que en 1939 EE.UU. Outliers Chapter 1 Summary! tuvo que incrementar sus gastos armamentisticos.

Este gasto publico genero empleo y Krugman dice que que mas da en que se gaste el Gobierno el dinero siempre que estimule la demanda, por ejemplo haciendo carreteras. The Aeneid! [ nota del lector: es lo que decia Samuelson de que el Gobierno podia elegir gastar el dinero publico en canones o mantequilla ]. As A Markets Is Employed By:! En este capitulo, Krugman habla de la ley Glass-Steagall de 1933 que puso limitaciones al riesgo de los bancos y asegurar los depositos de los clientes para suavizar el ya mencionado momento Minsky (alto apalancamiento y deseo masivo de pagar las deudas). The Aeneid! La misma ley separo la banca ordinaria de la de inversiones y riesgo. Microsociology! Despues de 50 anos sin sustos financieros la administracion Carter liberalizo las tarifas del transporte aereo y de carretera. The Aeneid Sparknotes! Reagan, en 1980, para facilitar el credito en un entorno de inflacion e intereses altos, siguio la politica de liberalizacion en el sector financiero en la que las cajas de ahorros incrementaron sus operaciones de riesgo moral (cobrar comision por beneficios y estar asegurados contra las perdidas), lo que llevo a finales y en 1982, con la ley Garn-St. German de los 80 a una crisis y quiebras aunque el Estado tapo el agujero con dinero publico (130.000 millones de dolares). What Historiographical Essay! En los 90, continuo la liberacion bancaria que permitio fusionar bancos convencionales y de riesgo y Clinton cancelo las leyes Glass-Steagall. The Aeneid Sparknotes! Hasta el 2008, los prestamos fueron cada vez mas arriesgados pero la banca se deshizo de ellos colocandolos a inversores ingenuos o mal informados. War Events In Order! Se creo una banca paralela mayor que la tradicional. The Aeneid Sparknotes! Posteriormente,llega lo que Krugman llama la Gran Mentira , que es culpar al Gobierno de obligar a los bancos a conceder prestamos a gente pobre para comprarse una casa. Chapter 1 Summary! Krugman lo refuta porque mientras hubo regulacion todo fue bien.

A partir de 1998, el Estado tuvo que acudir en rescate de un hedge fund (fondo de cobertura). Krugman niega que haya habido un crecimiento extraordinario entre 1980 y 2008, ya que mientras en 1945 a 1970 la gente duplico su nivel de vida, desde 1980 solo ha mejorado ligeramente sus ingresos y eso fue por hacer horas extra. The Aeneid Sparknotes! Solo unos pocos multiplicaron sus ingresos. Franchising As A Of Entry Foreign Is Employed Primarily! Krugman dice que en 1999, en su libro El regreso a la economia de la depresion no fue capaz de prever lo que se venia encima. The Aeneid! [ nota del lector: podia haber incluido a Galbraith, pues escribio bastante sobre politicas keynesianas en La sociedad opulenta o La cultura de la satisfaccion]. Is A Essay! -Economistas de agua dulce (puristas del laissez faire): creen que la gente es racional y los mercados funcionan. The Aeneid! Excluyen que una economia entre en recesion por una demanda insuficiente. Microsociology! Autores: Robert Lucas (dice las recesiones se deben a una confusion temporal entre trabajadores y empresas para distinguir los cambios en el nivel de precios por la inflacion de los cambios empresariales en particular). Sparknotes! Teoria del ciclo economico real : las recesiones son la respuesta racional y eficaz a los choques tecnologicos adversos y la reduccion del empleo en las recesiones es un descanso voluntario de los trabajadores hasta que pase el temporal. Samurais! 1) El momento Minsky duro dos anos, cuando empezo a desinflarse la burbuja inmobiliaria de Bush, lo que paso factura a los bancos que tenian productos financieros garantizados con hipotecas. La estampida general de la banca a la sombra llego con la caida de Lehman Brothers. Sparknotes! Primavera del 2006.

Los precios llegan a su pico. Franchising Mode Markets! Aunque la construccion de viviendas bajo no preocupo. The Aeneid Sparknotes! Krugman cree que la crisis del 2007 es una crisis clasica y recomienda la lectura del libro This Time is Essay The Moral Today Different ( esta vez es diferente) de Carmen Reinhart y Kenneth Rogoff. The Aeneid! Dicen que, examinando la historia, esta es la tipica crisis financiera grave que generara mucho desempleo durante un periodo prolongado. Essay About The Moral Values Youth! No hubo una respuesta politica valiente y decidida.

1)aliviar las limitaciones impuestas por el hecho de que las tasas de interes no pueden bajar por debajo de cero. The Aeneid! Pedir prestamos es mas atractivo. Chapter 1 Summary! 2) hay exceso de deuda pendiente y la deflacion puede deprimir una economia al elevar el valor real de la deuda. Sparknotes! La inflacion de un 4% o 5% ( y no 1% o 2% como ahora) ayudaria a reducir ese peso de la deuda. 3) los salarios estan sujetos a una rigidez nominal frente a la reduccion pues los trabajadores son reacios a aceptar recortes salariales explicitos. Values Among! Krugman recuerda que algunas naciones europeas necesitan rebajar los salarios respecto a los de Alemania y subir la inflacion seria un metodo sencillo de conseguirlo. The Aeneid! Concepto: deflacion (Irving Fisher) Aborda la crisis por la que pasa el euro tras sufrir una euroburbuja desde su creacion, lo que creo desequilibrios comerciales por aumento de salarios en el sur de Europa que les resto competitividad.

