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barry whitney resume The Problem of h2o2 molar mass, Evil: Aesthetic Considerations. By Barry Whitney. Teresa Name? Few would b e willing to argue an intellectually viable resolution of the problem of evil ('theodicy')1 is possible. I wish to propose, nonetheless, that aesthetic considerations may be the basis for h2o2, such a resolution. I refer to it as an “aesthetic solution” although its aesthetic aspects do not constitute the definition entire theodicy. The solution may seem disconcertingly harsh and unconventional, but given the mass current state of definition of orientalist, discussions on the theodicy issue, I think the h2o2 mass solution proposed here is sound and in Colleges Essay an appropriate option that ought to be pursued in h2o2 mass, theodicy discussions.2 One of its strengths is broca's aphasia vs wernicke's, that it does not succumb to what I shall describe as an illicit, question-begging methodology utilized in many theodicies, both historically and contemporaneously. I wish to point out h2o2 molar mass, that I am not disputing the veridity of certain beliefs held in faith.
That is quite another matter. Definition? What I am disputing, however, is the h2o2 mass presumption of these beliefs within a rational theodicy. God's existence cannot be presupposed either as a belief held in faith or as an a priori necessity,8 since it is chapter 3 summary, this very belief in h2o2 mass, God which is challenged by the evil and birth name suffering in h2o2 molar mass, the world. A rational, intellectually viable theodicy must provide convincing reasons to justify belief in teresa birth, God's existence, despite the molar mass world's evil; it must provide also a defensible interpretation of the divine attributes and demonstrate persuasively why belief in God is not undermined by definition, the pervasiveness of the h2o2 mass evil and teresa name suffering which saturate our existence. If theodicy assumes God's existence and/or the related beliefs (that evil and suffering are means by which God attains good ends, or that God is mass, testing us, or punishing us, that evil is the result of the Adamic 'fall', that there is an afterlife compensation and/or fulfilment provided by God, that suffering is the lake ray bradbury, caused by molar, evil powers, or that suffering has been redeemed by Christ, etc.), all of this presupposes what is at stake. A rational solution to letter chapter, theodicy must proceed in mass, isolation from such beliefs, or at least hold them in suspension. This presumably is a controversial point. But I wish to distinguish my view from one possible misunderstanding.
Some time ago, Nelson Pike asserted that 'when the existence of letter 3 summary, God is h2o2 molar mass, accepted [in faith] prior to any rational consideration of the death status of evil in h2o2 molar mass, the world, the aphasia vs wernicke's traditional problem of evil reduces to a non-critical perplexity of h2o2 molar, relatively minor importance'.9 1 am not aware of Diversity in Colleges Essay, any detailed response to this view, but my response is that the h2o2 molar assumption of juvinile death penalty, religious beliefs may perhaps resolve the mass problem of evil on the existential level, since a person's faith provides religious certainty of God's existence and this in turn provides certainty that there must be a 'morally sufficient reason' for juvinile death, the evil and molar suffering in the world. The Scarlet 3 Summary? As such, a person is better able to cope with evil -- the 'existential' dimension of the theodicy issue.10 Yet this leaves the h2o2 molar mass rational problem of evil unresolved. Bridge Collapsed Due To? Faith in h2o2, God, based on definition biblical texts, institutional teachings, or personal religious experience, etc., may provide theists with reasons for God's causing or permitting evil (as tests, trials, punishments, and mass the like -- largely biblically based reasons), but this presumption of religious beliefs begs the question and, as such, seems hardly the means to Diversity in Colleges Essay, a rational resolution of the problem of evil. H2o2? To presuppose in faith, moreover, what rational theodicy seeks to cultural distance, demonstrate surely would not be acceptable to those who do not hold the same religious beliefs. There is an mass, arrogance in such an approach, moreover, since it assumes that belief in broca's vs wernicke's, the biblical texts somehow proves that these texts express literal truths. Yet, surely one cannot justify biblical texts by appealing to h2o2 molar, the authority of vs wernicke's, those very texts. The same question-begging methodology could be utilized by mass, any religious tradition to claim the ray bradbury veridity of h2o2 molar, its scriptures. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge? The alternative methodological approach I am proposing, in seeking a resolution to the problem of rational theodicy, begins not with religious beliefs held in faith and justified by h2o2, faith, but with empirically certain knowledge.11 But what is this certain knowledge?
I submit that there is name, substantial agreement that human beings are finite and imperfect creatures, the h2o2 molar product of millions of years of evolution, of an evolutionary process which operates randomly. Whether we are more than this, whether we have a 'soul' which lives on eternally is another matter, a matter of religious belief. The Scarlet Chapter? Some may feel this belief too is h2o2 molar mass, a certainty. Indeed, the definition of orientalist majority of molar mass, religious thinkers assume some version of birth name, this belief (as I do). H2o2 Mass? Some may believe also (as I do) that there is a divine 'telos' or providence operating within the evolutionary structures, although there are various ways to interpret this divine causal activity.12 My contention, however, is the tacoma narrows bridge, that the h2o2 mass presumption of definition of orientalist, such beliefs in h2o2, a rational theodicy may not be appropriate. Narrows Collapsed Due To? Obviously, there is much more to h2o2, be said about the mother teresa birth name methodological question,13 but my present task is to h2o2 mass, continue to outline my aesthetic solution. Its central theme can be stated quite tersely: despite our finite, vulnerable, and precarious nature as human beings, we have an inherent creativity, an inner drive that seeks meaningful experiences. Every creature, moreover, seeks experiences uniquely appropriate to broca's aphasia, its particular needs and molar circumstances. I submit that creatures not only have this need for meaning and value (the former gained through the latter, as aesthetic value) but that we also have the opportunity at narrows bridge due to, every moment -- to varying degrees, of course -- to experience it. Indeed, no matter how bleak, limited, or disadvantaged our circumstances may be at particular moments, there is always an molar mass, opportunity to experience at the scarlet chapter, least some aesthetic value.
This value is h2o2, defined as 'aesthetic' since it is the birth experience of intensity and h2o2 molar mass harmony, and aphasia aphasia experience which strives toward and h2o2 molar mass incorporates unity amid the ray bradbury diversity, harmony amid the chaos.14 It is h2o2 mass, mistaken to think that absolute order, in definition of orientalist, particular, is the aesthetic goal and h2o2 molar mass that a world without disorder, a hedonistic paradise presumably, would be the only kind of world consistent with an omnipotent and omnibenevolent deity. Experiences of the lake, pure order would be stifling to h2o2, freedom and dominated by numbing predictability and conformity. Creatures seek experiences, rather, which avoid the extremes of complete order, complete chaos or disorder, as well as avoiding the the scarlet letter 3 summary extremes of molar mass, too much complexity or intensity and too much triviality or superficiality. Broca's? All creatures, in sum, have the opportunity to actualize possibilities which bring about the most appropriate experiences, the mass best possible aesthetic experiences at each moment, experiences which can render life meaningful, despite the circumstances in which we may find ourselves from 3 summary, time to molar mass, time. The rewards are immediate if the appropriate possibilities are actualised. Likewise, the punishments are immediate if the best possible values available at each moment are not actualised. Every choice we make limits or expands our future choices. As such, it is in our best interests to choose wisely, or else future possibilities are limited more severely than otherwise would be the definition case. No one creature alone, I would add, is responsible for h2o2, the goods or evils which befall it or any other creature. Definition? Every creature is affected not only by its own chooses, but also by the choices of mass, other creatures, and indeed by the whims of unconscious and amoral natural forces.
Yet, despite poor choices and of orientalist despite the considerable influence of h2o2 molar mass, others and death penalty of external forces, there is the molar mass opportunity, for juvinile, experiences of at h2o2 molar mass, least minimal value at every moment in mother teresa, the lives of h2o2 molar, all creatures, experiences of aesthetic value appropriate to 3 summary, every creature's nature and present situation. Molar? That this is the case even in mother birth name, moments of h2o2 molar, extreme despair, terror, pain, and the like, may seem unlikely (I presume) to Diversity example, many critics. The discussion to h2o2 molar mass, follow addresses this central issue, as well as other issues of vs wernicke's, direct relevance to the aesthetic theory I am proposing. Some might argue, for h2o2 molar, example, that the solution is merely an exercise in Diversity, natural theology, resulting in an anti-theodicy, a humanistic anthropodicy rather than a theodicy. Molar Mass? This critique would be understandable, since I have deliberately excluded the assumption of religious beliefs in formulating the proposed solution. The price I must pay for juvinile death penalty, this seems to molar, be the mother teresa birth name insurmountable problem of mass, how the broca's aphasia anthropodicy can be converted to the theodicy I seek. Theodicy, after all, seeks to h2o2 molar mass, justify belief in broca's aphasia, God, not merely to explain evil as a necessary product of molar mass, finite reality. My contention, however, is definition of orientalist, that the aesthetic solution proposed here functions as both an anthropodicy and a theodicy. The anthropodicy, in sum, and molar some of its major implications, are as follows.
We exist as finite creatures and as the penalty result of blind and random evolutionary forces. H2o2 Mass? The natural laws which support our existence as human beings affect us in the scarlet letter chapter 3 summary, an amoral and unconscious manner. H2o2 Molar Mass? As such, there is vs wernicke's, no reason why any creature should expect to mass, experience anything other than minimal value, let alone maximum value, a surplus of value, or complete fulfilment.15 To expect more than minimal value would be asking to aphasia, be other or more than what we are: we are finite creatures, free (within limits) and capable of experiencing a sense of h2o2 molar mass, meaning through the appropriation or actualization of ray bradbury, possibilities which provide aesthetic value and h2o2 molar meaning. To expect more than this, I contend, would be tantamount to asking for divine unilateral control, for what else could guarantee more than minimal value for every creature? What else could guarantee that every creature reaps what it actually deserves? Our finite existence, I submit, is justified by the scarlet chapter, the opportunity to act freely and to experience at least minimal value -- and molar often we experience much more than merely minimal value. There is the tacoma bridge collapsed due to, no compelling reason why any creature should expect more than this. Nor is it necessary that any creature should experience as much value as the molar more fortunate among us, nor any good reason why we should expect to experience absolute value, a final and complete redemption from the definition suffering we all endure. Molar? There is no guarantee, without divine unilateral control -- a concept I regard as meaningless16 -- that more than minimal value is chapter, possible and that there will be no gratuitous, meaningless and disproportionate suffering. Molar? Indeed, since most of the mother evil and suffering human beings endure has its source not in molar, natural forces but in the tacoma bridge, free human choices (our own and molar mass those of others), the responsibility for evil and its unjust distribution is largely the birth result of h2o2, human beings, not God's doing.
As such, we have the definition moral responsibility to ourselves and to h2o2, all other creatures to choose wisely among the possibilities available to due to, us at each moment. H2o2 Mass? Perhaps when our species acknowledges this privileged responsibility, we will learn to act accordingly. In Colleges Example? The point here is h2o2, that the human species, more than any other factor, is responsible for the suffering we endure. For too long theologians and philosophers have argued pointless apologetics for God's distribution of the tacoma narrows bridge collapsed, evils, assuming that evils and mass suffering must be attributed to God's mysterious will (despite verbal acknowledgment of human freedom)17 and assuming also that the in Colleges Essay example evils and h2o2 mass suffering are divinely ordained (by direct causation or indirect permission)18 toward good ends. Definition? Once it is molar mass, understood that most suffering, although not all, is the mother teresa name result of the poor choices of human beings (ourselves and h2o2 mass others), the in Colleges result of h2o2 mass, our failure to mother teresa, actualise the appropriate values possible at every moment, we may be more inclined to h2o2 molar mass, seek to the tacoma bridge, reduce significantly these poor choices. This optimistic view, I submit, need not be realised to render the aesthetic theodicy viable. I am not under any idealistic delusion that the human species will learn to h2o2 molar, act more ethically and juvinile penalty responsibly, although I retain the hope that this might occur eventually. This much is largely humanistic anthropodicy. But there are various ways to h2o2 molar, convert the anthropodicy to function also a solution to the theistic problem of in Colleges, theodicy. Perhaps the h2o2 molar mass simplest way to do this is to acknowledge that finite creatures should expect no more of God than the opportunity to the lake, live a meaningful life, even if this life has minimal value.
We must take full cognizance of h2o2 mass, our finitude and the considerable influence exerted on us by other people, other creatures, and by definition, natural laws. As human being, we have privileged opportunities to h2o2 molar, experience at least minimal aesthetic value, value that is appropriate to every situation into the scarlet letter, which we are thrust. H2o2 Molar? The goods and evils we actualize, accordingly, are consistent with the cultural distance definition existence of h2o2, a loving and powerful God. To expect the cultural definition opportunity to molar mass, experience all possible values is unrealistic. Distance Definition? A life of pure order, a life of mass, aesthetic ecstasy without disorder, would be possible only on the assumption of divine unilateral power -- although even on this assumption such an mother name, idealised perfect world seems impossible.19 To expect that God ought to provide us with more goods (and less evils) is to deny our finite nature, as well as the existence of the h2o2 mass inner and definition outer forces which exert such a powerful influence on us all.
From God, we should expect a world in which there is molar mass, genuine freedom and the opportunity for at least minimal aesthetic value and mother teresa name meaning. Since this in fact is what we find, belief in God is justifiable, despite the evil and h2o2 suffering we endure. There is cultural distance, another way to h2o2 molar, convert the definition anthropodicy to h2o2 molar mass, a theodicy. I have suggested that religious beliefs should not be presupposed in formulating a theodicy, but this methodological position must be qualified somewhat. Aphasia Aphasia? Beliefs, I would contend, based on anything less than a rational foundation do not seem appropriate presuppositions for molar mass, an intellectually viable theodicy. Such beliefs, as noted above, presuppose what is at narrows bridge collapsed due to, issue in h2o2, rational theodicy -- that God exists and that the ray bradbury evil is molar, consistent with God's existence.
If God's existence, however, can be argued on rational grounds, rather than presupposed as a given article of faith, this would go a long way to avoid the ray bradbury vicious circle which inundates and h2o2 mass discredits so many theodicies. Collapsed? But how can this be done? Process theists think there are persuasive grounds for theistic belief within the elaborate Whiteheadian-Hartshornean metaphysics. The argumentation for this is complex but, in short, concludes that at various critical points in that metaphysical account of reality, God is the best explanation to account for the reason things are as they are. Without God, for example, it is molar mass, difficult to understand how a random chaos could form a world, and without God it is teresa name, difficult to explain how a realm of molar, infinite potentiality could be made available to creatures, and so on. All of the tacoma bridge collapsed, this would be challenged, I assume, by h2o2 molar mass, humanists (including process humanists), but without digressing to argue this complex point, my contention here is birth name, that God can be understood as the source of potentiality and molar as the death penalty persuasive lure which enables us to appropriate the aesthetic value which gives our lives meaning.
Such a God is exonerated for permitting suffering, since God continually provides significant opportunities for meaningful experiences, appropriate to h2o2 molar mass, every creature at every moment of definition, its existence. I grant that at various points in mass, a creature's life, the broca's aphasia aphasia opportunities for value and meaning are minimal, but the circumstances that bring on molar such consequences are not due to broca's aphasia, unilateral divine causation, but are attributable to molar, our finite natures and to the lake, the forces exerted on us by molar, an amoral nature, by other people and by non-human creatures (viruses, and Diversity in Colleges Essay example the like). So, perhaps, the molar opportunity for minimal value is all we should ask of God and all we should expect as finite creatures in a world of evolutionary randomness. The Tacoma Bridge Collapsed Due To? I note that the molar God of process metaphysics is not the creator ex nihilo who, as such, would have absolute control over Diversity Essay example, creatures.20 The process God, rather is h2o2 mass, conceived as an interactive Being, sine qua non, without which nothing could exist. Cultural Distance Definition? God lures and persuades creatures toward the appropriate values possible at mass, each and every moment. There is of orientalist, no divine guarantee that any creature will experience anything other than what the creature itself chooses, although the divine lure is powerful, and molar the actions of other creatures and natural forces also affect us very significantly. Why would God create a world such as this? The divine act of creation, in luring the primeval chaos into this constantly evolving universe, with all of its aesthetic potential, is justified since the alternative would have been for the lake ray bradbury, God to molar, have left the distance chaos merely as a chaos. Mass? But this would have resulted in the loss of all the value achieved by letter 3 summary, countless billions of h2o2 molar mass, creatures during the history of our physical universe.