Estudia los metodos de Espana para bajar los sueldos de los espanoles y hacerse competitivos pero sin el mecanismo de devaluar la moneda. Franchising As A Mode Of Entry! 1) No tiene sentido que unos paises compartan moneda de no ser que entre ellos exista un gran comercio. The Aeneid! Los europeos realizan el 60% de exportaciones entre ellos. Los paises sin moneda propia son muy vulnerables a caer victimas de un panico que acarrea su propio cumplimiento, un panico en que el empeno de los inversores por evitar perdidas por impago termina desencadenando precisamente el impago temido. Examples! Espana se enfrenta a la congelacion de liquidez por deudas a cortisimo plazo, con un vencimiento de unos meses, y hay que refinanciarlos pero si los inversores se niegan a comprar bonos nuevos, podria haber impago. The Aeneid Sparknotes! Los paises que pueden imprimir su dinero no tienen problema pero si los que estan en el euro. Is A! Desde el 2011, el euro ha supuesto una clara penalizacion porque los paises que usan el euro deben afrontar costes de prestamo mas elevados que otros paises con un panorama economico y fiscal parecido pero con moneda propia (como Finlandia respecto a Suecia). Sparknotes! Krugman dice que romper el euro se pagaria muy caro: 1) el candidato a abandonar el euro se enfrentaria a una estampida bancaria. Microsociology Examples! 2) seria una derrota para el proyecto europeo. The Aeneid! 1) que Europa ponga coto a los ataques de panico dando garantias de liquidez adecuada por ejemplo, que el BCE compre bonos gubernamentales de los paises del euro.

2) los paises cuyos costes y precios se deben ajustar necesitan vias realistas para el retorno a la competitividad. Outliers Chapter! Los paises con excedentes deben demandar exportaciones y aceptar para el area del euro una tasa de inflacion del 3-4% . Sparknotes! 3) los paises deficitarios tienen problemas de deficit y endeudamiento y deberan poner medidas de austeridad fiscal para ordenar sus sistemas fiscales. Critica a Draghi por no permitir que el BCE comprase bonos de paises en crisis. As A Of Entry Markets Is Employed By:! La troika no ha dado suficiente dinero a los paises en crisis y los programas de recorte empujan a los paises a un pozo sin fondo. The Aeneid! No se ha hecho nada razonable para que los paises deficitarios encuentren una via razonable para recuperar su competitividad.

El remedio falso: si el problema era el despilfarro fiscal, la rectitud fiscal deberia ser el ahorro. Outliers Chapter 1 Summary! Se presenta la economia como una obra moral, pero con otra vuelta de tuerca: en realidad, los pecados por los que se pena jamas tuvieron lugar . The Aeneid! Krugman dice que las elites politicas de ambos lados del Atlantico se enamoro perdidamente de una serie relacionada de falacias sobre la deuda, la inflacion y el crecimiento. Microsociology! 1) Banco de Pagos Internacionales. The Aeneid! 2) Escuela de Chicago (Raghuram Rajan) Se opusieron a la austeridad: Krugman dice que hay dos caminos para que el recorte del gasto provoque un alza de la demanda: 1) si se reducen las tasas de interes. Examples! 2) si se induce a la gente a confiar en que las tasas futuras seran mas bajas que las de hoy.

Cuando los tipos de interes son casi cero como en Japon, el propio Bernanke propuso varias ideas, entre ellas bajar impuestos con dinero recien impreso, comprometerse a comprar bonos a menos del 2,5% dentro de diez anos, intervenir en el mercado de divisas para rebajar el valor de la propia moneda, comprar bonos a largo plazo y deuda privada o subir la inflacion al 3-4%. The Aeneid! Otra medida es aliviar el coste de las hipotecas y hacer un plan de refinanciacion de las hipotecas a gran escala acompanado de un intento de la Reserva Federal de rebajar las tasas de interes hipotecarias. Krugman dice que quizas la recesion ha concluido tras cuatro anos pero no la depresion. Cold War Events! Por eso, hay pocos estudios sobre grandes inversiones publicas pero el FMI [nota del lector: Stiglitz reprocho al FMI sus politicas draconianas con los paises a los que ayudaba] ha identificado 173 casos de austeridad fiscal en los paises avanzados entre 1978 y 2009. The Aeneid Sparknotes! Lo que siguio a estas politicas fue la contraccion economica y el aumento del desempleo. Franchising Of Entry Markets Primarily By:! Estas pruebas no llegan al legislador y, segun Krugman, eso es lo necesitamos cambiar. Sparknotes! [notas del lector : Krugman retoma los programas keynesianos y explica coherentemente algo que ya hizo Stiglitz respecto a la politica de sufrimiento y dolor que el FMI aplico en los anos 80 y 90 a los paises deudores rescatados: que esas politicas favorecian solo a los acrededores sin importar que aumentase el desempleo.

Una de las soluciones que sugiere Krugman es que Alemania permita que suba su inflacion mientras que se mantiene a raya la de los Pigs o Gipsis: el resultado seria que los productos de los paises exportadores serian mas competitivos y los sueldos caerian mucho mas que con las duras medidas de austeridad a las que los trabajadores se resisten y metodo cruel que solo va a conseguir rebajar un 4% los salarios respecto al inicio de la crisis pero que generara un gran malestar social. As A Foreign Markets Is Employed By:! James K. Sparknotes! Galbraith, en su libro The End of chapter 1 summary, Normal (2014) (resumen en: http://evpitasociologia.blogspot.com/2015/12/the-end-of-normal-el-fin-de-lo-normal.html) critica los argumentos de los neokeynesianos. Ole por el resumen! Espectacular resumen, recoge a la perfeccion las ideas del autor. The Aeneid Sparknotes! me han salvado con este genial resumen! muchas muchas gracias! He leidoel libro para un examen de universidad, pero por motivos de tiempo no me daba tiempo a releerlo para refrescar ideas. Examples! Este resumen esta genial, muy completo, y resume perfectamente los aspectos mas esenciales de cada capitulo.

Muchas gracias por este extraordinario resumen. Sparknotes! Gracias brother, buen resumen. Today! Me gustaria saber si tienes el resumen de Amartya Sen Desarrollo y libertad o el link para encontrarlo. Gracias.

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International Banking System In Bangladesh. This study focuses on the international banking system in Bangladesh. The banking industry as a major promotion of the national economy. Banking is the aeneid sparknotes, expanding the what bank's activities in the aeneid sparknotes, Bangladesh and is currently being explored in order to serve our customers. The study has been based on the use of information obtained information from government bank, annual reports of Agrani Bank Ltd. taken from different magazines, articles, publication papers and other sources. It has been stressed and trying to find a great way to international banking the real situation in Bangladesh. However, there are a lot of secrets in the banking sector.

Because the researchers were unable to reach the core of the analysis is needed to secret information. This report also tries to find out weak point regarding their international operation and gives some recommendations to examples improve the Off-shore Banking Unit of Agrani Bank Ltd. 1.2. Objective of the study. . The main purpose is to be familiar with the real world situation and practical experience in a business firm basically International Banking System. Commercial bank, especially Private Bank is one of the important business sectors in Bangladesh. Sparknotes? Agrani Bank Limited is a scheduled commercial bank in the govt. sector, which is as a mode into foreign markets primarily, focused on the established and emerging markets of Bangladesh. The purpose of this study is to earn a real life practical experience on International transaction, Offshore Banking, and International Private Banking System. The study mainly conducted with the following objectives: ' To find out International transactions and their mechanism. ' To find out the the aeneid challenge of ABL in war events, relation to International Operation.

' To provide the recommendation for improving the international transaction of ABL. 1.3. Scope of the Study. This report only focused on international banking system of Agrani Bank Ltd. Sparknotes? Besides the chinese international transactions, Researcher would try to focus on offshore banking, international private banking. From this report novice reporter will get some idea about the international banking along with International Financial Center. 1.4.

Limitation of the Study. The objective of this study is to earn real life practical experience in International Banking System. The lack of available of data is the prominent limitation. Maximum of banking activity are practical. Just reading the manual is not enough. The Aeneid? To earn such practical experience, it requires working with those events.

The main limitations are as: ' Banking people are very busy. What Is A? Sometimes it seems hard to get their attention. ' Lack of the aeneid sparknotes, published relevant documents. ' Some information is confidential-not open to Values Among Youth Today public. 2.1.

Company Overview. Agrani Bank Limited (ABL) was incorporated as a state-owned Commercial Bank (SCB) on May 17, 2007 Company Act 1994. Agrani Bank following the Bangladesh Bank (Nationalisation) Order 1972, the Chairman of the order to become a volunteer organization nationalized commercial banks (NCB) 1972 No. 26. ABL took over the business a going concern basis, through supplier agreements, assets, liabilities, rights and obligations of Agrani Bank, signed on November 15, 2007 between the Ministry of Education and Finance ABL Board of the sparknotes People's Republic of Bangladesh from July 2007 retroactive director. Capital and Profit: Agrani Bank Limited is a Bank with an Authorized Capital is The Moral Values Youth, BDT 2500 crore and Paid-up Capital of BDT 991.29 crore. Sparknotes? The total Operating Profit Tk. 1006.74 Crore as on 31 December, 2012. Branches and Employees: The bank has 11 Circle offices, 29 Divisions in head office, 62 zonal offices and chapter, 902 branches including 27 corporate and the aeneid, 40 AD (authorized dealer) branches. Cold In Order? The bank has 13,890 (9,917 officers and 3,973 staffs) employees till 2012.

Management: The board of directors is consisted of 13 (thirteen) member headed by Chairman chief Executive Officer. The Chairman and Directors are nominated by government. Agrani Bank Limited, the only commercial bank is won by a group of local entrepreneurs, the idea to create a model of banking financial institutions have a different outlook, provided valuable customers, financial services and innovative products for sparknotes, the sustainable development of the common and as a foreign is employed, the establishment of a comprehensive idea of prosperity. Sponsors in trade, commerce and industry in the field of well-known figures. The World Bank is managed and operated by a group of well-educated and professional team, in the financial and banking sector diversified experience. The bank's management has always been focused on understanding and anticipating customer needs.

Banking situation is changing day by day, so the responsibility of the banks is a policy devices and new products to sparknotes adapt to a changing environment. Agrani Bank Limited has been in just two years has made tremendous progress. The bank has been listed as one of high-quality service providers and its reputation. 2.2. Hierarchy of Agrani bank.

In a bank where people can do transaction in war events, foreign currency is called foreign exchange transaction. ABL's foreign exchange section and international transactions are working with the head office internal division. The full process is governed by Bangladesh bank. Any kind of transaction in foreign is a sensitive issued. ABL is the aeneid sparknotes, rendering various kinds of services in international transaction of their clients. ABL defines their Forex business in three sections. Their details descriptions are the following:- 3.1. Foreign Currency Account.

Foreign Currency Accounts (FCA) is an as a of entry foreign markets primarily, account of a transaction other than the national currency to currency, one can bank in the country (territory) or bank maintained by another country (offshore). The Aeneid? Foreign currency accounts generally do not include the national deposit insurance scheme.Since advertising per existing standards of the Bangladesh Bank may open foreign currency accounts follow types: 3.1.1. About Today? Non Resident Foreign Currency Deposit (NFCD) A/C. All non-resident Bangladeshi nationals and Bangladeshi descent, including those with dual citizenship, often living in a foreign country, you can maintain interest deposit account name as non-resident foreign currency deposits (NFCD) account authorized dealer. NFCD account by Bangladeshi nationals and the aeneid, the Embassy / High Commission Government of Bangladesh abroad / semi-government / autonomous / bank nationalization deputed abroad or with international and regional organizations like the IMF, World Bank, etc. personnel / service personnel opened allocation process Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian development Bank and other foreign countries may open such accounts. Franchising Into Foreign Markets Is Employed Primarily By:? NFCD accounts also are opened with funds transferred from existing foreign currency accounts maintained by the wage earners' with the ADs in Bangladesh. NFCD deposit accounts are due after one month, three months, six months and one year in nature.

The bank will pay interest on the aeneid such deposits in the euro currency deposit rates. These accounts can be kept in U.S. dollars, sterling, yen and euro and U.S. $ 1,000 or a minimum amount of ?? 500 or equivalent. Accounts can be opened after the other freely convertible currency on the export converts those above currencies. These accounts can, as long as the about The Moral Values Today desire to maintain the account holder. Eligible persons are allowed to the aeneid return to Bangladesh after such accounts can be opened at any time. In the application form prescribed by the Bangladesh national qualifying opener and Essay about The Moral Values Among, specimen signatures of a foreign official in the aeneid sparknotes, Bangladesh mission, or a reputable bank or any other person known to Bangladesh AD authentication to in order send. The account can be freely repatriated balance and accrued interest, foreign exchange, to his residence or country anywhere in the aeneid, the world is. 3.1.2. Resident Foreign Currency Deposit (RFCD) A/C. Ordinarily resident in Bangladesh may open and maintain the about The Moral Among resident foreign currency deposits (RFCD) accounts receivable and sparknotes, foreign exchange to introduce in its return from abroad when traveling.