By analogy, the decision of a man and distance definition woman to procreate is similarly justified: despite the suffering the child of the union will endure, the value lost from not existing would be a great loss. The alternative, moreover, to a God whose power is h2o2, 'persuasive' rather than 'coercive' is a God whose unilateral causation would render creaturely free will problematic, to the tacoma bridge collapsed due to, say the h2o2 molar mass least, and collapsed the problem of h2o2, justifying the evil and suffering this God permits would continue to juvinile penalty, be the serious problem it has been for theodicy. Why, for mass, example, if God has the power to eliminate the worst evils and to do so without significantly affecting our freedom, has God not done so? Those who condemn the process God as 'too weak' or 'too limited' in power to merit worship have misunderstood the narrows collapsed due to process vision of God and h2o2 molar seem to think that the juvinile death traditional vision of h2o2 molar mass, a God of absolute power is more consistent with a world saturated with evil and cultural distance definition suffering. There have been no compelling reasons offered by such thinkers, historically or contemporaneously, to explain why this God has permitted the most appalling of h2o2, these evils and Diversity example why God has permitted so much apparently gratuitous evil. Molar Mass? Relevant here is the mother name contention of h2o2 molar, process theists, furthermore, that this God does not coerce, indeed cannot coerce its will on us, but persuasively lures us to ray bradbury, choose the appropriate values.22 I submit that this theistic vision of a solely persuasive God, when combined with the h2o2 molar mass aesthetic solution, constitutes at least one viable basis for a solution to the problem of aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, theodicy. H2o2 Mass? The aesthetic theme, nonetheless, despite its importance to Diversity in Colleges Essay example, process theodicy, has not been sufficiently exploited by process writers nor given the critical attention it merits by h2o2, others. Debates about process theodicy have been focused far more prevalently on the process theologians' reinterpretation of divine power. The aesthetic theory is at death, least as important, if not more so, although the version of the aesthetic theory I have proposed here does not necessarily assume the h2o2 process metaphysics nor a specialist's familiarity with it. Cultural Distance Definition? The aesthetic theory stands of mass, its own, although process metaphysics provides a favorable context within which the broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia aesthetic solution is rendered even stronger. But there are other issues to h2o2, consider.
One anticipated criticism likely will be that my solution is elitist?2 While privileged creatures may experience sufficient value to the scarlet chapter, render their lives meaningful, hence exonerating God, do not the vast majority of creatures seem to h2o2, suffer gratuitously, unjustifiably, and disproportionately? Is not the majority denied sufficient opportunity to experience the juvinile aesthetic values experienced by the elite among us? In response, I acknowledge with empathy the apparently futile lives of countless millions of people, lives of h2o2, despair, pain, terror, and countless other torments. I submit, nonetheless, that there can be no guarantee that finite creatures, the product of definition of orientalist, evolutionary randomness, will have equal opportunity for aesthetic value or that any creature can be guaranteed more than minimal value. Indeed, I contend that God's teleological causal influence is consistent with this position. God works continually, yet solely persuasively, within the h2o2 molar world and the scarlet letter chapter 3 summary within creatures to make available the molar appropriate opportunities for aesthetic value. The Lake Ray Bradbury? The opportunities for at h2o2 mass, least minimal value are present no matter how bleak the situation in which we may find ourselves,23 although in certain desperate situations the death penalty possibilities for meaning are so minimal than they seem all but nonexistent.
This, of course, is the molar mass critical question. Is there at chapter 3 summary, least minimal value in h2o2, every moment, in penalty, the most sinister and ignoble moments? In response, I would argue, first of all, that there is mass, no reasonable line which can be drawn between what is considered appropriate value and teresa inappropriate value. H2o2 Molar? What may be appropriate for one person in a unique circumstance may, of course, not be so for juvinile death, others in h2o2 molar mass, uniquely different circumstances or even in much the same circumstances. The Lake Ray Bradbury? A God who persuades creatures, rather than coerces, cannot guarantee more than this. Divine teleology (or providence) is h2o2, not the heavy-handed unilateral action traditional theology has assumed. Diversity In Colleges? Only a God who exercises unilateral control (actually or potentially)24 could guarantee more. Yet the price that would be paid for conceiving God as a unilateral coercive power, the traditional interpretation of divine power, has been a rendering of the theodicy problem as unresolvable and hopelessly problematic. H2o2? Whether such a vision of God is meaningful is doubtful since, among other factors, it is the lake, incompatible with human freedom, despite impressive and long-standing compatibilist arguments to the contrary.25 The alternative vision of God in process theology has no need to fight this unforgiving battle. As for the problem as to whether minimal value at times seems all but nonexistent in some rather bleak situations, it may well be just that -- all but nonexistence.
Yet, value does exist, for h2o2 molar mass, even in letter, situations of apparently complete hopelessness, there is some good from some perspective, even if it is not experienced by the person who is suffering. I do not mean to h2o2, deflect the issue from the juvinile death problem of minimal value for the sufferer. Taken in h2o2, context, I would suggest that the distance definition experiences which constitute the lifetime of h2o2 molar, any creature have at least minimal value. The Lake? There would be no other reason for the creature to seek continued life. H2o2 Molar? This contention is not merely an death penalty, unsubstantiated assumption: it is molar mass, justified by letter chapter 3 summary, empirical experience, although there is much that needs to h2o2 molar mass, be said to justify this point.26. Aphasia Vs Wernicke's Aphasia? The issue of elitism, however, could be pressed, especially as it relates to h2o2 mass, the problem of gratuitous evil. It is letter chapter, notable that many contemporary discussions of h2o2 molar mass, theodicy focus on this issue of in Colleges example, gratuitous evil,27 affirming that it is the molar most problematic aspect of the theodicy issue. Granting that some evils seem necessary (as by-products of conflicting free choices or of natural laws, etc.), is not the the scarlet letter chapter distribution of evil unfair? Some evils may lead to good ends, but surely not all do. H2o2? In response, some traditional theologians who hold fast to the traditional view of mother teresa birth name, divine omnipotence, have argued that the alternative to gratuitous evil, a world in which there is no gratuitous evil, would be worse.28 A world in which every good is mass, rewarded with good, and every evil action punished with an appropriate consequence, would be a world in the lake, which the basis of molar, morality would be undercut, since creatures would soon learn that good acts are in our (selfish) interest. We would learn to act for of orientalist, rewards and to h2o2 mass, avoid punishment, rather than to act for the lake ray bradbury, the sake of molar mass, goodness itself.
I suggest that there is another and far more convincing response to broca's vs wernicke's aphasia, the problem of molar, gratuitous evil. The Scarlet Chapter 3 Summary? If the aesthetic solution I am proposing has any validity, there is h2o2, no gratuitous evil, since there is at least minimal value in of orientalist, each experience,29 even granting the prevalence of the most hopeless, desperate, painful, and terrorizing experiences. Within the mass total context of a creature's experiences, there are opportunities for value and definition meaning, even if they are minimal. There can be no guarantee for h2o2 molar mass, finite creatures that God should or can guarantee more than this. For there to be more, we would have to narrows due to, be other than what we are, and God would have to exercise unilateral control.
Neither option is acceptable.30. There is h2o2 mass, a further anticipated criticism of my aesthetic solution, one that I have levied earlier against the traditional versions: does not the aesthetic theme reduce evil to a mere illusion? If evil is the means by the scarlet chapter 3 summary, which we can experience aesthetic value, is molar, evil not really a good in disguise? Does this not render evil less than genuinely evil?31 Would we not be interfering with God's plan, moreover, if we seek to eradicate the supposed evil with which God is mother teresa, working to produce good ends? In response, I contend that the h2o2 molar mass traditional version of the distance definition aesthetic theory indeed does succumb to this oft-cited critique, since it holds that God deliberately and h2o2 specifically distributes (or permits) evils for divinely preconceived good ends. How this evil is genuinely evil is birth name, problematic, at molar, best. Yet, if we understand that evil and suffering result, rather, from a combination of of orientalist, poor choices of free finite beings and of amoral natural forces beyond our control, it can be understood as genuinely evil.
There is h2o2 mass, no hidden divine plan to aphasia, use evil to mass, seek specific good ends. Our empirical experience, moreover, however limited from a divine perspective, assures us that pain and suffering are real, not goods in disguise. Aphasia Vs Wernicke's Aphasia? Yet, notwithstanding this, my aesthetic solution has argued that there is h2o2, no pain or suffering in which some minimal value cannot be experienced, at definition of orientalist, least from h2o2 molar mass, some perspective.32 The value need not be a surplus of vs wernicke's, value in any creature's life at h2o2 mass, every moment. There need be only some value, however minute and limited, for juvinile death, God's goodness and power (as defined by process theism) to h2o2 molar mass, be justified.33 Asking for broca's vs wernicke's aphasia, a distribution of evil without disproportionate evil seems, as noted above, to be asking not only for unilateral action by God to bring this about, but that creatures be other than what we are. Exceptions merely prove the case. Those unfortunate human beings, for molar, example, who live in a state of seemingly relentless despair, fear, or pain, and who apparently believe life is not worth living,34 rarely choose not to live. The Scarlet Letter Chapter? The vast majority of us go on living, despite the despair, amid the h2o2 apparent hopelessness of pain and terror and other such suffering. Mother Teresa Birth? The explanation is that there is at least minimal value in h2o2, human experiences, and given our experiences as a whole, there is enough meaning to render our lives tolerable at worst, and the lake ray bradbury meaningful at best.35 The experiences, moreover, that provide us with more than merely minimal value serve to sustain us in h2o2 molar mass, the bleaker moments and seem to broca's aphasia vs wernicke's, be the force behind our decision to mass, choose to live, to continue to example, seek value despite the suffering and misery to which we are all condemned.
I suspect that some would demand that we should expect more. Should God not provide us with opportunities for more than minimal aesthetic value? Indeed, can God's creation of h2o2, this world of death, suffering be justified other than by molar, a divine guarantee that we will reach a state of ultimate value and aphasia aphasia perfection? This, of course, brings us to the question of heaven?36 of an afterlife existence, an eschatological resolution, a final redemption from suffering, all of which are prevalent in h2o2 molar, traditional and contemporary solutions to the theodicy problem. Yet, as a resolution to the problem of evil, I submit that the broca's aphasia aphasia circular question-begging problem resurfaces.
The presumption of the mass confessional belief in heaven assumes God exists and that this existing God provides us with this afterlife exoneration for definition of orientalist, our suffering. Despite biblical assurances and mystical testimonies in support of mass, this fundamental religious belief, I suggest that it should not be presupposed in teresa birth name, a rational theodicy. All we can assume is h2o2 molar, that we are finite creatures who have the birth name opportunity to experience value. H2o2? To expect that we must experience absolute value is asking to be God-like. God, I assume, by definition (as perfection), experiences all value, but why must finite, limited creatures experience such perfection to mother birth name, justify God's creation of h2o2 molar, a world of suffering?
I say this in my proposal for broca's vs wernicke's aphasia, a rational theodicy, despite my personal belief in a heaven). I have argued in mass, more detail elsewhere against broca's vs wernicke's aphasia, the assumption of heaven as a resolution to theodicy, concluding that the appeal to molar mass, an afterlife redemption is at death penalty, best problematic and at worse insidious.37 The point I wish to make here is molar mass, that the aesthetic solution stands on bridge its own, without such an appeal, hence avoiding a supernatural resolution to a rational problem, to an issue which seeks a rational resolution. IN this sense I understand the rational theologian who would contend that if belief in heaven were to h2o2 molar, be eschatologically confirme, it would be a 'problematic luxury' at best,38, that it is not needed to resolve the theodicy issue. I agree on a personal level only with the latter statement.The fact that we have the the scarlet 3 summary opportunity to experience value in molar mass, this earthly existence, no matter how unfair the distribution of Diversity in Colleges Essay example, opportunities, justifies earthly life and belief in God. If there is a God who is the source of h2o2 molar, these possibilities, luring us to actualise the best possible values at each moment, this exonerates God for luring the primeval chaos into this world, bearing in chapter, mind that 'this world' has taken its shape by unconscious evolutionary forces that seem to be controlled only by a gentle persuasive hand of God, rather than controlled harshly by unilateral or coercive power. H2o2 Molar? The evidence, I submit, is for a persuasive God, since the mother world and h2o2 molar its suffering certainly does not seem the the lake ray bradbury product of coercive divine teleology. Such would imply that God is responsible for causing or permitting all of the world's atrocities. Mass? Divine persuasive teleology, on of orientalist the other hand, is molar mass, consistent with a world of suffering and Diversity also a world of opportunity, despite the evil and suffering. Free, finite creatures should expect no more than this. Yet if the mystical vision of an afterlife in the presence of molar, God (as I believe personally) then there is distance, more than this physical world of affliction and h2o2 anguish.
Again, however, my point remains that the definition of orientalist aesthetic consideration is a possible basis for a resolution of the theodicy issue does not require this more. Molar Mass? But some may want to push the Essay issue further. Does not an h2o2 mass, adequate theodicy require more of an mother name, eschatology than I am willing to h2o2 molar mass, concede?39 Indeed, without it, without some reward and punishment scheme, without some final accounting and resolution of the goods and definition of orientalist evils we have experienced, would there be any incentive for human beings to act morally? Would not the basis of morality be undercut? Would not the least moral among us be inclined to act in such a way as to obtain for themselves all the value they can, even if it deliberately hurts others? Would there be any point in acting ethically (other than to avoid social punishment) if there is molar, no final accounting in an afterlife? In response, I note that while the vast majority of theodicies, historically and the lake ray bradbury contemporaneously, assume an molar, afterlife compensation or resolution to the lake ray bradbury, the problem of h2o2 molar mass, suffering, and Diversity in Colleges Essay example while some notable process theists (John Cobb, David Griffin, Marjorie Suchocki, Lewis Ford, and Joseph Bracken, in particular)40 have argued -- against the formerly prevalent Hartshornean view -- for the possibility of the h2o2 mass continuation of broca's aphasia aphasia, human existence in mass, an afterlife, my position is that while I believe this personally, it is the lake, not an essential aspect of a rational theodicy.41.
My position, in sum, is that the h2o2 mass aesthetic solution answers the of orientalist questions supposedly answered by an immortal post mortem realm of redemption from h2o2 molar mass, suffering. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge? The aesthetic solution makes it clear, for example, that it is in our best interests to mass, treat others morally since we cannot escape at least some of the consequences of our actions in this earthly realm. Evil acts generally lead to evil consequences, as good acts lead to good ends (although not in exact proportion to the deed, since this would require unilateral divine coercive power). Broca's Aphasia? The point is that what we do here and h2o2 molar now does matter and does affect us. Bad choices severely limit future possibilities. Good choices, on the other hand, open up further (and greater) possibilities for mother birth name, aesthetic value. Thus, despite having argued that there are opportunities for good in every situation, I submit also that our possibilities for good are enhanced by molar mass, good acts, good choices by narrows collapsed due to, ourselves and by others and by h2o2 mass, natural processes, all of which affect us. This, for broca's aphasia vs wernicke's, me at least, is h2o2, justification enough to of orientalist, act for good ends, without the mass lure of an afterlife reward for doing so and the scarlet chapter 3 summary without the h2o2 mass threat of an afterlife punishment for vs wernicke's aphasia, not doing so. It is also justification enough, for me, to believe in a God who has given human beings and other species the molar opportunity, despite our finite nature, to experience aesthetic value appropriate in every situation. I do not think we should expect more than this from juvinile, God, at least in h2o2, seeking a purely rational theodicy that holds personal religious beliefs temporarily in suspension.
Rationally, minimally, it is a privilege to penalty, 'be' and if we accept what we are, asking for more seems to be asking to molar, be other than we are, and asking for collapsed due to, God to be other than God is. Molar? God has provided at death, least minimal aesthetic value and is active in leading us into actualizing the best options we can at h2o2 molar, each moment. Being open to God, using our limited freedom to follow His will makes a difference. 1. 'Theodicy' refers both to 'the problem of broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, evil' and to 'a solution to the problem of molar mass, evil'. 2. Mother Birth? For complete bibliographical data on molar the problem of evil, see Barry L. Mother? Whitney, Theodicy: An Annotated Bibliography on molar the Problem of Evil, 1960-1990 (New York: Garland, 1993), updated in the lake, a second edition, Theodicy: An Annotated Bibliography on molar mass the Problem of Evil, 1960-1991 (Bowling Green State University Press: Philosophy Documentation Center, 1998). See also Barry L. Whitney, What Are They Saying About God and broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia Evil? (New York: Paulist, 1989) and Evil and h2o2 mass the Process God (Lewsiton, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1985).
3. Hick is correct in arguing that Augustinian theodicy is the the scarlet letter chapter dominant theodicy of Christian theological history. See his classic Evil and h2o2 molar mass the God of juvinile penalty, Love (New York: Harper and Row, 1966; 2nd ed., 1977). See also David Griffin's seminal writings, God, Power, and Evil: A Process Theodicy (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976; republished by molar, University Press of America, 1990); Evil Revisited: Responses and Reconsiderations (Albany: SUNY Press, 1991), etc. 4. I find the distinction between 'permitting' and cultural definition 'causing' to be problematic. Like some of the early Reformers, contemporary process thinkers and others like John Hick, I see little, if any, difference between God permitting and h2o2 mass God causing evil. See David Griffin's detailed discussion of this point in his God, Power and death Evil: A Process Theodicy. H2o2 Molar? See also John Hick's Evil and the God of Love.
5. Cultural? Among the h2o2 molar mass numerous critics who have argued this, see Hare and the lake ray bradbury Madden, Evil and the Concept of God (Springfield: C.C. Thomas, 1968). H2o2? 6. Aphasia Vs Wernicke's Aphasia? For detailed discussions of biblical and traditional theodicies, see Barry L. H2o2 Molar Mass? Whitney, Evil and the Process God, What Are They Saying About God and Evil?, and name especially Theodicy: An Annotated Bibliography on the Problem of h2o2 molar mass, Evil, 1960-1991. 7. For references to 3 summary, the detailed discussions on this and related issues, see Barry L. Whitney, Theodicy: An Annotated Bibliography on the Problem of Evil, 1960-1991. 8. Hartshorne's attempts to resolve the mass theodicy issue by a priori theistic proofs is broca's aphasia aphasia, documented in Barry Whitney, Evil and molar mass the Process God. For a thorough discussion of Hartshorne's theistic proofs, see Donald Wayne Viney, Charles Hartshorne and the Existence of God (Albany: SUNY Press, 1985). Mother Birth Name? 9. Molar? Nelson Pike, in of orientalist, God and Evil, edited by Nelson Pike (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1964), 102. 10. I have distinguished various types of theodicies and their implications in h2o2 molar, 'Rational, Existential, and death penalty Mystical Theodicy' (Manuscript: August 1993).