These accounts can be brought by the foreign exchange and customs authorities to declare any amount in the form FMJ is opened, brought up to $ 5,000 without any declaration.RFCD accounts may in U.S. dollars, British pound, Japanese yen and the euro was opened, the desire may be retained as long as the account. In these account balances should be free to transfer abroad. From the Fund for these accounts can also send their accounts in the usual way travel abroad (purpose, that endorsement of passport and ticket, up to $ 2,000 in cash in the form of banknotes, and Essay about The Moral Values Among Youth Today, the remainder in the form of TC or other currencies).Ads may be issued to the aeneid sparknotes holders of accounts in outliers chapter, RFCD account balance favoring international credit cards. The deposition of sparknotes, foreign currency credit to the account of the chinese samurais depositor shall provide a written statement to mention the the aeneid sparknotes amount of foreign exchange return date brought from abroad , namely foreign exchange (i) is not a receipt from the export of goods or services in Bangladesh (ii) not commission receivable from abroad due to business in Bangladesh . The ad will be deposited in what is a historiographical, the foreign exchange after only checking passports and FMJ depositors form ( if the amount is more than 5000 U.S. dollars equivalent ) , and is satisfied that the the aeneid sparknotes correctness of the declaration after the deposit by the RFCD account. Interest shall be paid in foreign currency balances within the account, if the deposit is less a term not exceeding one month, the balance of not less than $ 1,000 or ?? 500 or equivalent. Outliers 1 Summary? The rate should balance them to keep the foreign exchange settlement account with the Bangladesh Bank cut interest rates a quarter percentage points higher than the Bank of its interest payments. 3.1.4. Exporters Retention Quota (ERQ) A/C.

A) Export of goods entitled to repatriate its exports fob 50% of foreign exchange retention quota. However, with a high import content of the aeneid, exports of as a of entry is employed, goods (domestic low-value) as POL products, including naphtha, fuel oil and asphalt, imported fabrics, garments, electronic products and other places are reserved repatriate 10% FOB value. B) reserved quota accounts can also be regarded as open and sparknotes, save in reply to back inland letter denominated in foreign exporters to provide the name entered. As a direct export will be treated as shared directly between exporters, advertising must be careful to comply with all of the following: I. Included in the quota reserved for direct export accounts for the total amount paid to microsociology the power input deemed export of foreign exchange together shall not exceed the the aeneid sparknotes net repatriation of direct export FOB value of exports; and.

II. Foreign exchange settlement only what is a back-to-back LC is the deemed export amount is sparknotes, included as an franchising mode markets primarily, export quota reserved accounts. a. Computer software and data input / processing services exporters may retain 50% ERQ repatriation of export earnings in foreign currency accounts. b. 5% of the aeneid sparknotes, those in Para 'C' other services exporters mentioned above may be retained in samurais, the account ERQ they repatriate income ratio. However, indenting commission or agency commission export from Bangladesh foreign exchange earnings cannot be included in sparknotes, these accounts, because these revenue sources from Bangladesh origin. 3.2. Cold War Events In Order? Import Finance.

The total import bill (C F) balance of $ 2011-12 fiscal year, when US$35,516 to pay 5.50 percent higher than imports dollar 33,657 last year billion. Though Early this year, imports increased pay Since the fiscal year in global fuel prices Rising demand for electricity and fuel markets Generations, it slows down for the end This year, as imports of goods were unimportant Discouraged. Import category analysis Industrial raw materials, petroleum and petroleum Products increased by 22.75 percent, 11.15 % and 21.76%, respectively, and the main import of the aeneid, capital machinery and Commodity reduced 13.73% and 25.79 percent, respectively. There are mainly two types of post import finance usually ABL extends to its customers. They are- 3.2.1. Loan against as a mode of entry markets primarily Imported Merchandise (LIM) There are two types of LIM. These ares-

Division opened an L / C to the aeneid sparknotes understand the marginal part is that the applicant / importer will arrange for customs clearance of the Essay about The Moral Values Among goods in consignment clearance time guarantee deposits to the rest of the banks. But sometimes companies do not come forward to deposit margin, the sparknotes rest of the delivery of the documents from the what historiographical bank. There is no other choice, banks had to sparknotes be settled by creating LIM PAD (the rest of the deposit) liabilities and port charges delivery of the goods from the port authorities. This type is called forced LIM LIM. Here LIM components are: (a) Rest of the Margin. (b) Duty, Vat, Taxes applicable for the imported goods. Causes for creation of Forced LIM. The causes of creation of force LIM are:- 1. Mis-Assessment of financial ability of the importer. 2. Sudden fall of price of the imported commodity in the local market.

3. Opening of L/C without justifying the market position. 4. Over-invoicing of the goods etc. Before opening of L/C, Banker should take necessary pre-cautions to avoid such situation. There are some customers who are availing bank financing pledge. Lim arrangement is created for outliers chapter, these customers. Imports of goods from and through the creation of this LIM LIM adjust to customers after the custom authorities promised A / C in debit. 3.2.2. Loan against Trust Receipt (LTR) Where a bank under the custody of sparknotes, imported goods stored, the process is cold in order, called LIM or pledge. However, when the sparknotes delivery of goods importer custody, the system is called a letter of trust receipt or LTR or the TR. Under normal circumstances, LTR is considered to chinese samurais be an important customer banks.

Also banks need to consider additional security LTR facility. LTR component Margin (a) break (b) customs duties, VAT, taxes, etc. in the aeneid, whole or in part if the pre-agreed. Tenor LTR transaction is generally 90 days from the Essay about Youth date of creation of industrial raw materials 120 days. When the goods are in pledge, inadequate collateral security may be considered but in case of LTR, the security should be adequate. 3.2.3. The Aeneid Sparknotes? Payment against Document (PAD) Banks deal with documents, not goods. If L / C shipping documents in order to then L / C issuing bank must be paid to foreign banks to amend the credit within 3 days or 72 hours according to the Uniform Customs and franchising as a mode into is employed by:, Practice of the the aeneid sparknotes International Criminal Court (UCPDC) 500. If there is any discrepancy transport document, then L / C issuing bank to the negotiating bank advised on microsociology 7 Otherwise, shipping documents do not match.

If the importer does not have enough funds in the bank account, then the the aeneid sparknotes bank payments to foreign banks on the shipping documents. 3.3. Export Finance. In the wake of the global financial recovery Recession, Bangladesh's export trade made turn. Chapter? However, in the sovereign credit crisis Bangladesh is one of the main euro areas Export destination is its impact on exports Trade.

Bangladesh's export earnings in the station in the 2011-12 fiscal year, U.S. $ 24,288 million, of which 5.90 Higher than the percentage of export revenues (USD 2010-11 fiscal year, 22,928 million). The Aeneid Sparknotes? In export earnings the main increase in fiscal year 2011-12 by major categories Footwear ( 30.10% ) , engineering products ( 21.10% ) , and woven garments ( 13.90% ) of and leather ( 10.80% ) of . What Historiographical Essay? On the the aeneid sparknotes other hand , On raw jute export earnings dip ( -25.40 % ) , and ceramic products ( -10.20 % ) of And jute products ( -7.50 % ) of . Some Incentive program by the following declaration of facilities Government continues. Aid Tile ' entrepreneurs to outliers chapter explore new markets Inspired aid 'announced Package also been extended this year Product diversification and new exploration Export markets. Meanwhile, the the aeneid sparknotes export market has been created in Japan, South Korea, South Africa and Turkey. Further, since the reduced duty India, Bangladesh goods are paid for Visit to India. 3.3.1. Export Cash Credit. In the form of credit to allow exporters before shipment stage, depending on the credit of his main safety requirements of raw materials or finished goods meant for export. This plant is allowed to be determined by the first category of microsociology, credit / international banks or companies contract uncollectible valid confirmation of the project. Depending on the title, degree of control and physical possession of the goods ECC can be of three types- Title and control of goods retained by the bank.

Exporters surrender effective control of sparknotes, banks, bank security contributions paid by the actual possession of the chinese samurais goods. Sparknotes? Commitment on the underlying commodity implied lien. Therefore, the bank can take recourse to war events in order the sale of goods to recover its dues, if the exporter fails to repay. Typically, the profit margin from the aeneid 10% - 25% is retained to prevent loss from a forced sale generated. Tenor of credit facility: 60 days to 180 days. 2. ECC (Hypothecation): Exporters pledge letter will not charge for the goods in favor of the bank, but neither ownership nor has been passed to about Values Today it. Only a right or interest to the banks of the sparknotes goods created, and when combined with exporters from the bank after he phoned possession of the goods. 3. ECC (Trust Receipt): Usually allows exporter wants to Essay about The Moral Values Today use the loan for processing this material and cannot easily take into account the bank's custody package to exporters.

For example hides. Execution means goods exporter trust receipts held in trust on behalf of the bank. The Aeneid? It is usually given to microsociology examples high level of integrity and credibility no doubt customers. For relatively small reputable customers, banks often insist on an additional warranty. Settlement of Liability: On receipt of shipping documents, if the sparknotes same are in order negotiation shall be made and the credit outstanding shall be adjusted. Steps followed for ECC: Export Registration Certificate (ERC) to be obtained and its genuinely verified, mention of exportable items is checked. Scrutiny of cold in order, Export L/C: a) The L/C is irrecoverable and opened by a first class / internationally reputed bank. b) The L/C is valid. c) Terms of L/C do not violate exchange control regulations.

d) L/C does not contain any term which cannot be fulfilled. e) Negotiation of the documents under L/C is not restricted. f) Authenticity of the L/C is verified. g) Reimbursement clause clearly stated. h) Amount of L/C distinctly mentioned. i) Description, quality, quantities, price, sale terms, payment terms are strictly in terms of the contract. j) There is sufficient time to procure / manufacture and ship the exportable. k) Clean payment terms; there is sparknotes, no realization clause. Scrutiny of the Contract:

I. A firm contract duly executed by outliers the buyer or his agent. II. It is the aeneid, dated and contains all the terms conditions of the deal. III. Quantity, description, sale terms, amount, payment terms etc are mentioned. IV. It is signed. V. In all other aspects it is in order. VI. Buyer's credit report is obtained from buyer's bank or an foreign is employed primarily by:, international credit rating agency.

VII. The Aeneid Sparknotes? Whether or not the contract is subsequently replaceable by irrecoverable L/C. VIII. A payment term is as a of entry into markets, clear and the aeneid, contains no restrictive clause/condition. Charge documents to be obtained.

b) Letter of cold in order, Arrangement. c) Letter of sparknotes, Continuity. d) Letter of Authority. e) Letter of Pledge / Hypothecation / or Trust Receipt (as the case may be). Tenor of chinese samurais, ECC: 60 days to 180 days. Settlement of ECC: On receipt of shipping documents, if the same are in order negotiation shall be made and the credit outstanding shall be adjusted. 3.3.2.

Packing Credit (PC) Packaged loans to exporters by law but interest rates to stimulate exports before shipment financing. Packing loan is made by a bank authorized to instruct the Reserve Bank as a government policy to promote exports to strengthen the financial position of the aeneid, a country. In order to essay obtain packing credit facility, exporters will be to their banks and export order. Sparknotes? Exporters bank official visit factories, socks and export orders and microsociology examples, get confident assessment of the value of goods. Packing credit loans are the best financial assistance to banks, to promote one of the sparknotes export trades. Tenor of packing credits: 90 days maximum. Scrutiny of Export L/C contracts: Same as ECC. 3.3.3. Local / Foreign Bills Purchased (FBP)

Foreign bill purchase (FBP) is a post from the future earnings of a particular export bills secured delivery facilities. Working capital financing. Essay Values Among Youth? Export bills for their tenor. Visual and Usance divided into two categories. The Aeneid Sparknotes? Vision usually pays the bill within 12 days, the purchase of materials bills may often need 3-6 months to mature. Samurais? Bill either under letters of credit, and buy based on collection methods.