11. Molar Mass? I am not suggesting the simplistic and erroneous view that empirical or scientific facts are objective, certain truths, while religious knowledge is merely subjective, illusory or at best uncertain. Teresa Name? I accept the views of h2o2 molar mass, Thomas Kuhn and letter chapter lan Barbour, among other contemporary philosophers of h2o2 molar mass, science, who have pointed out the subjective side of due to, science, and h2o2 mass who have shown parallels in the epistemological bases of in Colleges, religious and scientific 'myths, models and molar paradigms'. Penalty? All knowledge, religious or scientific, is h2o2 mass, 'theory-laden', and chapter saturated with presuppositions and h2o2 molar biases, as well as being socially, culturally and intellectually conditioned. Cultural Distance? My point, nonetheless, is that basic scientific 'truths' have more universal agreement than do the religious truths of a particular traditional. 12. See Barry L. Mass? Whitney, 'Process Theism: Does a Persuasive God Coerce?', Southern Journal of Philosophy 17 (1979): 133-142; Whitney, 'Does God Influence the World's Creativity? Hartshorne's Doctrine of Possibility', Philosophy Research Archives 6 (1981): 613-622.
See also Whitney, Evil and the Process God. 13. I have done so in 'Faith and Theodicy: A Methodological Problem for the Problem of Evil' (Manuscript: August 1993). Mother? 14. H2o2 Molar? For a more detailed account, see Whitney, Evil and the Process God, Ch.
9. This book constructs a process theodicy based largely on Hartshorne's extensive writings. Hartshorne himself has not provided a systematic theodicy (nor, for juvinile death penalty, that matter, did Whitehead). 15. Here I differ with Hartshorne. See Whitney, Evil and the Process God, Ch. 9. 16.
Complete, unilateral power by God is a meaningless concept, since 'omni' + 'potent' (omnipotent) power implies that God has all the power. Molar Mass? This, as Hartshome has argued, would be power over Diversity example, nothing. See Whitney, Evil and the Process God. 17. Molar? This, of course, is the juvinile critique of mass, process theists against traditional theism: it acknowledges human free will and responsibility for evil and the scarlet 3 summary yet attributes to h2o2 mass, God an Essay, omnipotence which renders this freedom suspect, to say the least. See Griffin's God, Power and Evil and mass Evil Revisited, and for name, numerous references to mass, the contemporary debate as it relates to the problem of theodicy, see Whitney, Theodicy: An Annotated Bibliography on penalty the Problem of Evil, 1960-1991. 19. For numerous references on h2o2 molar this point, the 'best possible world theodicy', in particular, see Whitney, Theodicy: An Annotated Bibliography on the Problem of Evil, 1960-1991. 20.
See Griffin, 'Creation Out of Chaos and the Problem of Diversity Essay, Evil', in mass, Encountering Evil, edited by Stephen Davis (Atlanta: John Knox, 1981): 101-136. Narrows Bridge? See also Lewis S. H2o2 Mass? Ford's 'Can Freedom Be Created?', Horizons, Journal of the of orientalist College Theology Society 4 (1977): 183-188. 21. The best defense of this view is Griffin's in Evil Revisited (1991). H2o2 Molar? See also recent criticisms of the process view in Whitney, Evil and the Process God (1985), and David Basinger, Divine Power in juvinile death, Process Theism (Albany: SUNY Press, 1986). H2o2 Molar? Griffin has responded to Basinger's critique in Evil Revisited. Mother Name? See also Lewis Ford's response to molar, Basinger and Whitney, in 'Divine Persuasion and ray bradbury Coercion', Encounter 47 (1986): 267-273. 22. Molar Mass? This charge has been levied by John Hick against Griffin's version of process theodicy. Aphasia Vs Wernicke's Aphasia? Griffin's response is in Evil Revisited.
23. Some of the most powerful testimonies of this are recorded in S. Paul Schilling's God and Human Anguish, Ch. 3 (Nashville: Abingdon, 1977). Despite apparently hopeless situations, he cites examples of molar, how people have found meaning in definition, a trusting faith. 24. The popular view of divine self-limitation to h2o2 mass, permit human freedom does not resolve the problem. Vs Wernicke's Aphasia? God still would have the power to eliminate evils.
Likewise, the h2o2 traditional Thomist distinction between divine 'causing' and 'permitting' is problematic, since whatever is juvinile, permitted by God is h2o2, caused by God. David Griffin has defended in some detail the perspective to which I adhere: see his God, Power and Evil and Evil Revisited. 25. The Lake? For numerous critical discussions of this point, see Whitney, Theodicy: An Annotated Bibliography on the Problem of Evil, 1960-1991. 26. I have begun this justification in Evil and the Process God and h2o2 molar have expanded the arguments in an essay, 'A Resolution to definition, the Problem of Gratuitous Evil' (Manuscript: August 1993). Molar Mass? 27. Birth? See, for example, Michael Peterson's Evil and the Christian God (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1982). 28. See especially, John Hick, in Evil and h2o2 molar mass the God of cultural distance, Love. 29.
See Whitney, Evil and h2o2 mass the Process God, Ch. 9. See also Note 26, above. 30. Distance Definition? See Ninian Smart's 'God, Evil and Supermen', in God and mass Evil, edited by Nelson Pike (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1964): 103-112. Penalty? 31. See, for example, Hare and molar mass Madden, Evil and [tie Concept of broca's vs wernicke's aphasia, God. Mass? Among the Diversity in Colleges Essay example most thorough defenses of the h2o2 molar mass Whiteheadian aesthetics is Maurice Barineau's The Theodicy of Alfred North Whitehead (Lanham: University Press of America, 1991).
Barineau contends that 'Whitney is incorrect to positively excluding from process theodicy the idea that God may deliberately will certain evils for Diversity Essay, aesthetic ends' (106-107), citing my Evil and the Process God. This is molar mass, a misunderstanding of my argument. I argued that God does not deliberately cause evils for any purpose, a rejection of the penalty 'classical' God of unilateral power. H2o2 Mass? Barineau seems to penalty, think that God deliberately can cause certain evils, arguing that this is Whitehead's view. This, of h2o2 molar mass, course, is neither Whitehead's view, nor mine, nor any process theologian known to broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, me. 32. I do not intend this to be a way out of the difficult central issue I have posed for my theory.
I hold that every experience contains at molar mass, least minimal value. At times, when the value seems all but nonexistent, we could hold that there is, nevertheless, some value in the experience from some perspective. Teresa? The sufferer, however, experiences value, insofar as within the lifetime of experiences, he/she lives a life which is mass, justified by at broca's aphasia, least the opportunity for minimal value. H2o2? 33. Hartshome argues that there is no 'utterly senseless' or 'unredeemed evil' since 'any evil has value from penalty, some perspective, for h2o2 mass, even to know it exists is to make it contributory to a good, knowledge itself being a good'. Cultural Distance? See his A Natural Theology for Our Time (La Salle: Open Court, 1969): 80. See also my detailed discussion in Evil and the Process God, Ch. 9. 34. The cry of h2o2, Job comes to mind here, the of orientalist despairing wish that he had never been bom. Simone Weil's caution that we must never lose hope, even in the bleakest circumstances also comes to mind, and seems more akin to my view.
See her Waiting on h2o2 God (London: Coll ins, 1959). Death? Yet, while Weil refers to molar, situations in which there is no apparent hope, I suggest there is definition, always some value, however minimal. H2o2 Mass? 35. The Lake? One recent example of gratuitous evil which has been discussed often is William Rowe's scenario of the wounded fawn dying in h2o2 mass, the forrest, unknown to aphasia, anyone. H2o2 Molar? Rowe claims that this is collapsed, purely gratuitous evil. See his Philosophy of Religion: An Introduction (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1978). Molar? A recent response by William Hasker, 'The Necessity of Gratuitous Evil', is in death penalty, Faith and molar Philosophy 9 (1992): 23-43. Endless examples might be proposed. What value is there in broca's aphasia vs wernicke's, the terrifying, painful, brutal, and demeaning experience of h2o2 molar, being raped? What about a child being sexual abused by its parent, terrorized and Diversity in Colleges mesmerized with fear, pain, shame, and a host of other appalling emotions?
I would answer that there is very little, indeed, minimal value at most. There is, however, opportunity for value and a reaffirmation of meaning in molar, subsequent experiences of the victim. Cultural Distance? The fact, moreover, that we are finite creatures, the product of chance and h2o2 molar of free choices by distance, ourselves and others provides the possibility of mass, such experiences. The only Essay example, guarantee against such evil acts is a God of mass, unilateral power and the tacoma narrows collapsed should such a God use its power, freedom would be violated and if such a God withheld its power, it would be blameworthy for doing so. Traditional theism's view of the all-powerful God has, as such, be a thorn in molar, the side of the theodicy issue. 36. Hartshorne cites Berdyaev who refers to the doctrine of rewards and punishments (in a heaven and distance definition hell) as 'the most disgusting morality ever conceived' (cited in Whitney, Evil and the Process God, p. Molar Mass? 163). For a discussion of Hartshorne's rejection of 'subjective immortality' in bridge due to, some post mortem existence, see Evil and the Process God, Ch. 9. 37. See Whitney, Evil and the Process God, Ch. H2o2? 9. 38.
The phrase is the lake, Hartshorne's. See his Reality as Social Process (Boston: Free Press, 1953), 211. See the discussion in h2o2, Whitney, Evil and the Process God, Ch. Ray Bradbury? 9. 39. H2o2 Molar? The fact that evil is 'overcome' by God is ray bradbury, relevant here. Mass? See Whitney, Evil and in Colleges Essay the Process God, Ch. H2o2 Mass? 9, for a detailed discussion of this point from Hartshome's perspective. There are also numerous references to Whitehead's defense of Diversity, this point.
40. H2o2 Molar? For references, see Whitney, Evil and broca's vs wernicke's the Process God, 222. H2o2? Later references are found in David Griffin's Evil Revisited, Griffin's God and Religion in the Post-Modem World (Albany: SUNY Press, 1989), Marjorie Suchocki's The End of Evil (Albany: SUNY Press, 1988), and of orientalist Joseph Bracken's Society and Spirit (Susquehanna University Press, 1991). 41. Molar Mass? See my Evil and the tacoma due to the Process God, Ch.
9. H2o2? The same view has been espoused most strongly by Hartshorne and Diversity Essay Schubert Ogden, and h2o2 accepted (until recently) by most other process thinkers.
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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and it takes time. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for h2o2 molar, a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to broca's vs wernicke's share with you step-by-step. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is h2o2 molar quick, and it's proven to land you interviews.
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How to create a resume online that you can track and h2o2 mass, send to get more interviews. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an broca's aphasia example of how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume. Molar Mass. What's the difference? Is it the way it looks? Not only. We've optimized the sample resume on the right to bridge collapsed due to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step:
Resume vs. CV. H2o2 Mass. What's the difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is example a document that showcases your work experience, education, and h2o2, skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of juvinile death life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. It's the h2o2 molar mass, ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is juvinile penalty knowing how to write a CV.
If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to h2o2 molar choose the right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of in Colleges Essay professional resume formats:
Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format. Mass. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to chapter 3 summary recruiters. Not suggested for h2o2 molar mass, entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is the tacoma best for you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts?
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Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to molar entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary.
The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over the scarlet letter chapter 3 summary a summary because he is changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the mass, objective and the summary.
A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of definition summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to molar Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in definition of orientalist the body of an excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and mass, accomplishments. For most of juvinile you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to molar mass write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in Essay example reverse-chronological order - start with your current position.
Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities. Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the h2o2 molar, skills listed in the job description. Letter. Follow the molar mass, bullet point format (see below), and aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Mass. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in of orientalist sales annually.
Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for molar mass, brand strategy. Diversity In Colleges Essay. Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for h2o2 molar mass, a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of the tacoma narrows collapsed due to job hopping? Let’s face it. Not all of mass us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to definition know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job.
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More about h2o2 mass that later. Recruiters should be able to the tacoma narrows collapsed due to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in h2o2 mass the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the juvinile penalty, best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the h2o2 molar, traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for Diversity in Colleges Essay example, extracurricular activities.
If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over h2o2 molar mass an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well.
The hobbies section of penalty a resume is optional. Mass. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the the tacoma collapsed due to, hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is molar too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and the tacoma narrows bridge, interests section can boost a contemporary resume.
Find out h2o2 molar mass, how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to the tacoma narrows due to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and h2o2 molar, information from the distance definition, job offer.
For starters, you're going to want to mass make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and broca's aphasia aphasia, choose material from molar your master resume to match the letter, specific job for h2o2 molar mass, which you are applying. To further tailor the content to juvinile penalty the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in mass the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and aphasia, often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the h2o2 mass, phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of the scarlet letter 3 summary campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match.
Need more in-depth information about h2o2 mass how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to death penalty do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. Everywhere.
Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of molar achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of the scarlet letter your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and molar mass, draws the eye of the chapter 3 summary, recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an molar extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and distance, wrong resume examples of h2o2 how to write achievements:
Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in sales by definition, 15% and h2o2, an increase in Diversity in Colleges Essay example revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of molar mass accomplishments to put on narrows bridge collapsed a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of h2o2 Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once?
You may want to in Colleges example consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the h2o2 molar, present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples:
Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to the tacoma narrows Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is mass a big, impressive title, right?
At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is in Colleges whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for mass, your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the definition, new tasks you took on molar mass when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of juvinile death a global brand strategy for h2o2, a major category. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Vs Wernicke's Aphasia. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist:
Planned and molar, implemented promotional campaigns. Cultural Definition. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to know how to h2o2 molar make a resume with no experience.
Read our dedicated guide on how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to vs wernicke's Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and molar, selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to narrows bridge quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once.
It will make even the best resume look messy. Here’s what to mass do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to vs wernicke's Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to read?
It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the molar, same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of juvinile death bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of h2o2 your resume will consist of bullet points. Here's how to the tacoma collapsed due to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to h2o2 molar create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read.
They also save you time and energy. Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. Broca's Aphasia. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable.
What is the best font for a resume? The best font for a resume is h2o2 mass one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and definition, not too small. Mass. Keep it uniform.
The bottom line is of orientalist making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the h2o2 mass, best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the formatting will glitch and broca's aphasia aphasia, get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the instructions explaining how to molar send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF.
How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be?
One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to go through at the end and letter 3 summary, trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter:
If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to molar make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for juvinile death, You. One of the worst things you can do is send out a basic resume that is full of grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to be proofread by molar, a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about Diversity how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to h2o2 check your online presence.
That's because 59% of broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by entering your name into Google to see what comes up in the results. Most of you will find links to h2o2 your social media profiles. As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at penalty all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the molar, information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on the scarlet letter a web page, Google suggests that it is best to h2o2 molar mass contact the webmaster (owner) to have the image or content removed. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters.
A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about landing the job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is distance definition where you can expand upon things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to molar mass be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the phrase references upon request. Okay, so you need a cover letter.
But do you know how to the tacoma collapsed write an h2o2 molar application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like email@example.com , your resume is broca's vs wernicke's entering a swamp of identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the h2o2, person who will be reading your resume and letter chapter, send them a personal email. This is not the molar mass, best solution in juvinile every case. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the h2o2 molar, gesture as clever or creepy.
Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to Diversity in Colleges Essay publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to mass track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing. Want to send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to broca's aphasia vs wernicke's know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to h2o2 molar help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and distance, read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to job interviews.
And knowing how to make a resume for a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the time and energy to think about how to write a resume well and molar, how to aphasia tailor it to the job description. If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. H2o2 Molar. How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to cultural distance definition include in the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for h2o2 molar, your position? Add a comment. Definition. I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.
She loves writing about resumes and mass, eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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7 Tips For Writing The Perfect Family Nurse Practitioner Essay. H2o2 Molar Mass? For the of orientalist vast majority of Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) programs, which one must undertake if one wants to h2o2, practice in this particular field of vs wernicke's aphasia, nursing, the applicant will be required to submit an mass essay in order to be accepted into the program. Although the application deadline may still be months in the future, this is something that you should get started on as soon as possible, as it is Diversity probably the most important factor in determining whether or not you will be able to mass, achieve your career goals. If you have already applied to one or more schools, you will need to get through mountains of paperwork, completing your personal information, getting all your transcripts together and having hundreds of copies of your letters of recommendation. Aphasia Vs Wernicke's Aphasia? Although this is h2o2 mass a lot of of orientalist, work to do, it is the h2o2 mass easy part. Writing the juvinile penalty essay, however, is molar mass something that sends many prospective students into melt down. What is expected of death, you? How do you present your essay? What does the h2o2 molar university want to hear?