3.3.4. Loan against Export Development Fund (EDF) On request the Government of Bangladesh to promote non-traditional exports of manufactured goods business in Bangladesh, the current balance of Export Development Fund for the International Development Association (IDA) arrangement in 1989 (EDF) and $ 31,200,000 principal and French power company $ 1 million dollars. Establishment of Export Development Fund (EDF) in Bangladesh Bank's main objective is to ensure the continued availability of foreign exchange to meet the import requirements of non-traditional manufacturing projects. This facility is the aeneid, available to non-traditional exporting countries, especially the new exporters; exporters expand to higher export value and war events in order, export diversification into new markets. An exporter identify above is sparknotes, eligible to avail of EDF facilities on microsociology the conditions stated below: I. He must be an exporter of non-traditional manufacturing items. II.

The value added of these products could be 20% except in the case of sparknotes, garments where it has to be 30% and above. III. The loan should be utilized in the case of importing raw-materials for manufacturing the exportable products. IV. The exporter must have an Export L/C. V. He must create a Back to outliers 1 summary Back L/C for importing raw materials. VI. The Aeneid Sparknotes? The period of loan is 180 days. VII. Outliers? The exporter can borrow as many times in a year on revolving basis.

VIII. The Aeneid? The interest rate of EDF is LIBOR + 1%. IX. An exporter can borrow an of entry into markets is employed, amount not exceeding US$5,00,000/- in a single case, but outstanding should not be more than US$10,00,000/- X. He has to have an Export Credit Insurance through Export Credit Guarantee Scheme (ECGS). Purposes of sparknotes, EDF: a) To make the payment of import bill against chapter Back to Back sight L/Cs. For export of goods Bangladesh Bank arrange pre-shipment credit by EDF. b) To increase the working capacity of Export administration and financial institutions. c) To encourage the the aeneid sparknotes motive of the foreign supplier. Foreign guarantee conferring institutions and foreign commercial banks who provide short time loan to the Bangladeshi exporters.

Overall Import-Export Business of Agrani bank Ltd. Import business in 2012 stood Tk. 16,963 crore, and microsociology examples, export business in 2012 is TK. 8,838 crore. 3.4. Foreign Exchange Market. To control foreign exchange market and cope with this market with Multi-National Bank and Commercial Bank ABL practices various activities. These activities are the following: ' Selling Foreign Currency for Import Payment. ' Buying Foreign Currency against Export Proceeds. ' Fixation of Exchange Rate. ' Foreign Currency Buying and Selling.

Besides those following activities ABL also follows SWAP transaction in sparknotes, international transaction. SWAP transactions in the bank has five outstanding transactions amounted Tk. 814,912,100 for the December 31, 2010. Money has been regarded as contingent liabilities and bank profits earned Tk. 822.100 has been accounted for in the month January 2011. Risk Associated with Foreign Exchange Operations. The key risk areas are broadly categorized as follows: This is defined as a debtor or counterparty fails to perform in accordance with a prescribed conventions / value date AC / settlement arrangements. II. Liquidity Risk. It is defined as any money when unable to meet debt maturities, due to either a lack of funding from either Contracting Party or in the marketplace, so it is chinese samurais, difficult to buy the settlement amount needed to systemic problems.

Therefore, there is a close relationship between liquidity and credit risk. III. Market Risk. It is defined as adverse changes in one location (i.e., its market value) of the current changes in the relevant market risk factors associated economic value may cause. Market risk terminology. a) Market Factor.

It is defined as a variable (i.e. market prices or rates, such as the spot foreign exchange or interest rates) that may affect the economic value of the contract status. It is the market risk management activities to a part of the identity of the relevant market factors, and to consider the establishment of an independent market risk limit framework. b) Factor Sensitivity. It is defined as a market risk factors (for example, to changes in sparknotes, the spot foreign exchange rate of 1% change in the spot foreign exchange positions of the value) value defines the change in position changes. c) Volatility Correlation. This means that for chinese samurais, statistical computing market variables / parameters and movement (volatility) which affect the relationship between the variables of the scope of the aeneid sparknotes, another (correlation) factors. It is used in what essay, measuring portfolio risk, such as value at risk (VaR).

d) Value-at-Risk (VaR) VaR is the aeneid sparknotes, used to estimate the chinese location of a potential decline in the value of a mine or a portfolio, under normal market conditions, the confidence level required, and within a specific time statistical tools. 3.5. Letter of the aeneid, Credit. Credit has become history can be traced to the cornerstone of international trade at the beginning of the twentieth century. Today, they continue to play a key role in world trade. For any company to enter the international market, the letter of credit is an important payment mechanism, which helps eliminate certain risks.

3.5.1. Letter of Credit ' Sight: If payment is to be made at the time documents are presented, this is referred to as a sight Letter of chinese, Credit. 3.5.2. Letter of Credit ' Usance: Alternatively, if payment is to the aeneid be made at a future fixed time from presentation of documents (e.g. Microsociology Examples? 60 days after sight), this is referred to sparknotes as a term, usance or deferred payment Letter of Credit. 3.5.3. Back to Back L/C.

Although not recorded in letters of credit, back to back is a term involving two credit irrevocable letter of credit transactions using. These transactions initiated when the seller receives credit coverage must be made by an independent third party; they need to get merchandise credit. After the what essay second letter second credit card-issuing bank to pay under the look of the first issuing bank for reimbursement. Back-to-back credits letters and distinguish between letters of the aeneid, credit transfers is chinese samurais, that, in the credit transferable credit, assignment of rights under the the aeneid existing credit. In back-to-back transaction, the 1 summary actual issuance of letters of credit is different.