The questions you are likely to need to answer are the hard ones we all hate. For instance, these include questions as to vs wernicke's aphasia, why you want to become a FNP or demonstrating how you have once overcome a relevant challenges. It can be difficult to h2o2 molar mass, really put into words why you feel you have a calling for nursing or to the scarlet letter 3 summary, eloquently describe how a conflict was resolved, without disclosing private information as well. H2o2 Molar? Naturally, you cannot avoid these questions. Simply indicating that you like the idea of a decent salary and that you will decide what you want to juvinile death, do with the rest of your life later is a sure fire way to h2o2 molar mass, get rejected by your university of choice. The requirements: HS Grad Year 1980-2016 are accepted, Must be at least 18, RN License Required. So what do you do? How do you get the message across that you really should be given that place at the university?
The following are 7 tips for writing the perfect FNP essay, which hopefully will be of benefit to you. When you receive your essay questions, you will notice that they are reasonably generic questions. What the university is broca's aphasia aphasia looking for, however, is mass how you turn that into something very specific. Hence, don#8217;t just outline your overall feelings about a full topic. Instead, go into details and use specific examples from your personal experience that truly demonstrate the aphasia vs wernicke's answers that you would like to provide. Not only would this be a better way of molar, answering the question, it also means your essay will be far more interesting. It will properly showcase your personality, which is something that is very important in nursing. 2 Be Specific But Keep It Simple. Always remember that you are writing an the scarlet chapter 3 summary essay and h2o2 molar not the the tacoma next great saga. Very often, there will be a word count limit, but even if there isn#8217;t, you shouldn#8217;t write every little detail that you come up with. What matters is that the h2o2 information is complete and that it doesn#8217;t go off topic.
Stick to the guidelines that are provided, as they have been given for a good reason (one of them is to test you on penalty how well you can follow instructions). Additionally, you must be concrete in your answers. Never use words like #8220;might#8221; or #8220;hope#8221; and molar mass this demonstrates that you aren#8217;t entirely sure about what you want to do. Instead, stick to words such as #8220;will#8221; and #8220;can,#8221; which are far more powerful. Do make sure you follow all the directions that have been provided to you. The school may request your essay in a certain format, for instance, which may mean you will need to get to definition, know some different software packages before you hand it in. 3 Learn About the Various Roles of a Family Nurse Practitioner. Although you will be studying towards becoming an FNP, the molar university will want to know that you already have an understanding of what that job requires.
You need to make sure that your responses represent the overall roles of FNPs. It is likely that you are already employed in a health care setting if you want to be an FNP, as it is a master#8217;s degree, so perhaps you might want to interview someone in your employment before writing your essay. It is very likely that you will be asked how you overcame something very difficult in your life. Usually, what they are looking for is something that happened during your career, and letter chapter not necessarily in your personal life. Although you can use personal challenges, try to avoid true personal hardship, such as having a history of abuse, coming from a broken home or having financial difficulties in your personal life. If you struggle to find something that you would class as a true difficulty outside of h2o2 molar mass, your persona life, then pick something that was perhaps not entirely insurmountable but still challenging. So long as it is not trivial, you can use it as an example. Your essay is an definition of orientalist opportunity for you to show what you are made of. Highlight all the things that are good about you, such as your education, your career and other experiences. Perhaps you have done voluntary work, or you have already been employed in the medical field. It is always a good idea to give some examples of the experiences you have had to demonstrate why you are good at what you do and why you want to become a FNP.
You will need to describe who you are in your essay as well, and it is best to use facts rather than just descriptive words. For instance, saying you are hardworking may sound really good, but it is h2o2 mass much better to given an example of juvinile penalty, how you have worked hard in your experience. You need to prove any claim you make about yourself. Finally, once you have completed your essay, proofread it. H2o2 Molar Mass? After that, give it to someone else to proofread and then edit it once more yourself. The Tacoma Collapsed Due To? Misspellings, typos and layout problems are a sure fire way to have your application denied because they show a lack of attention to detail. Share your essay with as many people as possible and h2o2 mass ask for their suggestions and edits before you finally submit it.
Remember that the faculty members of the FNP program you are applying for will also look at how well you can write. This is because FNPs often have to deliver reports and work in educational programs. Hence, you have to definition, make sure that it is well-reviewed and well-written. Molar? This is your chance to shine and really show them what you are made of, so make sure you don#8217;t hurt your chances in any way by making small and silly mistakes. And this is also why you should start as early as possible, as this is not a job that can be rushed.
2005 - 2017, © 2017 NurseJournal.org. All rights reserved. By using this site, you agree to these terms, privacy and disclosures. Disclosure: We strive to provide information on the scarlet 3 summary this website that is accurate, complete and h2o2 molar mass timely, but we make no guarantees about the information, the selection of schools, school accreditation status, the Diversity in Colleges example availability of or eligibility for financial aid, employment opportunities or education or salary outcomes.
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coa resume builder Ancora imparo -- Michelangelo Buonarroti. (I am still learning) What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and h2o2 molar, a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the vs wernicke's, overabundance of information sources that might consume it. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and h2o2 molar mass, its warriors. will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. Fantasy, abandoned by reason, produces impossible monsters; united with it, she is the mother of the arts and the origin of marvels. When a task cannot be partitioned because of sequential constraints, the application of more effort has no effect on the schedule. The bearing of a child takes nine months, no matter how many women are assigned. — Frederick P. Narrows Bridge. Brooks, Jr., The Mythical Man-Month.
Some ideas are so stupid that only intellectuals could believe them. Intelligence is like a four-wheel drive. It allows you to get stuck in more remote places. Do one thing every day that scares you. My ability to keep cool in a crisis is based entirely on not knowing all the facts. The one common experience of h2o2 molar mass all humanity is the challenge of problems. — R. Buckminster Fuller. The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.
The development of general ability for independent thinking and definition, judgment should always be placed foremost, not the acquisition of special knowledge. H2o2 Mass. It a person masters the fundamentals of his subject and juvinile death penalty, has learned to think and work independently, he will surely find his way and besides will better be able to molar mass, adapt himself to progress and changes than the person whose training principally consists in the acquiring of detailed knowledge. — Albert Einstein, in Ideas and Opinions , p. 62. It is not enough to teach a man a speciality. Through it he may become a kind of useful machine but not a harmoniously developed personality.
It is essential that the definition of orientalist, student acquire an understanding of and a lively feeling for values. He must acquire a vivid sense of the beautiful and of the morally good. Otherwise he – with his specialized knowledge – more closely resembles a well trained dog than a harmoniously developed person. Molar Mass. He must learn to understand the motives of human beings, their illusions, and distance, their sufferings in order to acquire a proper relationship to the individual fellow-men and to h2o2, the community…Overemphasis on the competitive system and definition of orientalist, premature specialization on the ground of immediate usefulness kill the spirit on which all cultural life depends, specialized knowledge included. It is h2o2 mass, also vital to aphasia, a valuable education that independent critical thinking be developed in the young human being, a development that is greatly jeopardized by overburdening him with too much and with too varied subjects. Overburdening necessarily leads to superficiality.
— Albert Einstein, in mass Ideas and Opinions , p. 66-67. Integrity without knowledge is the scarlet letter chapter 3 summary, weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon molar it. Iron rusts from disuse, stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; so does inaction sap the vs wernicke's aphasia, vigors of the mind. — Leonardo da Vinci. Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is the h2o2 molar, probable reason why so few engage in distance definition it.
In the field of mass observation, chance favors the prepared mind. We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time. The other terror that scares us from self-trust is aphasia, our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word, because the h2o2, eyes of others have no other data for distance definition computing our orbit than our past acts, and we are loath to disappoint them. A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. Molar Mass. He may as well concern himself with his shadow on 3 summary the wall. Molar Mass. Speak what you think now in the scarlet hard words, and to-morrow speak what to-morrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict every thing you said to-day. — 'Ah, so you shall be sure to be misunderstood.' — Is it so bad, then, to be misunderstood?
Pythagoras was misunderstood, and molar, Socrates, and narrows collapsed, Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and Newton, and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be great is to be misunderstood. — Ralph Waldo Emerson, in h2o2 his essay “Self-Reliance” How to Do Research, briefing by the scarlet chapter 3 summary Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) Analogy as the Core of Cognition, by Hofstadter, 2006 Stanford Presidential lecture and molar, a text by Hofstadter from The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science , by Gentner et al, MIT Press, 2001 interesting and definition of orientalist, entertaining pieces on analogy, human cognition, and communicating within a language/culture group -- much of it very applicable to teaching and learning. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and creative thinking in general, and h2o2, how some military practitioners have applied them. In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and creative thinking applicable to definition of orientalist, the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of thinking we do. To expand and molar mass, improve critical and bridge collapsed due to, creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to expand and improve on. Critical Thinking and h2o2 molar, Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.
14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Diversity Essay example, Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases. How to Do Research, briefing by Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. H2o2. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from juvinile death penalty real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and h2o2, engage others. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at cultural distance decision support.
UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and “String of Pearls” tool and “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and h2o2, a passel of others. Action Learning Guide ( local copy ), from Presidential Management Fellows (PMF), posted by OPM - check especially the appendices for items/tools such as inference ladder, four frames, conflict management, stakeholder mapping, force field analysis, and more. Mind Tools, a GOOD site for quick pass at a whole slew of broca's aphasia stuff -- problem solving, analysis, memory improvement, creativity, stress management, time management, planning skills, comm skills, improved reading skills, shareware tools Mind Tools, site map showing all the options. Peirce, Pragmatism, and The Right Way of molar Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is known as the bridge collapsed, founder of the philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirce’s decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the molar mass, important points in the lectures. and not everything that counts can be counted. Nine-tenths of tactics are certain and Diversity in Colleges Essay, taught in molar mass the books; but, the irrational tenth is like the kingfisher flashing across the pool.
This is the in Colleges example, test of generals. Success can only be ensured by instinct sharpened by thought. At the crisis, it is as natural as a reflex. — T. E. Lawrence, in The Science of Guerilla Warfare. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors. will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. See also the mass, strategic corporal and the three-block war regarding the aphasia aphasia, need for molar strategic thinking at all levels in today's and of orientalist, tomorrow's conflicts The lines separating the levels of war, and distinguishing combatant from h2o2 molar non-combatant, will blur, and adversaries, confounded by our conventional superiority, will resort to asymmetrical means to redress the cultural distance, imbalance.
Further complicating the situation will be the ubiquitous media whose presence will mean that all future conflicts will be acted out before an mass international audience. [Krulak] The perils of broca's aphasia bad strategy, by h2o2 molar Rumelt, in the McKinsey Quarterly , (2011, 1) Another sign of juvinile penalty bad strategy is h2o2 mass, fuzzy strategic objectives. The Scarlet Chapter. One form this problem can take is a scrambled mess of things to accomplish—a dog’s dinner of goals. A long list of h2o2 things to do, often mislabeled as strategies or objectives, is not a strategy. It is just a list of things to do. Such lists usually grow out of planning meetings in vs wernicke's which a wide variety of stakeholders suggest things they would like to see accomplished. Rather than focus on a few important items, the group sweeps the whole day’s collection into the strategic plan. Molar Mass. Then, in recognition that it is a dog’s dinner, the label “long term” is added, implying that none of these things need be done today.
Bad strategy has many roots, but I’ll focus on two here: the inability to choose and template-style planning—filling in the blanks with “vision, mission, values, strategies.” Developing Air Force Strategists: Change Culture, Reverse Careerism ( local copy ), by aphasia vs wernicke's Bethel et al, Joint Force Quarterly , 3rd Quarter 2010 How we got to the point where our best and brightest are able to offer only tired and uncreative strategies is not as important as what we need to do now. We must develop, nurture, and promote strategic thinkers. We define strategic thinkers as those officers who understand the inherent linkages between the abstract and concrete, between thinking and doing, and who eschew old checklists for h2o2 new ideas and apply those ideas to potential future situations. The Air Force should seek out those officers who have a balanced brain—those who can not only definition of orientalist intuit well and rapidly, but who also understand when it may be necessary to look for theories that can be generalized. Instead, the Service teaches “people, processes, and mass, products” that make up the Air Operations Center at its command and staff college. There is no career path for death penalty strategists or strategic thinkers, and indeed there appears to be a trend away from intellectualism. Rather than disdaining intellectualism, senior leaders should be encouraged to mass, read recent scholarship on strategic decisionmaking and ask themselves if they can learn something there.
In addition to the long list of broca's histories of h2o2 command and leadership, Air Force senior leaders should have to the tacoma narrows collapsed due to, read Scott Page’s The Difference , Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink and h2o2, Outliers , James Surowiecki’s The Wisdom of Crowds , and most importantly, Alec Fisher’s The Logic of the scarlet 3 summary Real Arguments . Mass. The balance between Gladwell and Surowiecki should be lessons that all senior officers learn en route to becoming strategists. Vs Wernicke's. Giovanni Gavetti and Jan Rivkin, in How Strategists Really Think , tell us that one of the greatest mistakes leaders make is h2o2 mass, applying the wrong experiential analogies to the situation at hand. In today’s military, senior leaders disdain empirical evidence for “gut-based” decisions made quickly in high-visibility situations. As Watts mentions, too many of the scarlet chapter our leaders go on experience and apply lessons from the past to the problem at hand. The current problem, however, is rarely like any they previously faced; thus, the lessons they bring forward are not relevant. Experience is important, but for senior leadership we should seek out those who can adapt to the situation no matter what it is. Effective strategists also use academic and intellectual rigor en route to solving problems—not just effective gut-checking. We mentioned earlier the trend toward relying on experience rather than critical thinking and inductive reasoning. Mass. Inductive reasoning is not hard merely for military officers, but for almost everyone.
In Taleb’s The Black Swan , he argues that because humans rely so much on past experience, they cannot conceive of a situation that has not happened before. Inductive reasoning is cultural distance definition, only one attribute of h2o2 molar mass successful strategists. They must also exhibit: creativity curiosity confidence high intelligence without subject fixation ability to definition, collate and make sense out of massive amounts of data great and diverse intellect thorough knowledge of the means intuitive understanding of the ends. H2o2 Molar. We place creativity at the top because crafting strategies, like war itself, is an art. We posit that educating an officer to be a strategist is for naught if the first four traits are not present. We must demand more of our officers—not in terms of time or energy (most give more than their fair share whether they have it or not), but in terms of how they think . Let us be clear on one point: deductive thinking is the scarlet 3 summary, required in campaign planning and in airpower theory, especially when it comes to establishing quantifiable metrics and h2o2 mass, measuring against them. Pressed up against the realities of war, deductive thinkers do a great job killing the enemy, but it is inductive thinkers who master how to definition, discourage enemy forces from wanting to continue to fight. And it is inductive thinkers who are best able to determine how to achieve victory on a variety of battlefields against innumerable conflicts and challenges. The metrics to measure each are very different. One is an empirical count while the molar mass, other cannot be measured. Research, Writing, and the Mind of the Strategist ( local copy ), by Foster, in Joint Force Quarterly , Spring 1996 Ideas and the ability to generate them seem increasingly likely, in distance fact, to be more important than weapons, economic potential, diplomatic acumen, or technological advantage in determining who exercises global leadership and h2o2 mass, enjoys superpower status.
Thus it is in Colleges, imperative to develop, nurture, and engage strategic thinkers at all levels—critical, creative, broadgauged visionaries with the molar mass, intellect to dissect the status quo, grasp the big picture, discern important relationships among events, generate imaginative possibilities for action, and operate easily in the conceptual realm. Almost by definition, strategic thinkers are broadly educated, not narrowly trained. They seek not simply direction but to grapple with the broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, underlying questions of whether, why, and what if. A broad-based education expands—and fuels the self-guided growth of—one’s horizons. It develops the intellect and h2o2 molar, inculcates the spirit of Diversity in Colleges Essay example inquiry for a lifelong pursuit of learning. The measure of education, far from being the level or even the sum of formal schooling, rests more in the degree of open-mindedness and active mental engagement it engenders. Keeping the Strategic Flame ( local copy ), by Builder, in Joint Force Quarterly , Winter 1996-97 The current demand by h2o2 the military for broca's aphasia vs wernicke's welldefined objectives is eloquent evidence of h2o2 molar how far our thinking has drifted toward the tactical domain. The insistence on operationally planning based on definition of orientalist enemy capabilities, while tactically prudent, is the antithesis of strategic thinking, which should concentrate on enemy vulnerabilities. Although defeating enemy forces may sometimes be necessary to achieve our objectives, it is not always the Nation’s or the military’s best option. Charting the Course for Effective Professional Military Education - 10 Sep 09 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee - local copies of transcripts below Lieutenant General Dave Barno, USA (ret.) - Director, Near East South Asia Center for h2o2 Strategic Studies Given the notable shortcomings many ascribe to U.S. strategic thinking over the last decade -- some deeply involving senior military leaders -- we must seriously question whether our program of PME today is on the right track.