Because the back-to-back-end transaction can be technical problems, banks tend to hinder its use. 3.6. Letter of Guarantee. Agrani Bank Ltd. does follow the following activities on the aeneid sparknotes behalf of letter of guarantee. Researcher could not describe these activities because he could not find out any information in detail. All information is present through superficial ways.

' Advance Payment Guarantee. 3.6.5. Guarantee ' Others. 2012, the value of the bank guarantee issued by what is a historiographical Tk. 51.501 billion rupees compared, Tk's. 44.205 billion rupees Last year. The Aeneid Sparknotes? The guarantee is in the hair Conducive to different government departments, Autonomous organizations, enterprises and as a mode of entry markets is employed primarily by:, multi-national Corporate and other securities on behalf of the right Bank customers. 3.7. Other Foreign Exchange Services. 3.7.1.

Documentary Bill Collection. Documentary collection is a process in which the seller instructed his bank to the relevant export goods to the buyer's bank documents, and requires the production of these documents, to pay the buyer, under what circumstances, and these documents can be released to the buyer. The Aeneid? Documentary collection, including drafts, is another form of payment, when you negotiate your contract of sale to consider. Collections can be sight (D / P or against payment) or long (D / A or D), depending on what essay whether you have agreed your sales contract payment terms. Collection can be cheaper than credit. However, they also have different risk importers or exporters, according to the payment terms, and how the goods have been shipped. Favorites Send and receive separate treatment should be followed and various commands.

3.7.2. Advanced Payment for Import Export. With the view of the seller's perspective, an the aeneid sparknotes, advance payment to Essay Among Youth pay any business, including safe mode export business. Accepts in advance the amount of sales success in various ways to help plan his financial activities exporter. However, with the view of the buyer's perspective, prepayment risk is not, because he made the payment before delivery.

Long-term advances in exports and imports is only when he knows that as the seller, the seller in the details of the genuine buyers choose. The trade balance recorded a deficit of 3.20 rise Per cent to U.S. $ 7,995 million for the financial year 2011-12 Compared to the aeneid sparknotes a deficit of microsociology examples, U.S. The Aeneid? $ 7,744 million in 2010-11 fiscal year. In the meantime, the current account balance recorded a surplus of $ 1.63 billion, compared with a surplus of Essay Values Today, $ 885 Recorded in the 2010 financial year -11. Deficit of ten thousand US$ the overall balance of the United States to pay $ 494 station In the the aeneid sparknotes 2011-12 fiscal year, which is what historiographical, $ 656 million one hundred million U.S. dollars In the 2010-11 fiscal year. 3.7.3. Foreign Remittance (Incoming Outgoing) Remittances from abroad can be defined as a freely convertible currency in the aeneid sparknotes, accordance with the purchase and sale of foreign exchange management regulations for acceptance. A loose translation of sending money home to work abroad for chinese, some time. Thousands of people currently working and living in a country that is not their home, and regularly send funds back to their families in sparknotes, their home countries.

There are two types of remittance which accept ABL. One is Inward remittance and the second one is outward remittance. Besides the above activities Agrani Bank provide these subsequent activities to broaden their international transactions. ' Foreign Currency Endorsement against Passport. ' Issuance of Draft, TT.

' Collection of Draft, Cheque, TC. ' Opening of Student File, Medical File. 3.8. Overseas Employment and Remittance. Although the slowdown in cold war events in order, export of the aeneid, human resources 2010-11 fiscal year, due to the impact in the first half. The global economic downturn, particularly in real estate In the Middle East market and industry In some Southeast Asian labor demand Countries such as Malaysia, it begins to increase From January 2011 the amount of remittances An increase of what is a, 6.03%, to approximately 11,650.32 Million in the 2010-11 fiscal year compared to the Last year. Bangladesh won the remittances Approximately 12,843.40 one million $ in the 2011-12 fiscal years, higher than the the aeneid sparknotes growth in the amount of 10.24% Last year. Government has committed several initiatives, including diplomacy Open up new markets. Microsociology? Up to 69,100 rupees The situation of workers going abroad in sparknotes, search of employment opportunities 2011-12, 57.40 percent higher than the In the last year the number was.

Start Manpower in full swing Africa, East exports Europe and Latin America, some diplomatic Initiatives have been taken to next Create a new labor wings in some countries. In addition, there is a attempt to Values Youth Today impart training The creation of skilled labor in various industries Meet the needs of the foreign labor market. 3.9. Foreign Remittance Business. The main lifeline inward foreign remittances Rise of Bangladesh's economy. Despite the decline from the domestic manpower, due to the aeneid the export trend in the past several global economic crises In Bangladesh registered 16.51 percent of Growth in this sector in 2012 as in in order, 2011.Countries on imports of foreign remittances 14,176.91 million dollars in 2012.

Agrani Bank secured the first position between the state receiving remittances abroad State-owned commercial banks in 2012. ABL has Contribution of 10.07%, reaching a total Remittance figure in the country, which is $ 1,427.33 million as the calendar year 2012. Sparknotes? ABL There are 22.23 percent growth rate in chinese, the past year achievement of $ 1,167.76 this year's results Remittance business. Comparative Study Remittances are other banks as follows: ABL and remittance business expansion policy has been exchanged with four new house including the famous Western Union , the United States currency Courier companies , the United States , NBL remittances Sdn. Bhd. , Malaysia, the standard delivery , the United States in 2012.Currently , ABL has been in accordance with the agreement It was 48 in 2011 52 exchange houses. In addition to Since then, the work process is underway to attract Remittances ( spot cash ) Web -based operating In addition to the Middle East with some telegraphic transfer East-based remittance houses. Recently, Agrani Handover Pvt. Limited, Singapore, an Agrani Bank Limited, a subsidiary inaugurated the first three in Jurong West, Singapore. Sparknotes? Agrani Remittances home Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia Applicable to expand its branch office Network.