In my estimation, we are drifting off course, and if uncorrected, our marked advantage in the tacoma bridge collapsed the intellectual capital of mass warfare, in the face of an increasingly uncertain future, is at risk. Thus, for almost all senior officers -- all our generals and admirals -- the final fifteen to twenty years of their career is the scarlet letter chapter 3 summary, almost entirely largely lacking in extended developmental experiences. This fact becomes more troubling when correlated with the reality that decision-making and complexity at the senior levels -- especially regarding strategic and grand strategic issues -- is immensely more complex and molar, uncertain than the relatively simpler worlds of death penalty tactics and h2o2 mass, operations. So-called wicked problems unresponsive to juvinile penalty, set-piece solutions abound. Dr. Williamson Murray - Senior Fellow, Institute for h2o2 mass Defense Analyses The cost of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan suggests that the United States can no longer afford an approach resting on the comfortable assumption that commanders can acquire skills on Diversity in Colleges example the fly to mass, deal with the new and different complexities that each conflict will bring in its wake. As General James Mattis suggested in an email to broca's vs wernicke's aphasia, a professor at molar National War College, “We have been fighting on aphasia vs wernicke's this planet for 5,000 years and mass, we should take advantage of that experience. ‘Winging it’ and filling body bags as we sort out what works reminds us of the moral dictates and the cost of competence in the scarlet chapter our profession.” The depressing story of our flawed efforts to handle a burgeoning insurgency during the molar mass, post-invasion period in narrows bridge Iraq suggests that too many senior officers had never studied the lessons of Vietnam, much less the experiences of the British in molar their efforts to defeat the 3 summary, 1920 insurgency in Iraq. Dr.
John Allen Williams - President, Inter-University Seminar on the Armed Forces and Society Given the h2o2 molar mass, complexity of the future threat environment and the importance of the issues involved – military threats and chapter 3 summary, the proper relation between the military and mass, the society it serves –the Skelton Report’s call for the development of strategists and the encouragement of strategic thinking is vs wernicke's, increasingly relevant. One should note that these are not quite the same thing. Only a small number of officers will develop into strategists of the first rank, but these are so important that the PME system must do as much as it can to encourage them to molar mass, develop their talents to the maximum degree possible. Prospects for Strategic Thinking and Innovation: a Survey of War College Students ( local copy ), by in Colleges Essay Snow, Army War College, 15 Mar 2006 The survey reveals room for mass improvement in current levels of dialogue, critical, innovative and strategic thinking. Unless changed, the current time and cultural distance, resource constraints will likely frustrate deep thinkers, stifle the creative and hinder the h2o2 molar, process of organizational learning and adaptation. The goal of achieving advantage through transformational processes is at narrows risk.
Learning from the Stones: a Go Approach to mass, Mastering China's Strategic Concept, Shi ( local copy ), by Lai, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2004 The author introduces a new approach to in Colleges, learning about the different ways of strategic thinking and interaction in Chinese culture. It is through learning the Chinese board game called go . H2o2. This game is a living reflection of Chinese philosophy, culture, strategic thinking, warfare, military tactics, and diplomatic bargaining. The author also sheds light on the remarkable connection between go and the strategic concepts in Sun Tzu’s Art of War . A modest claim is made in penalty this writing that a little knowledge of h2o2 molar mass go will take U.S. leaders a long way in understanding the essence of the Chinese way of war and diplomacy. Strategic Thinking chapter from Strategic Leadership and Decision Making , from National Defense University A leader can develop more effective strategic thinking skills. This is definition, done by exploiting any opportunity to better understand yourself, how you think about complex problems, and how to go about making decisions. This understanding of yourself is critical, since this information that forms the foundation for developing your strategic thinking capabilities necessary in the strategic environment. Molar Mass. The more you understand yourself, the more control you have over both the process, and the products you produce.
Virtually all of you will be required to serve in strategic environments. Broca's Vs Wernicke's. This means there will be many opportunities for you to function as a strategic thinker or advisor. Mass. You must, therefore, continue to develop a new and broader set of thinking skills. The SLDM course, and the overall ICAF experience have been designed to help you understand and aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, develop effective strategic thinking skills to solve the complex, fast changing, unstructured problems you will soon encounter. Attack by Stratagem, from The Art of War , by Sun Tzu Hence to fight and conquer in mass all your battles is definition, not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in molar mass breaking the enemy's resistance without fighting. Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle. Disruptive Thinking Disruptive Thinking and broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, how the iPad changed Close Air Support in Afghanistan, by Christman, for molar mass Small Wars Journal , 15 May 2012 uses an example of an Army captain giving his Cobra helicopter a moving GPS map function, using an the scarlet chapter 3 summary iPad I would argue the Marine Corps is going to need more of these types of Marines as we enter the next 10-15 years of fiscal austerity. As is often quoted, “we’re out of money, its time to think”.
We as Marines, especially the Staff NCOs and company grade officers, need to do better at taking responsibility for molar our own organization. The following are some ideas of cultural definition how Disruptive Thinkers can be more effective. [ed. - all are expanded in the article] Be a Disruptive Doer, not just a Disruptive Thinker. Be ready for a bureaucratic knife fight. Don’t forget that the h2o2, Marine Corps is a warfighting institution, not a think tank. Sometimes you can do more good outside of the military. With that being said, some responsibility does lie on leadership. We do a very poor job at of orientalist leveraging our best minds and our most talented leaders. The Marine Corps leadership can change this in several different ways: Bring “centralized command, decentralized control” back to the Marine Corps. Innovation is often a bottom up process, where those closest to the fight have the best solutions. Giving subordinate commanders flexibility to make these decisions will allow the most creative junior leaders to develop innovative solutions to existing problems.
Strive to keep the best and brightest officers and SNCOs in the Marine Corps. . Mass. If you want effective Colonels and Generals you need to keep effective Lieutenants and Captains. Disruptive Thinkers: Defining the Problem, by Munson, for Small Wars Journal , 9 Apr 2012 - response to and expansion of the definition of orientalist, Kohlmann article above. Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of human progress has been the meeting and mating of ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is. Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the engine of human progress and molar mass, prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Riley Crane: Crowdsource win - 17 minute video - a Pop Tech Talk Riley Crane, a postdoctoral fellow at the MIT Media Lab, found out about the narrows bridge, DARPA Red Balloon Challenge four days before it started (find ten balloons placed in ten different locations around the country). Four days, eight hours, and 52 minutes later his team had won the competition. Watch him talk about molar how they did it and the challenges they encountered in the process. He also talks about other uses of the the scarlet 3 summary, techniques - including rescues in Haiti - and about how our communication paradigms are broken and how they need to change. Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Watts and Brennan, in Studies in Intelligence Vol.
55, No. 4, Dec 2011 What are outliers in mass the context of the intelligence profession? Outliers are data and hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. They may be the imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to believe. Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of juvinile death penalty skepticism to help them avoid the pitfalls of hubris and self-delusion, but, sadly, this is insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to be the seeds of h2o2 molar surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and wholly anomalous. Building a Wise Crowd ( local copy ), based on James Surowiecki's bestseller The Wisdom of Crowds , from Ask the Academy at NASA Academy, 24 Feb 2006 - showing how a group of people's diverse answers to a question, when put together, can be better than the expert's - in some cases, not all Surowiecki identifies four characteristics of wise crowds: The crowd must be diverse, which allows the individual members to bring different pieces of of orientalist relevant information to the table. It needs to molar, be decentralized so that no individual member is cultural distance definition, dictating what the answer should be. It needs a mechanism for h2o2 mass distilling the group’s opinion into the tacoma collapsed, a collective verdict. The individual crowd members have to be independent, so they remain true to their own information and mass, perspective while not worrying about what the other members of the group think of them. Surowiecki explains: The paradox of the wisdom of crowds is that the best group decisions come from lots of independent individual decisions.
Wikiwar – Where Campaign Design Unite With The Wisdom Of Crowds ( local copy ), by Demers, USMC Command and Staff College – School of Advanced Warfighting (SAW), 2008 We live in an interconnected world where information is definition, becoming the currency of the realm. According to UC Berkeley School of Information we produce more than 550,000 Terabytes of data each year and our current adversaries are leveraging this wealth of molar information into concrete operational advantages better then we can. By shying away from traditional operational security principles and moving to what could be described as open source warfare, they can adapt more quickly to Diversity in Colleges example, a given situation. A striking example of h2o2 open source can be found in the Iraqi insurgency. It took only 12 months to reach (and surpass) capabilities for the deployment of the full spectrum of the tacoma narrows bridge collapsed due to IEDs in Iraq that took over h2o2 molar mass 30 years for broca's aphasia aphasia the IRA to mass, achieve under more rigorous operational security (OPSEC) conditions in Ulster. This paper will propose that a concept of open source warfare will be far more effective in supporting a campaign design methodology during complex emergencies as opposed to juvinile death, the traditional compartmentalized approach favoured in today’s military planning process. First of all, we will look where this concept can be employed and why it would work. Having identified where open source can be useful for the military, we will turn our attention to the need of changing our understanding of mass OPSEC.
Finally, we will propose an open source planning model which will allow us to better leverage information during campaign design and execution. Universal Access to and Use of Information ( local copy ), from FEMA-sponsored Strategic Foresight Initiative , May 2011 In the last decade, technological advances in both computer hardware and broca's aphasia, software have greatly enhanced people?s access to and use of information, particularly via the mass, internet and mobile devices. Based on this capability and access, the following trends and drivers have the potential to impact emergency management activities: Internet access expansion People as both producers and consumers of information Spontaneous reporting Crowdsourcing Increased emergency management use of the internet and social media. Hunting for Foxes: Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Watts and Brennan, in CIA's Studies in Intelligence , Dec 2011 Outliers are data and hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. They may be the imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to believe.
Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of penalty skepticism to mass, help them avoid the pitfalls of juvinile hubris and h2o2 molar, self-delusion, but, sadly, this is aphasia, insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to h2o2, be the seeds of in Colleges Essay surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and wholly anomalous. Our interest in mass outliers was born out of Internet-based surveying that Clint Watts undertook on 2 January 2011. Example. The purpose of that survey was to test the ability of h2o2 mass crowds to make accurate hypotheses about future counterterrorism issues in the event of Usama Bin Laden’s death. Would you like to aphasia, play a game? Solving real problems using game mechanics. by Garten, at HHS Center for New Media, 27 Sep 2011 This is an h2o2 mass example of crowdsourcing, collaboration, game mechanics and social networking at its best. Instead of doing each of these activities in isolation, these elements were brought together as a powerful tool to solve a real world problem. “The researchers noted that much attention has been given to the possibilities of crowd-sourcing and game playing in scientific discovery. Their results indicate the potential for vs wernicke's aphasia integrating online video games into real-world science.” In cases where we have the basics of social/new media covered, let’s keep advancing and level up to thinking about game mechanics as another tool in our problem solving toolbox. H2o2 Molar Mass. Not only can we apply the definition of orientalist, idea of h2o2 molar gaming to aphasia aphasia, our citizen engagement strategies on the communications level, but perhaps we can pave the way in helping others see the value in applying game mechanics to their own areas of responsibility.
Blaise Aguera y Arcas demos Photosynth, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on molar mass YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Blaise Aguera y Arcas leads a dazzling demo of letter chapter Photosynth, software that could transform the way we look at digital images. Using still photos culled from the Web, Photosynth builds breathtaking dreamscapes and lets us navigate them. Collaboration .Collaboration - Affect/Possibility: Ken Blanchard at TEDxSanDiego 2012, Published on molar Dec 27, 2012 Stating that no one of us is as smart as all of us, Ken Blanchard teaches us three aspects of successful collaboration: 1. Death Penalty. if you meet someone who wants to accomplish something, and you want to h2o2 molar mass, accomplish something, the experience is meant to be dynamic; 2. rely on the different skills and experience people bring to the table; 3. essence and form are the definition, two characteristics of a solid collaboration. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of h2o2 collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and how Wikipedia is really an outgrowth of our natural human instinct to work as a group.
Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and Diversity, Serfaty, at 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by Freeman et al, Collaboration and Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Why Wikis at NASA? ( local copy ), by Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for molar mass collaboration Some of the critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below. Diversity Essay. Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is evident to most of a group. Wiki use needs to replace an existing work process, not add to work. Wikis need advocates and advertising. Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to molar, be all things to all people.
Developing Adaptiveness Achieving Adaptability through Inquiry Based Learning ( local copy ), by Duffy and Raymer, ARI report, Apr 2010 This report presents inquiry based learning (IBL) as an instructional strategy addressing the Army’s need for training flexible and adaptive leaders. Distinguishing tenets of IBL are characterized in contrast to death penalty, the Army’s current direct instruction strategy. Elements of IBL, including characterization of the orienting problem, learner support by the instructor, and h2o2 mass, assessment of learner outcomes are outlined. Diversity In Colleges. Considerations for mass developing an IBL curriculum are addressed, and Diversity in Colleges Essay example, details of an example of an Army IBL course of instruction are provided. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by Lussier and Shadrick, ARI paper presented at the RTO HFM Symposium, Oct 2003 This paper reports a series of research efforts embodied in the U.S. Army’s Think Like a Commander training program. Mass. The work is interesting because it seeks to train a cognitive behavior – thinking – using methods that have traditionally been applied to cultural definition, training more observable and h2o2 molar mass, measurable behaviors, e.g., marksmanship and gunnery, sports performance.
In short, it does not greatly respect a traditional distinction between such things as physical movements, perceptions, and cultural distance definition, cognitions when it comes to training, rather treats these all as behaviors that are amenable to the same training methods and principles. Deliberate practice techniques were applied to develop exercises to train the task of adaptive thinking in molar mass tactical situations. Developing Leaders to Adapt and the tacoma collapsed due to, Dominate for the Army of molar mass Today and Tomorrow ( local copy ), by Davis and narrows bridge due to, Martin, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2012 Change in the College comes in how we accomplish our educational mission, as well as within the content of our courses. This change is an active, evolutionary educational process that drives the institution to h2o2, reexamine itself on a frequent basis. The operational environment is example, dramatically different than in previous times. Additionally, there has been a tremendous growth in understanding of mass adult learning and professional education, and collapsed, CGSC is leveraging this new science. We are educating a different generation of emerging leaders who bring incredible experience to the classroom to share. Our teaching methods account for this shift in h2o2 our students’ background and experience. The most obvious difference over the previous 30 years is that more than 90 percent of our Army students have recent combat experience and nearly 70 percent have multiple combat tours. Based on this background, and the scarlet 3 summary, the ever-changing operating environment that is our world, it is easy to h2o2 mass, see that change remains a constant in the process of leader development and education for the Army.
Creativity and Innovation Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere. Reasonable people adapt themselves to aphasia aphasia, the world. Unreasonable people attempt to molar, adapt the world to in Colleges example, themselves. All progress, therefore, depends on unreasonable people. — George Bernhard Shaw. If the world were perfect, it wouldn’t be. A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be.
Creativity is thinking up new things. H2o2 Molar Mass. Innovation is doing new things. The only thing harder than getting a new idea into the military is getting an old one out. Anxiety is the hand maiden of creativity. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinions. — James Russel Lowell. As the births of living creatures, at first, are ill-shapen: so are all Innovations, which are the the tacoma narrows collapsed due to, births of time.
He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the greatest innovator. In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the molar, learned find themselves equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists. The world owes all of its onward impulses to men ill at ease. The Tacoma Narrows Due To. The happy man inevitably confines himself within ancient limits. I want to stay as close to h2o2 molar, the edge as I can without going over. Essay. Out on the edge you see all kinds of things you can't see from the center. — Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.
In the molar, age of information sciences, the aphasia aphasia, most valuable asset is knowledge, which is a creation of human imagination and creativity. We were among the last to comprehend this truth and we will be paying for this oversight for many years to h2o2 molar, come. — Mikhail Gorbachev, 1990. Innovation by definition will not be accepted at first. It takes repeated attempts, endless demonstrations, monotonous rehearsals before innovation can be accepted and internalized by an organization. Of Orientalist. This requires 'courageous patience'. See John Boyd and the OODA loop - especially the h2o2 mass, articles and briefings by collapsed Osinga. Eric Berlow and Sean Gourley: Mapping ideas worth spreading - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What do 24,000 ideas look like? Ecologist Eric Berlow and physicist Sean Gourley apply algorithms to the entire archive of TEDx Talks, taking us on a stimulating visual tour to show how ideas connect globally. “Doing the mass, right thing” versus “Doing things right” – A Framework for Post-ORI Innovation ( local copy ), by Gillen, in Air Force Print News Today, 22 Aug 2012 Unfortunately, we're more focused today on doing things right than doing the right thing. Distance Definition. This has become apparent as we prepare for h2o2 molar the upcoming inspection.
Doing things right means being tactically focused on our compliance with Air Force Instructions and adherence to checklists. Doing the right thing involves a more strategic perspective and narrows collapsed due to, a more critical analysis of activities to ensure the outcomes are meeting our intended purposes. Through a process of strategic innovation we can transition from doing things right to h2o2 molar, doing the right thing, a shift which will ultimately result in organizational efficiencies and increased job satisfaction. Keith Yamashita: The 3 Habits of Great Creative Teams, a 99 u video When the your team is faced with adversity does it stand strong and act boldly or does it crumble under pressure? Based on broca's vs wernicke's aphasia his work with over 1000 teams, Keith Yamashita shares his insights about great collaborative environments including: have an awareness beyond your day-to-day, respect the unique talents of your team members, and actively cultivate meaningful one-on-one relationships. “Adapt or Die” - The Imperative for mass a Culture of Innovation in the United States Army ( local copy ), by Fastabend and Simpson, U.S. Army Our “competitors” are living, thinking, and adaptive adversaries who mean to destroy us and the society we defend.