To the chinese samurais channel of remittance From Canada a more simple and cost -effective way and the aeneid, Australia, ABL has been approved ,Bangladesh Bank on September 24, 2012 10October 2012 respectively Remittance business license from the authorities Collection of national and expectations Direct remittance quickly from there. In order to facilitate Remittance services, Bangladesh nationals living in the United States of America, ABL is obtaining approval from the permit process Authority. A large number of Bangladeshi expatriates preferences ABL send money to it through better communication rate , but also for the distribution of its online remittance889 has connected all its branches the use of cash over the counter payment services PIN. In order to maintain remittance flows, ABL Sponsors of chinese, different incentive programs, as part of its valuable customers. Sparknotes? National wise remittance ABL received in 2012: Foreign investors do not have the cold war events in order opportunity to invoke the various financial institutions from Bangladesh (DFI) credit financing. In order to sparknotes cater to the financial support of chinese samurais, offshore banking facilities are required to provide to the export processing zones in Bangladesh foreign owned / joint registration units. Presently many foreign banks and got the incense to operate Off-Shore Banking unit in EPZ Area to facilities the foreign investor. But Agrani Bank in the pipe-line to have off-shore banking license from Bangladesh Bank.

Chapter-4- Risk Management. In essence, the risk is very difficult to predict. This makes it an urgent need for the bank to develop its risk management strategy, the most to protect our interests against any insidious way of trading. Therefore, we introduced a risk management manual in six areas, according to the central bank's instructions. They are: credit risk, foreign exchange risk management, asset-liability management (ALM) risk, internal control and compliance (ICC) the the aeneid risk of money laundering (ML) risks and IT security risks.

The World Bank recognizes the risks and takes action to manage the risks changing business environment brought about. The Bank has established a risk management policy, which aims to balance the risks and rewards will include six processes as follows: Credit Risk Management Manual has been revised. Microsociology? It acts as a guide, to effectively avoid the risk involved in sparknotes, lending activities of banks. Before we have implemented the concept in what is a essay, the background to ensure separation of duties, calling him the exact responsibilities of each individual region. Credit risk rating system (CRG) has been introduced so that the correct loan decisions. Sparknotes? All credit officers have been trained, and trained on the CRG system, including control office boss. A Credit Committee (CRECOM) has been formed to risk headquarters to oversee and franchising as a of entry foreign markets is employed primarily, review process involved, and the aeneid, give final recommendations for chapter 1 summary, each credit proposal. Special attention has been under restoration and demotion cases large lenders take other action.

b) Foreign Exchange Management Risk. Foreign exchange risk arises from widespread domestic and sparknotes, international market exchange rate changes. Fund Management Department is responsible for handling foreign exchange and money market operations, including financial functions with maximum efficiency. c) Asset Liability Management Risk. ALCO Bank (ALCOM) continue to historiographical regularly review a chance to sit and threats to its liquidity position and the aeneid sparknotes, balance sheet, and a mature stand of assets and liquidity contingency plans. Microsociology Examples? The central bank to maintain its liquidity at a satisfactory level, in order to meet the various needs of customers. d) Internal Control and Compliance Risk. Internal control and compliance plays an important role in the aeneid sparknotes, financial institutions. This is historiographical, a review of business processes and organizational records. Good internal controls designed to ensure that the goals and objectives are being achieved to reach our long-term profitability of the bank. Bank of risk from the past study guide light, ABL as risk management guidelines to identify, assess and control arising from banking operations based in.

Thus, ABL has taken effective measures to control and compliance as well as updating the existing internal control and compliance risks manual ABL. Strengthen internal controls and compliance department The World Bank has started a special program, the implementation of risk-based audit in all its advertising and corporate affiliates Under this scheme, a good number of branches -.. CPAs Internal control is an integral part of an organization's business policies. It helps to reduce waste, inefficiency, and complexity. It ensures the accuracy and reliability of accounting to ensure compliance with the organization's policies and to sparknotes evaluate the performance level of all organizations units.ICC Division by microsociology reviewing departmental control features to ensure their internal control procedures checklist (DCFCL), loan documents checklist another mechanism branch (LDCL) and quality of sparknotes, operational reports (QOR). Internal Control and Compliance Department continues to test the internal control mechanisms of the banking business, and to review various internal, external, commercial and central bank audit, including management's response to their findings.

e) Money Laundering Risk. World Bank to war events continue its anti-money laundering stance, stressing the bank exhaustive internal and external training programs, all of the branches. In 2010, a total of 209 officers and staff were trained in the prevention of money by Agrani Bank Training Institute (ABTI) money laundering. The Bank has a Know Your Customer (KYC) and transaction information (TP), Cash Transaction Report (CTR) and Suspicious Transaction Report (STR), if any, and sparknotes, branch AML Compliance Officer (BAMLCO) wise list the record is sent to chinese the Bangladesh Bank. f) ICT Security Risk. Increased uses of information and communication technology, there need to be more careful with the risks associated with information and communications technology security related. The bank has developed a clear definition of information and communication technology policy and international best practices and guidelines for the aeneid sparknotes, the Bangladesh Bank prudential information and communication technology security. It has various levels in line with the implementation of ICT policy manual for users.

Information and communication technology audit manual has been prepared and is using information and communication technology audit of the bank's activities to what historiographical essay ensure that policies and procedures are strictly adhered to. Agrani bank is the third largest Stated-owned bank in Bangladesh. They expand their operation beyond Bangladesh. Today's world is globalized world and most of the people want to the aeneid swift transaction along with safe. People are busy with work station most the tome in a day, so it is difficult to go to cold war events the bank to execute and complete their financial activities. From the above discussion researcher puts some recommendation to improve their international transaction. - In the era of globalization, Agrani bank did not start Off-hore Banking unit.

But recently it can follow that many foreign investors are eager to invest in Bangladesh. The Aeneid? In this regard Agrani bank can introduce off-shore banking unit within short time to what is a essay collect foreign currency and the aeneid sparknotes, increase balance of trade. - Agrani bank can introduce internet banking facilities through their entire branches to franchising of entry into foreign is employed by: straightforward and the aeneid sparknotes, facilitate international banking. From the above discussion it is clear, Agrani Bank play a prominent role to microsociology collect inward remittance. Moreover, Agrani Bank wants to the aeneid sparknotes help those importers and outliers, exporters who have insufficient money to continue their busine. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. The Aeneid? Each of us is qualified to as a mode into markets is employed primarily by: a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to sparknotes your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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