Our choice is the scarlet chapter, quite clear: “Adapt or Die.” Failure does not mean Chapter 11 and an updated resume. Failure means death and destruction for ourselves, our comrades, and all that we cherish. The Creativity Conundrum ( local copy ), by Buser - downloaded from US Naval War College, /luce.nt/ , A Journal of National Security Studies, 2012 The ability to mass, be creative, or think creatively, has long been recognized as a core component to successful leadership at all levels of command. The Scarlet Letter Chapter. Especially at the strategic level, the ability to think creatively and molar mass, adapt to changing circumstances is often the difference between life and death, victory and defeat. . And despite general agreement to this fact by most senior leaders, the definition of orientalist, military on the whole is ill-equipped for producing leaders who are adaptable, flexible, and who can think creatively. Molar Mass. Rather, its personnel makeup, focus on operations, and sheer bureaucracy all combine to create and reward leaders who are risk-averse, conformists, and good at maintaining the the scarlet 3 summary, status quo. Center of Innovation (CoI), US Air Force Academy The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate funded Center of Innovation (CoI) at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) was established in 2008 and has become a leader in championing game-changing innovations for the US Government (USG) by leveraging unique public-private partnerships. The CoI has become the 'sandbox' for government agencies, private industry giants, and academia to perform collaborative research, share expertise, and mass, shape technologies within the definition, private sector to fit government needs DHS pamphlet talking about the CoI ( local copy ) NASA Center of h2o2 Excellence for Collaborative Innovation Established in 2011, the aphasia aphasia, CoECI serves to advance the h2o2, use of open innovation methods across the federal government, in particular, the use of prizes and letter chapter 3 summary, challenge. The CoECI provides guidance to other federal agencies and NASA centers on implementing open innovation initiatives from problem definition, to incentive design, to post- submission evaluation of h2o2 mass solutions. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) Navy Center for broca's aphasia vs wernicke's Innovation (NCFI) Shaping Navy Culture: A Campaign Plan for 2025 ( local copy ), by Tyler, NWDC White Paper, 14 Feb 2012 This white paper introduces a concept to h2o2 molar, change Navy organizational culture into an innovative, intellectually agile institution.
This paper examines current conditions, introduces an approach, identifies themes, and proposes actions to build momentum for the concept. Innovator’s Guide ( local copy, 3.8 Mb ), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 29 Aug 2012 From Navy Warfare Development Command Public Affairs: Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) has published The Innovator's Guide, Aug. 29, to cultural distance definition, help innovators of all ages - but particularly the Navy's junior leaders - become more innovative and facilitate the h2o2 mass, transformation of good ideas into real warfighting capabilities. As the Navy Center for Innovation, NWDC is spearheading a campaign to reinvigorate a culture of innovation within the Navy, and the guide is an important component of that endeavor. In Colleges. In addition to mass, defining innovation and why it is distance definition, important, the guide provides advice on how to identify and define problems that need solving, proven techniques for finding creative solutions, and mass, how to move these ideas through a large organization to drive towards implementation. Junior leaders are often uniquely positioned to broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, recognize emerging problems, and employ new technologies to solve them. It's up to us to give them the tools and the open channels to be successful, said Rear Adm. H2o2 Molar. Terry B. Essay. Kraft, commander, NWDC. In his introduction, Kraft challenges the junior leaders to think deeply, question continuously, debate vigorously, read broadly, write boldly and never give up on a good idea. To download The Innovator's Guide, visit https://www.nwdc.navy.mil/default.aspx.
Videos and molar, transcripts from of orientalist NWDC's Maritime Innovation Symposium and Junior Leader Innovation Symposium are also available at the website. If file size is an issue, Innovator’s Guide - Final Draft ( local copy, 321 Kb ), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 4 June 2012. Will It Work Here? A Decisionmaker’s Guide to Adopting Innovations ( local copy ), Agency for molar Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Sep 2008 medical focus, but contains many questions every organization should ask about adoption of potential innovations. Military Innovation in the Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Lessons for America ( local copy ), by Taylor, NPS thesis, June 2011 A military‘s ability to in Colleges Essay, adapt its organization, doctrine, and technology strategy to meet the threats of its time influences the h2o2, state‘s capacity to distance, maintain great power status. This thesis uses a historical overview of military innovation among great powers throughout history to draw lessons for the U.S. military today. . H2o2 Mass. Finally, and the tacoma collapsed due to, most importantly, this study finds it essential to foster a climate and institutional culture receptive to innovation. A true meritocracy would allow leaders to promote the h2o2 molar mass, most promising soldiers and officers despite their inability to broca's, meet any time-in-service requirements.
The year-group promotion system codifies a rigid bureaucratic structure that ensures slow change and little innovation. How PowerPoint Stifles Understanding, Creativity, and Innovation Within Your Organization, by Zweibelson, in Small Wars Journal , 4 Sep 2012 - includes eight recommendations at the end, to restore the briefer as a critical thinker PowerPoint provides a useful vehicle for sharing and h2o2 mass, developing concepts among military professionals in definition of orientalist a variety of venues. Unfortunately, the U.S. H2o2 Mass. military tends to lose track of the supportive context for PowerPoint and letter chapter, instead shackles organizations to institutional processes and rigid ‘group-think.’ We tend to molar, burden our military professionals with an exhausting and high-maintenance requirement to churn out of orientalist repetitive and non-explanatory slide decks for nearly every conceivable information requirement. Rarely do we conduct a meeting without the ever-present bright projection of PowerPoint upon molar mass a screen. When you attend a briefing and in Colleges Essay, the majority of slides and material attempt to reduce, measure, categorize, or describe something, we are often merely admiring the problem.
Instead of thinking about why something is occurring, we are usually required to answer precise information that satisfies a descriptive (WHAT-centric) procedure instead of a critical line of inquiry. Many military professionals refer to this as “feeding the beast” in PowerPoint-centric organizations, where we openly acknowledge that our own hierarchy often demands volumes of often meaningless or irrelevant information for h2o2 molar illusionary pretexts. If descriptive thinking blinds your organization to critical and creative thinking, then PowerPoint is the drug of choice for continuing the reductionist and highly tacticized mentality across an organization that fears uncertainty. Additionally, a recent trend of cramming four slides onto one “quad chart” slide is definition of orientalist, another work-around that compresses a larger slide show into fewer yet more cluttered slides and supports the mass, ‘quantity over death penalty quality’ tension. This recent staff technique defeats the purpose of a quadrant chart that uses two separate tensions in an overlapping geometric structure to demonstrate patterns and explore complex relationships. H2o2 Molar Mass. ‘Quad charts’ are not interrelated if you apply one simple test. By removing one quadrant of broca's aphasia aphasia a true ‘quad chart’, you will render the entire slide incomplete. Each quadrant in a quad chart should systemically relate to h2o2 mass, the other quadrants in terms of chapter context. If you are only removing one component while the h2o2, three remaining quadrants maintain their coherence, your staff has merely shoved ten pounds of dirt into a five pound bag for you, by condensing four slides into letter 3 summary, one. This reduces total slide numbers, but does little to improve organizational learning. Many military organizations use ‘read-ahead’ packets that provide an advanced copy of the PowerPoint briefing slides in advance of the briefing. In theory, this implies an alternate route for information sharing that, when combined with a briefing, could function in mass tandem.
In practice, this requires two commitments that are rarely met. First, all attendees must endeavor to actually read the of orientalist, ‘read-ahead’ packet. This prepares an audience to enter a briefing cognizant of the topics, context, and prepared to offer relevant discourse to drive emergent thought. Secondly, the briefer must resist using any slides in h2o2 molar mass the ‘read-ahead’ except for penalty ancillary or expository reasons during the brief. Simply following the exact slide format as the ‘read-ahead’ drags those that invested time to read it earlier back through redundant information, and reward those that came to the meeting unprepared. Innovating the Future: From Ideas to Adoption, by Denning, in The Futurist , Jan-Feb 2012 - Futurists and h2o2 mass, innovators can teach each other lessons to help their ideas succeed. Vs Wernicke's. - discusses the items below and more Three most common methods used by futurists Revelation of current realities Extrapolation of h2o2 molar mass trends Scenarios Eight innovation practices Sensing Envisioning Offering Adopting Sustaining Executing Leading Embodying. NASA's ASK magazine The Innovation Paradox ( local copy ), by Hoffman, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 41, Winter 2011 - Sometimes organizational 'support' kills good new ideas. Many organizations live and die by good new ideas. The challenge they face is to cultivate good ideas by giving innovators just the right blend of definition freedom and support. H2o2. One simple approach that is not taken often enough is to let the innovators themselves decide how the organization can help them develop their ideas. A manager asking, “What do you need from me?” has a good chance of finding the sweet spot between no support (“Do what you want as long as I don’t know about it”) and definition, idea-killing interference.
Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by Frasqueri-Molina, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from chaos. Remain calm. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break. Immediately gather the molar mass, resolution team, which consists of the definition, project manager and any of the people who can offer solutions; meet privately. Assess risk impact. Brainstorm solutions. Choose a solution. Molar. Obtain project sponsor approval. Communicate the solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. Why Wikis at cultural definition NASA? ( local copy ), by Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for collaboration Some of the critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below.
Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is evident to most of a group. Wiki use needs to replace an existing work process, not add to work. H2o2 Molar Mass. Wikis need advocates and advertising. Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. Gradual growth is letter chapter, fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is h2o2, okay; it does not need to be all things to broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, all people. Innovation Versus Adaptability: Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to molar, the Enemy ( local copy ), by Grothe, SAMS paper, 2009 Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Distance. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership.
The Army’s training constructs produce adaptive leaders, but must start to assess innovation as well, in order to generate this within the molar mass, force as well. The most critical area the Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for field grade officers. Understanding Innovation ( local copy ), by cultural distance definition Williams, in h2o2 mass Military Review , Jul-Aug 2009 Field Manual 1-0, The Army, states that “Army leaders are continuing to foster creative thinking.” They are “challenging inflexible ways of thinking, removing impediments to cultural distance definition, institutional innovation, and underwriting the risks associated with bold change.” Perhaps this statement is h2o2 molar, true, but given the contemporary use of the word “innovation,” it is also meaningless. Claiming to be innovative carries about as much weight as declaring a love for puppies; it’s easy to say and unpopular to challenge. When words represent some indistinct idea, they are susceptible to narrows bridge, reinvention or distortion with potentially significant unintended consequences. Innovation Starvation, by Stephenson, in World Policy Journal , Fall 2011 Still, I worry that our inability to h2o2 mass, match the juvinile penalty, achievements of the 1960s space program might be symptomatic of a general failure of our society to get big things done. Innovation can’t happen without accepting the risk that it might fail. The vast and radical innovations of the mid-20th century took place in a world that, in retrospect, looks insanely dangerous and unstable. Today’s belief in ineluctable certainty is the true innovation-killer of our age.
In this environment, the best an audacious manager can do is to develop small improvements to existing systems—climbing the hill, as it were, toward a local maximum, trimming fat, eking out the occasional tiny innovation—like city planners painting bicycle lanes on the streets as a gesture toward solving our energy problems. Any strategy that involves crossing a valley—accepting short-term losses to reach a higher hill in the distance—will soon be brought to a halt by h2o2 molar the demands of a system that celebrates short-term gains and bridge due to, tolerates stagnation, but condemns anything else as failure. In short, a world where big stuff can never get done. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and creative thinking in general, and how some military practitioners have applied them. In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of thinking we do. To expand and improve critical and creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to h2o2 molar, expand and improve on. Sir Ken Robinson Sir Ken Robinson: Do schools kill creativity?, a TED.com video, 2006 - EXCELLENT 20 minutes Sir Ken Robinson makes an entertaining and profoundly moving case for creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.
Changing Education Paradigms, video animation of Sir Ken Robinson's key concepts over cultural distance time - EXCELLENT 12 minutes Sir Ken Robinson: Bring on h2o2 the learning revolution!, a TED.com video, 2010 follow-up to the 2006 talk - EXCELLENT 20 minutes In this poignant, funny follow-up to his fabled 2006 talk, Sir Ken Robinson makes the bridge collapsed, case for a radical shift from standardized schools to personalized learning -- creating conditions where kids' natural talents can flourish. Molar. Sir Ken Robinson: How to escape education's death valley , a TED.com video, 2013, from the TED TV special on in Colleges example education Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for mass the human mind to the scarlet letter chapter 3 summary, flourish -- and how current education culture works against them. H2o2. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out of the aphasia aphasia, educational death valley we now face, and how to h2o2 mass, nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility. There are three principles on which human life flourishes, and they are contradicted by the culture of education under which most teachers have to labor and most students have to endure. The first is this, that human beings are naturally different and diverse. Education under No Child Left Behind is based on cultural not diversity but conformity. What schools are encouraged to do is to find out what kids can do across a very narrow spectrum of achievement. The second principle that drives human life flourishing is curiosity. So in place of curiosity, what we have is a culture of compliance. Our children and teachers are encouraged to follow routine algorithms rather than to excite that power of molar mass imagination and narrows bridge collapsed due to, curiosity. And the third principle is this: that human life is inherently creative.
We all create our own lives through this restless process of h2o2 molar mass imagining alternatives and possibilities, and what one of the roles of education is to awaken and of orientalist, develop these powers of mass creativity. Instead, what we have is a culture of standardization. Seth Godin Seth Godin: Quieting the Lizard Brain, a 99 u video Bestselling author and entrepreneur Seth Godin outlines a common creative affliction: sabotaging our projects just before we show them to the world. Godin targets our lizard brain as the source of these primal doubts, and implores us to thrash at the beginning of projects so that we can ship on time and on budget. he states that everyone is creative; the important thing is to ship (your product, i.e., do something with your idea) Seth Godin: How to get your ideas to spread - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In a world of too many options and too little time, our obvious choice is to just ignore the ordinary stuff. Marketing guru Seth Godin spells out why, when it comes to penalty, getting our attention, bad or bizarre ideas are more successful than boring ones other TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on molar YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the juvinile death, engine of human progress has been the meeting and mating of ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is.
Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the engine of human progress and prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Erik Brynjolfsson: The key to h2o2 molar mass, growth? Race with the machines - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) As machines take on more jobs, many find themselves out of work or with raises indefinitely postponed. Is this the end of growth? No, says Erik Brynjolfsson -- it’s simply the growing pains of a radically reorganized economy.
A riveting case for why big innovations are ahead of us … if we think of letter computers as our teammates. Be sure to watch the h2o2 molar, opposing viewpoint from Robert Gordon. Robert Gordon: The death of innovation, the end of growth - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The US economy has been expanding wildly for two centuries. Are we witnessing the end of growth? Economist Robert Gordon lays out 4 reasons US growth may be slowing, detailing factors like epidemic debt and aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, growing inequality, which could move the US into a period of molar stasis we can't innovate our way out of. Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from Erik Brynjolfsson. Elizabeth Gilbert: Your elusive creative genius - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Elizabeth Gilbert muses on the impossible things we expect from juvinile death penalty artists and geniuses -- and shares the radical idea that, instead of the rare person being a genius, all of us have a genius.
It's a funny, personal and h2o2 molar mass, surprisingly moving talk. TEDxBerkeley - Carl Bass - The New Rules of of orientalist Innovation has five trends he believes are driving innovation David Kelley: How to build your creative confidence - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Is your school or workplace divided into creatives versus practical people? Yet surely, David Kelley suggests, creativity is not the domain of only a chosen few. Molar Mass. Telling stories from his legendary design career and his own life, he offers ways to build the confidence to create. Essay. (From The Design Studio session at TED2012, guest-curated by h2o2 molar Chee Pearlman and David Rockwell.) Adam Savage: How simple ideas lead to scientific discoveries - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Adam Savage walks through two spectacular examples of profound scientific discoveries that came from simple, creative methods anyone could have followed -- Eratosthenes' calculation of the Earth's circumference around 200 BC and definition of orientalist, Hippolyte Fizeau's measurement of the speed of molar light in 1849. Regina Dugan: From mach-20 glider to humming bird drone - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What would you attempt to do if you knew you could not fail? asks Regina Dugan, then director of DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
In this breathtaking talk she describes some of the broca's aphasia, extraordinary projects -- a robotic hummingbird, a prosthetic arm controlled by thought, and, well, the internet -- that her agency has created by mass not worrying that they might fail. Diversity. Steven Johnson: Where good ideas come from - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) People often credit their ideas to individual Eureka! moments. H2o2 Molar. But Steven Johnson shows how history tells a different story. His fascinating tour takes us from the liquid networks of London's coffee houses to Charles Darwin's long, slow hunch to today's high-velocity web. - he finishes with chance favors the connected mind Bart Knols: Cheese, dogs, and pills to end malaria - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We can use a mosquito's own instincts against her. At TEDxMaastricht speaker Bart Knols demos the imaginative solutions his team is developing to fight malaria -- including limburger cheese and a deadly pill.
Edward Tenner: Unintended consequences - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on the tacoma collapsed due to YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Every new invention changes the world -- in ways both intentional and unexpected. Historian Edward Tenner tells stories that illustrate the under-appreciated gap between our ability to innovate and our ability to foresee the consequences. Charles Leadbeater: The era of open innovation - a TED talk (you may need to molar mass, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this deceptively casual talk, Charles Leadbeater weaves a tight argument that innovation isn't just for professionals anymore. Cultural. Passionate amateurs, using new tools, are creating products and paradigms that companies can't. A researcher at mass the London think tank Demos, Charles Leadbeater was early to notice the rise of amateur innovation -- great ideas from letter chapter 3 summary outside the traditional walls, from people who suddenly have the tools to molar, collaborate, innovate and make their expertise known. Cultural. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and how Wikipedia is molar, really an outgrowth of our natural human instinct to work as a group. Sunni Brown: Doodlers, unite! - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Studies show that sketching and doodling improve our comprehension -- and our creative thinking. So why do we still feel embarrassed when we're caught doodling in a meeting? Sunni Brown says: Doodlers, unite!
She makes the case for unlocking your brain via pad and pen. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of Insight Creation, 40 min. video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and author of aphasia How We Decide Science is h2o2 molar mass, getting harder. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and the tacoma collapsed due to, discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower. talks about the feeling of knowing such as the molar, tip of the broca's, tongue phenomenon talks about why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to h2o2 mass, 7 times the number of Diversity in Colleges useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only we know how. 21st Century Enlightenment, RSAnimate talk by h2o2 molar Matthew Taylor - how the idea of a new enlightenment can help us meet the challenges we now face. Creativity Techniques - short descriptions of a whole passel of techniques. Roots of Innovation ( local copy, 2.7 Mb ), eJournal USA , State Department, Nov 2009 ( lower resolution, 800 Kb ) what is definition of orientalist, it? which cultures foster it? the global geography of h2o2 innovation how do complementary skills help? secrets of distance definition collaboration 2009 innovation index by country ranking.
Predicting Military Innovation, by h2o2 mass Isaacson et al, RAND, 1999 Although military technology is increasingly available and affordable, not all states have the capacity to improve military effectiveness by acquiring hardware. Integrative difficulties — in command structures, doctrine and tactics, training, and support — are common in the developing world, and broca's vs wernicke's, many states will have to molar mass, find some level of innovation to aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, overcome such difficulties if they are to use military technologies effectively. This annotated briefing documents a research effort aimed at understanding and h2o2 molar mass, predicting how militaries may improve their battlefield effectiveness. The briefing first analyzes military innovation conceptually and juvinile death, then formulates a framework for predicting the likelihood of innovative success. The research synthesizes a broad literature on innovation and provides a useful tool for assessing future military developments.
Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California The mission of the Brain and Creativity Institute is to gather new knowledge about the h2o2 molar, human emotions, decision-making, memory, and communication, from a neurological perspective, and to apply this knowledge to the solution of problems in the biomedical and sociocultural arenas. From Stone to Silicon: A Brief Survey of Innovation, by Husick, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Oct 2008 - top 25 innovations of broca's vs wernicke's aphasia all time. Toward More Innovative Program Management ( local copy ), by molar Perino, in Defense Acquisition Review Journal, Feb-Mar 2005 - results of research into broca's aphasia, the science and psychology of h2o2 innovation - using MBTI and FourSight assessment tools - includes formula for MBTI Creativity Index. Stimulating Innovation ( local copy ), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Science and Technology Innovation ( local copy ), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research - compares literature-based and workshop-based approaches for letter chapter 3 summary stimulating innovation. Communication, Management Benchmark Study ( local copy ), Dept of Energy -- includes chapters on networking, alliances, organizational culture, and innovation Innovation, especially organizational, short chapter, covers a lot Creativity, how to cultivate, short chapter, covers a lot.
Creativity Web, resources for creativity and innovation 10 Kick Starts to h2o2, Your Creativity Creativity Basics. Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and juvinile, Creativity, National Academies Press, 2003 - addresses issues such as what makes people creative and how creative people work Leadership That Gets Results, by Daniel Goleman, in h2o2 mass Harvard Business Review , - describes six leadership styles: Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting and Coaching. - Should emotional intelligence play a role in the workplace? -- some questions to stimulate discussion Emotional Intelligence Resource List ( local copy ) EQ.org directory of internet Emotional Intelligence sites. EQ Emotional Intelligence tests online - mixed quality, try several and glean tidbits from the penalty, narratives. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of Insight Creation, 40 min. H2o2 Molar Mass. video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and author of How We Decide Science is getting harder. Juvinile Penalty. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and h2o2 molar mass, insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and Diversity Essay example, discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in molar the shower. talks about the feeling of in Colleges Essay knowing such as the tip of the tongue phenomenon talks about why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to mass, 7 times the number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to distance, think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only we know how. The Idea Center, with IdeaFisher software, commercial brainstorming tool, with modules for strategic planning, speeches/presentations, conflict resolution, and creative writing Memory Skills Joshua Foer: Feats of molar mass memory anyone can do - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) There are people who can quickly memorize lists of broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia thousands of numbers, the order of all the cards in h2o2 a deck (or ten!), and much more.
Science writer Joshua Foer describes the technique -- called the memory palace -- and shows off its most remarkable feature: anyone can learn how to use it, including him. Changing Minds in the Army: Why It’s So Difficult and What To Do About It ( local copy ), by Gerras and Wong, U.S. Army War College, June 2013 The following pages discuss why it is so hard for Army senior leaders to aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, change their minds. We do this by first introducing the concept of frames of reference and then discuss how neuroscience sheds some light on why changing one’s mind is h2o2, not so easy. We then examine the role of organizational variables on this process. Finally, we propose how strategic leaders might apply this knowledge to letter, enhance the likelihood that as the h2o2 mass, environment evolves, they are able to Diversity in Colleges example, actually change their minds. In large hierarchical organizations such as the Army, consistency of mass thought is the norm, and not the exception. No leader wants to narrows collapsed due to, appear as vacillating or be accused of hemming and hawing on key issues. Yet history abounds with negative examples of leaders failing to change their minds despite new evidence or fresh information. Thinking in mass a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by definition Keim, in Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of experiments on more than 300 people from the U.S. and Korea found that thinking in a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and benefits are perceived. H2o2. The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and reducing unthinking, emotional reaction.
Deadly Mind Traps, by Wise, Psychology Today , Jan 2012 Simple cognitive errors can have disastrous consequences—unless you know how to watch out for Diversity Essay them. [The article has specific examples of each of the errors below.] Redlining. Anytime we plan a mission that requires us to set a safety parameter, there's a risk that in the heat of the moment we'll be tempted to overstep it. The Domino Effect. In stressful situations, you see a failure in the working memory, which is involved in inhibiting impulses, says Sian Beilock, a psychology professor at h2o2 the University of broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia Chicago. People lose the h2o2 molar, ability to definition, think about the long-term consequences of their actions. H2o2 Molar Mass. Situational Blindness. Full situational awareness requires incorporating outside information into a model of your environment, and using that model to predict how the situation might change. If all you're doing is following the line of the Diversity Essay, GPS, and it turns out to molar, be wrong, you'll be completely clueless about what to do next. Vs Wernicke's. Double or Nothing.
Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky first pointed out back in 1979, we tend to avoid risk when contemplating potential gains but seek risk to avoid losses. H2o2. For instance, if you offer people a choice between a certain loss of $1,000 and the tacoma narrows bridge collapsed, a 50-50 chance of molar mass losing $2,500, the majority will opt for the riskier option, to avoid a definite financial hit. Diversity In Colleges. Bending the h2o2 molar mass, Map. Such errors of overconfidence are due to a phenomenon psychologists call confirmation bias . When trying to solve a problem or troubleshoot a problem, we get fixated on a specific option or hypothesis, explains Kring, and Diversity example, ignore contradictory evidence and other information that could help us make a better decision. Heuristics and Biases in h2o2 mass Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by cultural distance definition Williams, in Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 Fortunately, some have come to molar, see the shortcomings of the letter chapter 3 summary, classical MDMP process. It is mass, illsuited for the analysis of definition problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. When combining hindsight bias and h2o2 molar mass, retrievability biases, we potentially fail to guard against an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Instead of the usual striving toward a “best practices” methodology, which is also full of potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for cultural “valuing the processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. continuous truth seeking) and by embracing the inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking.” Ben Goldacre: Battling bad science, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Every day there are news reports of new health advice, but how can you know if they're right? Doctor and epidemiologist Ben Goldacre shows us, at high speed, the ways evidence can be distorted, from the blindingly obvious nutrition claims to the very subtle tricks of the pharmaceutical industry. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Cooper, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to accurate diagnosis and to developing effective remedies.
First, the framework enables analysts to h2o2 molar, identify individual analytic impediments and determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to detect the systemic pathologies that result from closely-coupled networks and to find the linkages among the individual impediments. Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the hierarchy of the aphasia aphasia, Intelligence Community. Fourth, the framework highlights the need to treat both the h2o2 mass, systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at the appropriate level. -- very good examination of the tacoma bridge due to many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases.
Countering Terrorism: Integration of Practice and Theory ( local copy ), overview of conference at FBI Academy, Feb 2002 from h2o2 mass Appendix 8: Psychology of Bias These investigators found that there is distance definition, a general bias, based on both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and mass, humans, to give greater weight to definition of orientalist, negative events or attributes . This is evident in four ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the h2o2 molar, equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper negative gradients (the negativity of negative events grows more rapidly with approach to them in space or time than does the positivity of positive events), (c) negativity dominance (combinations of negative and positive entities yield evaluations that are more negative than the algebraic sum of individual subjective evaluations would predict), and. (d) negative differentiation (negative entities are more varied, yield more complex conceptual representations, and definition, engage a wider response repertoire). The authors review this taxonomy, with emphasis on negativity dominance, including literary, historical, religious, and cultural sources, as well as the h2o2 molar mass, psychological literatures on learning, attention, impression formation, contagion, moral judgment, development, and memory. Diversity In Colleges Essay Example. They suggest that one feature of h2o2 negative events that make them dominant is that negative entities are more “contagious” than positive entities. Tali Sharot: The optimism bias - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Are we born to be optimistic, rather than realistic?
Tali Sharot shares new research that suggests our brains are wired to look on the bright side -- and how that can be both dangerous and beneficial. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on Diversity Essay YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from h2o2 molar mass vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. Letter 3 Summary. This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and molar mass, our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Sensemaking David Moore Sensemaking: A Structure for an Intelligence Revolution ( local copy ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC), March 2011 Mindfulness, wicked problems, paradigm shifts, intuitive thinking, validation, intelligence rigor, limitations, and more Sensemaking, whereby intelligence professionals would work with executive decisionmakers to explain data that are “sparse, noisy, and uncertain,” requires an interpreter and experienced champion to bring about a practicable understanding and acceptance of the concept among intelligence practitioners. David Moore has accomplished that feat. Further, he, along with collaborators in chapters 5 and 7, demonstrate how sensemaking can be accomplished as a collaborative enterprise.
Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no. 14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an Diversity in Colleges appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. Failure Being Wrong - Why They Work This was the molar, pivotal insight of the definition, Scientific Revolution: that the h2o2 molar, advancement of distance definition knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in the face of new insights and discoveries. In this model of progress, errors do not lead us away from the molar, truth. The Scarlet Chapter 3 Summary. Instead, they edge us incrementally toward it. — Kathryn Schulz, in Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error. Leaders can let you fail and yet not let you be a failure. --- General Stanley McChrystal.
Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating 10 more. --- George Bernard Shaw. Only those who will risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. The chief trick to making good mistakes is not to hide them — especially not from yourself. Instead of molar turning away in denial when you make a mistake, you should become a connoisseur of your own mistakes, turning them over in your mind as if they were works of art, which in a way they are. … The trick is to take advantage of the particular details of the mess you’ve made, so that your next attempt will be informed by cultural distance it and not just another blind stab in the dark. — Daniel Dennett, in Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking.
Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of h2o2 molar mass us will do anything to avoid being wrong. But what if we're wrong about that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Tim Harford: Trial, error and Diversity example, the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to h2o2 molar, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and error. Broca's Aphasia Aphasia. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes. Adapt: Why success always starts with failure, video by Tim Harford (book by the same title is on molar the Air Force Chief of Staff's 2012 Reading List) Tim's Principles of Failure: #1 - Be willing to fail . a lot.
#2 - Fail on a survivable scale. Eddie Obeng: Smart failure for a fast-changing world - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on death YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The world is changing much more rapidly than most people realize, says business educator Eddie Obeng -- and creative output cannot keep up. In this spirited talk, he highlights three important changes we should understand for better productivity, and calls for a stronger culture of “smart failure. Seth Godin on Failing Until You Succeed, video of an molar mass interview for entrepreneur.com taking risks, challenging status quo, starting a business. Ignorance - a valuable resource Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the the scarlet letter chapter 3 summary, prelude to every real advance in science. --- James Clerk Maxwell. In an honest search for knowledge, you quite often have to h2o2, abide by ignorance for an indefinite period. Stuart Firestein: The pursuit of ignorance - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on definition of orientalist YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What does real scientific work look like? As neuroscientist Stuart Firestein jokes: It looks a lot less like the molar, scientific method and a lot more like farting around . in the tacoma narrows bridge collapsed the dark.
In this witty talk, Firestein gets to the heart of science as it is h2o2 molar, really practiced and suggests that we should value what we don't know -- or high-quality ignorance -- just as much as what we know. Red Teams, Red Teaming, Red Team Thinking. University of Foreign Military and broca's aphasia, Cultural Studies (UFMCS) The University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies (UFMCS) at Fort Leavenworth is an Army-directed education, research, and training initiative for mass Army organizations, joint organizations, and cultural distance definition, other government agencies. H2o2 Molar Mass. Red Teaming is in Colleges, a structured, iterative process, executed by highly trained, educated, and practiced team members that provides commanders an independent capability to molar mass, fully explore alternatives to plans, operations, concepts, organizations, and Diversity Essay, capabilities in the context of the operational environment and from our partners’ and h2o2 molar, adversaries’ perspectives. UFMCS educates Red Team Leaders, Members, and Practitioners; researches best practices for Red Teaming tactics, techniques, and in Colleges Essay example, procedures; and develops a reach-back capability to mass, provide commanders and staffs alternative perspectives. Graduates of Leader and Member courses receive an additional skill identifier (ASI). UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. Definition. UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for people and organizations to create, to do new things, to h2o2 mass, be innovative. These are processes or rules that can be put in definition of orientalist place to encourage people to molar mass, be free, creative, and get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. For things to really change, structural elements need to change, too.
Otherwise change is of orientalist, short-lived. Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for people to be generative together and h2o2 molar mass, make a significant impact with their creativity. UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and Essay, brainstorming. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and disciplines to create an education and practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and molar, education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. Death. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is h2o2 molar, rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and Diversity in Colleges, liberating structures, all aimed at decision support. UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to critical thinking and becoming better at it. Each section can almost stand alone, and mass, Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and in Colleges Essay, “String of Pearls” tool and “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others. Seeing Red: Creating a Red-Team Capability for the Blue Force ( local copy ), by Fontenot, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2005 - includes list of Red Team best practices, and a list of why Red Teams sometimes fail. Critical Thinking You want to h2o2 molar mass, have a mind that’s open enough to accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out.
— Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Minds are like parachutes. They only function when they are open. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to death, know and understand. Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. Trying to get people to reason in a way that is not natural for them. is like trying to teach a pig to sing. You don't accomplish anything and you annoy the molar mass, pig. — E. Letter 3 Summary. Jeffrey Conklin William Weil.
Men believe what they prefer. If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts. But if he will be content to h2o2 mass, begin with doubts he shall end in certainties. My story is proud. The entry of truth with chalk to mark those minds which are capable to lodge and harbour it. For myself, I found that I was fitted for nothing so well as for the study of distance definition truth; as having a Mind nimble and versatile enough to catch the Resemblances of Things (which is the chief point) and at the same time steady enough to fix and distinguish their Subtler Differences; as being gifted by Nature with Desire to seek, patience to Doubt, fondness to Meditate, slowness to assert, readiness to consider, carefulness to dispose and set in order; and as being a man that neither affects what is new nor admires what is old, and that hates every kind of Imposture. So I thought my Nature had a kind of familiarity and Relationship with Truth. — Francis Bacon, On the Interpretation of Nature , 1603. See red team thinking , especially the UFMCS Red Team Handbook.
Improve Your Critical Thinking, resources at Coping.us - includes summaries/lists of h2o2 mass many methods and theories Overview of Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Model of Problem Solving Watch out for broca's aphasia vs wernicke's Common Fallacies Online Resources for Improving Critical Thinking. A Way to molar, Teach Critical Thinking Skills so Learners Will Continue Using Them in definition Operations ( local copy ), by mass Griffin and McClary, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2015 However, despite both instructors and cultural distance, students enjoying the h2o2 mass, critical thinking classes, many graduates were failing to letter chapter, think critically where it mattered most—on the job. The first key is to establish an effective talent management program at the earliest possible opportunity, preferably from the mass, start. Until an organization gets talent management right, with a high degree of person-job and person-organization fit, it will have very limited success with its other functions. The second key to teaching critical thinking skills is to ensure the organizational climate values critical and innovative thinking. Building upon, and narrows, made possible by, a talent management program, an organization demonstrates its commitment to these values by expecting and rewarding critical thinking and innovation. Two Faces of h2o2 molar mass Critical Thinking for the Reflective Military Practitioner ( local copy ), by Paparone, in in Colleges Essay Military Review , Nov-Dec 2014 Critical thinking has become quite the catchphrase. Yet, there is little published in h2o2 military circles demonstrating a philosophical examination of cultural distance definition what critical thinking means; hence, my intent here is to start that conversation.1 My argument calls upon two faces of h2o2 molar mass critical thinking—a metaphor that conveys a dualistic approach toward a more reflective military practice. Education for Critical Thinking ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2013 A better strategy for the Army’s PME is to adopt an Diversity in Colleges example educational philosophy that focuses less on knowledge and content and more on the ability to question and argue. H2o2 Mass. Critical thinking means the ability to construct and defend an argument using reason, applying intellectual standards of epistemic responsibility, and in Colleges, recognizing and countering logical fallacies as we see them in others and ourselves.
If we pay attention to our doctrine, this shift in molar thinking about professional education is vs wernicke's aphasia, a strategic imperative. We now accept as common knowledge that military operations defy rules, calling them instead “human endeavors, characterized by mass the continuous, mutual adaptation of give and take, moves, and countermoves among all participants.” We agree that war is about identifying and solving ill-defined problems where experts can and do disagree on the range of solutions. The problem is that we have a PME system that relies on narrows bridge collapsed an educational approach in which instructors are guides for each new class to rediscover the mass, same hackneyed truths as their predecessors. Mission command requires that we do more than allow for minor heresies. It demands that we develop “heretics”—leaders capable of challenging convention to create imaginative solutions regardless of the operational environment. Aphasia. An inquiry-based educational approach is the best way to develop these “heretics” because it is h2o2 mass, about questioning, and good questioners unequivocally make better thinkers. Army Leadership Development and Leadership ( local copy ), by Hinds and Steele, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2012 Colonels, lieutenant colonels, and juvinile penalty, chief warrant fives were also surveyed about what skills were lacking for recent [PME] graduates. The most common response was “appropriate critical thinking and problem solving skills.”
Developing Creative and Critical Thinkers ( local copy ), by Allen and Gerras, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2009 This article presents a definition of strategic thinking and then focuses on molar the two key antecedents of strategic thinking—creative and broca's aphasia vs wernicke's, critical thinking—and presents the Army War College approach to educating students in h2o2 molar these skills. In Colleges Example. . H2o2 Molar Mass. Given these challenges and obstacles, how do we make Army leaders better at creative and critical thinking? First, we must teach leaders the knowledge, skills, and terminology associated with thinking competencies. In Colleges Essay Example. These are acquirable intellectual skills. H2o2. As suggested earlier, the best way to the tacoma collapsed due to, teach thinking skills to Army leaders is to molar, provide context-dependent skill development. Critical Thinking and the Development of Innovative Problem Solvers ( local copy ), by Drew, Naval War College, 14 Feb 2005 Integrating critical thinking into juvinile penalty, officer development requires the shifting of knowledge focused classes to self-study, teaching and using argument/concept mapping to reveal student’s reasoning, and using the Universal Intellectual Standards as the basis of feedback on their reasoning. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the h2o2 molar, Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to vs wernicke's, develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for h2o2 molar people and organizations to create, to do new things, to be innovative. These are processes or rules that can be put in place to encourage people to be free, creative, and get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. For things to really change, structural elements need to change, too. Otherwise change is short-lived. Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for people to juvinile death penalty, be generative together and h2o2 mass, make a significant impact with their creativity.
UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and disciplines to create an education and practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. Cultural Distance Definition. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at molar decision support. UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to critical thinking and becoming better at distance it. Each section can almost stand alone, and molar, Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and “String of Pearls” tool and “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others. Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.
14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. Critical Thinking issue of Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin ( local copy ), July-September 2006 This issue of MIPB focuses on the integration of critical thinking and scientific inquiry throughout the military intelligence curricula. Juvinile Death Penalty. It is our contention that critical thinking and h2o2 molar, problem solving skills are best taught in learning environments that encourage students to consistently engage in the implementation of the scientific method. To do this, instructors come to see themselves less as the source of knowledge and more as facilitators of learning. Although most courses within USAIC include practical exercises, many continue to include hours of lecture, followed by objective tests. Unfortunately, most students do not long retain much of what they have memorized.
Conversely, retention increases dramatically when they use what they have learned to conceptualize and to solve problems. Therefore, critical thinking can be integrated into death penalty, the curriculum by adjusting teaching styles so that students are challenged to reflect on concrete learning experiences (a lecture, a film, a field trip), ask questions, pose hypotheses, and test those hypotheses against reality. When students are encouraged to use the scientific method on h2o2 molar a regular basis, they become actively engaged in critical thinking; and as a result, they will become more sophisticated and effective decisionmakers. Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and Serfaty, at 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by definition of orientalist Freeman et al, Collaboration and Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Integrating Critical Thinking in the Curriculum of the Command and General Staff College ( local copy ), by Doyle, CGSC, 2008 The Command and General Staff College endeavors to instill critical thinking as a skill practiced by its graduates. To this end the college has introduced the concept of critical thinking as a class within the core curriculum. Students must take a “critical thinking test” both before and after the block of core instruction, and numerous graphic training aids line the h2o2 molar mass, classroom walls in an attempt to reinforce these ideas. However, it remains questionable whether or not the the tacoma bridge, concepts of critical thought, that are taught by h2o2 the school, have made their way into the course work and class structure within the college.
This thesis will contend that to create critical thinkers CGSC must incorporate the tenets of critical thinking throughout its curriculum and aphasia, course design. Grading rubrics for h2o2 molar papers and tests, exam questions written to steer answers in a certain “correct” direction all to a degree contradict the tenets of critical thought, yet exist within the course of study. Ideally, CGSC can stand as a seminal experience in aphasia vs wernicke's the development of officers. An experience akin to mass, that found in civilian graduate level education can be attained, but it will require a cultural revolution within the faculty to transition from a model based on training to a model based on education. Psychology of death Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Heuer, 1999, for CIA -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) [from the introduction] Dick Heuer's writings make three fundamental points about the molar mass, cognitive challenges intelligence analysts face: The mind is poorly wired to deal effectively with both inherent uncertainty (the natural fog surrounding complex, indeterminate intelligence issues) and induced uncertainty (the man-made fog fabricated by denial and deception operations). Even increased awareness of cognitive and other unmotivated biases, such as the tendency to see information confirming an already-held judgment more vividly than one sees disconfirming information, does little by itself to help analysts deal effectively with uncertainty. Definition. Tools and techniques that gear the analyst's mind to apply higher levels of critical thinking can substantially improve analysis on complex issues on which information is incomplete, ambiguous, and often deliberately distorted.
Key examples of such intellectual devices include techniques for structuring information, challenging assumptions, and exploring alternative interpretations. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by h2o2 molar mass Cooper, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to accurate diagnosis and to letter, developing effective remedies. First, the framework enables analysts to identify individual analytic impediments and determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to h2o2, detect the systemic pathologies that result from closely-coupled networks and to find the linkages among the individual impediments. Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the hierarchy of the Intelligence Community. The Tacoma Bridge Collapsed Due To. Fourth, the h2o2 molar mass, framework highlights the need to letter, treat both the systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by molar mass focusing effective remedial measures on example the right target and at the appropriate level.
Thinking and Writing: Cognitive Science and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Sinclair, CIA Center for the Study of h2o2 Intelligence, Feb 2010 revision of 1984 monograph We are, in distance fact, better at generating problems than at solving them. Rarely can we say unequivocally that we have solved a problem, particularly if it is a hard one. Mass. Rather we keep plugging away at it heuristically. Vs Wernicke's. Often enough we manage to satisfice—to achieve a “best-possible” solution so that we can take up something else. The problem has not gone away and we do not really delude ourselves that it has. But being realists (i.e., heuristic individuals to the core), we accept the results and live with them—recognizing that sometime we may find ourselves returning to the problem once more. As I have noted, this is a sloppy way of doing business, but we sell ourselves short if we do not acknowledge its strengths. It deals as well as anything yet developed with the fact, to use Jerome Bruner’s words, that our “ability to deal with knowledge is h2o2, hugely exceeded by the potential knowledge contained in man’s environment.”
A Mini-Guide for Diversity in Colleges example Teaching Critical Thinking, by Bean and Markham, Ira C. Eaker College for Professional Development (ECPD), 2008 This guide is designed to molar, provide general information, strategies and a step-by-step process on definition of orientalist Critical Thinking, two lesson plans which can be helpful in effectively teaching Critical Thinking, a case study which lends itself to thinking critically to come to a desirable resolution, and lastly, some recommended reading resources for providing a foundation to and assisting instructors in the classroom and with student consultation. A Tradecraft Primer: Structured Analytic Techniques for Improving Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), posted by CIA, March 2009 This primer highlights structured analytic techniques—some widely used in the private sector and h2o2 molar mass, academia, some unique to the intelligence profession. It is not a comprehensive overview of how intelligence officers conduct analysis. Rather, the primer highlights how structured analytic techniques can help one challenge judgments, identify mental mindsets, stimulate creativity, and manage uncertainty. In short, incorporating regular use of techniques such as these can enable one to of orientalist, structure thinking for wrestling with difficult questions. CIA Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes ( local copy ) - CIA has made this edition  of the compendium available to the public to help shed light on how the h2o2 mass, Directorate of vs wernicke's Intelligence meets the daily challenges of providing timely, accurate, and rigorous analysis to intelligence consumers Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by Johns, Assistant U.S. H2o2. Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the military’s design, testing and Diversity in Colleges Essay example, implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD).
CT training reduces normal human decision error in individual and group processes. Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in the Swiss Cheese model. In a group, CT can also move the hole out of alignment. Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in molar battlefield simulations. Critical Reasoning for Beginners, by the Faculty of Philosophy, University of definition Oxford - videos, audios, and h2o2 molar, slides (can play the audio while viewing the slides, and death penalty, avoid downloading 600+ Mb videos) In this six-week course delivered by Marianne Talbot, you will learn all about arguments, how to identify and evaluate them, and how not to mistake bad arguments for good. Critical Thinking - tools to test/measure The Critical Thinking Rubric, Critical Thinking Project, Washington State University - assesses skill at each step of the problem solving process, including ability of individual to identify and consider influence by the context of the issue Seven dimensions to be assessed: Identifies and summarizes the h2o2, problem/question at issue (and/or the source's position). Identifies and presents the STUDENT'S OWN hypothesis, perspective and position as it is important to death penalty, the analysis of the issue. Identifies and molar mass, considers OTHER salient perspectives and positions that are important to the analysis. Identifies and Diversity in Colleges example, assesses the key assumptions . Identifies and assesses the quality of supporting data/evidence and provides additional data/evidence related to the issue. H2o2 Mass. Identifies and considers the influence of the context on the issue. [they list some sample contexts to consider] Identifies and assesses conclusions, implications and consequences . Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric, by cultural Facione and Facione California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) Test of Every Day Reasoning (TER) CRITO ( local copy ), a step-by-step method for molar mass creating a critical analysis essay, courtesy of Dr.
David K. Johnson, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts C - State a C onclusion or claim R - State R easons or evidence meant to Essay, convince the reader . I - Test the I nference, or argument T - Test the T ruth of the h2o2 molar, R O - Construct the definition of orientalist, strongest imaginable O bjections, and respond to molar mass, them. Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking, by Walker, William Paterson University - a good summary of educational references regarding critical thinking. CriticalThinking.org - with 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought, GOOD series of Essay short articles on molar affective and cognitive strategies, incl such items as listening critically. Evaluating Critical Thinking Skills ( local copy ), from U.S. Naval Academy's Center for Teaching and Learning -- criteria-based evaluation guide. Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about real-world events, and statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. How Critical Thinking Shapes the distance, Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of h2o2 molar Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is a causal factor in military failure at the scarlet chapter the operational level. However, critical thinking can improve the MDMP of the COCOM.
This paper analyzes the effects of critical thinking on the combatant commander’s decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on intuitive and h2o2, analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to use critical thinking in the MDMP. Army officers are increasingly required to juvinile death, operate in situations they have not previously encountered and for mass which they have not been trained. In these situations, the ability to critically think through a problem, rather than apply previously learned solutions and procedures, is death, crucial to Army success. This effort began in 2000, with the development of a theoretical model of critical thinking and the identification of eight high pay-off critical thinking skills for Army Battle Command. Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to deal with the uncertain - includes a diagram of Conceptual Model of Critical Thinking and expansion on the following High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Seek a clear statement of the problem. Recognize main point in a message. Visualize plans to see if they achieve goals. Construct a plausible story that ties all incidents together. (. uncovering relationships, exploring alternative explanations of the information and keeping an open mind to molar mass, detecting patterns) Recognize fallibility and bias in broca's aphasia own opinion. Generalize from specific instances to broader classes. H2o2 Molar Mass. Adopt multiple perspectives in interpreting events.
Determine when to Diversity Essay example, seek more information. A Three-Part Theory of Critical Thinking: Dialogue, Mental Models, and Reliability ( local copy ) This chapter can only scratch the surface in trying to respond to h2o2 molar, these challenges. Cultural Distance Definition. It is a very brief abridgment of Cohen, Salas, Riedel (2001), which provides more depth and detail, but is molar mass, still only a start. The research had two main goals: First, to draw a map that links disparate regions of the cultural distance definition, critical thinking field, and second, to use the map to navigate toward a more insightful theory of critical thinking, which will support the development more effective methods for improving it in h2o2 Army battlefield command teams. The essence of definition our theory is molar mass, that critical thinking skill is exemplified by asking questions about vs wernicke's aphasia alternative possibilities in order to achieve some objective . Asking and answering questions is a skill of dialogue . Alternative possibilities are represented by mental models . A process of questioning mental models is adopted because of its reliability for h2o2 molar mass achieving the purposes of the participants within the available time. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by the scarlet chapter 3 summary Lussier and Shadrick, U.S. Molar Mass. Army Research Institute, 2004 ARI newsletters Training Small Unit Leader Adaptive Thinking Skills: Lessons Learned from Combat Training Center Exercises ( local copy ) Common Thinking and Judgment Problems Observed in Small Unit Leaders Difficulty reacting to novel situations – unable or slow to the scarlet letter 3 summary, “think on your feet” Overly reactive. H2o2 Mass. Difficulty in thinking like the the scarlet letter chapter, enemy Focused on h2o2 molar mass making quick decisions before fully analyzing the situation Inadequate monitoring of the situation or responding to cues in the environment Difficulty translating orders from higher echelons into actions Tunnel vision Overly focused on definition of orientalist distracters; not on the big picture Difficulty shifting roles (e.g., combat to mediation within the h2o2, same mission) Limited cultural awareness and necessary communication skills (specifically in dealing with civilians) Critical Thinking as Dialogue: a New Approach to Training Critical Thinking ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, October 2004 (whole issue (3 Mb)) Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to deal with the uncertain - includes a diagram of definition Conceptual Model of Critical Thinking and expansion on the High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Training Adaptive Leaders ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, May 2003 - train a performance - a thinking performance - using the Think Like a Commander vignettes to improve ability to identify critical information Tacit Knowledge for Military Leadership ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Tacit knowledge scores, a better predictor of leadership effectiveness Training Critical Thinking Skills for Battle Command: How to Think, Not What to Think ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Improve critical thinking to improve battle command tactical performance Training and Assessment of Decision-Making Skills in h2o2 mass Virtual Environments ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - This research showed a linkage between decision-making and situation awareness
James Garrett Shaylyn Romney Garrett - Teaching Critical Thinking in the Middle East, a TEDxDeadSea (independently organized TED event) video They are committed educators whose work in Jordan has focused on promoting critical and definition of orientalist, creative thinking. H2o2 Molar. Their curriculum, called “Brain Camp,” is an educational intervention that focuses on building eight critical thinking skills with the aim of equipping the rising generation of Jordanians to become creative and effective problem solvers. Center for Critical Thinking, aka Critical Thinking Community includes a library of short articles ranging from Socratic teaching to assessing thinking skills Other resources include the following Valuable Intellectual Traits. Rudyard Kipling, from The Elephant's Child in Just So Stories I keep six honest serving-men. (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and cultural definition, When. And How and Where and Who. [ed. - answering those six questions is often a good place to molar, begin - and the tacoma bridge, why is usually the h2o2 mass, one that pushes your writing past the knowledge level and demonstrates/reveals your insights]
Occam's Razor, published 1328 (also spelled Ockham) also known as the Law of cultural distance Parsimony or Principle of Economy or Principle of Simplicity Principle from William of Occam (logician and Franciscan friar, c. 1285-1350 or 1280-1349) -- stating that given multiple theories to explain a set of observations the simplest explanation is to be preferred Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate or non sunt multiplicanda entia praeter necessitatem - Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily. Never multiply explanations or make them more complicated than necessary. H2o2. An explanation should be as simple and direct as possible Einstein's version -- make things as simple as possible - but no simpler modern variation -- Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS) Sherlock Holmes I have already explained to you that what is out of the common is usually a guide rather than a hindrance. In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason backward. That is broca's aphasia, a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practise it much. In the h2o2, everyday affairs of life it is more useful to reason forward, and so the other comes to be neglected.
There are fifty who can reason synthetically for one who can reason analytically. [in A Study in Scarlet , 1887] How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable , must be the truth? [in The Sign of Four , 1890] That process, said I, starts upon the supposition that when you have eliminated all which is impossible, then whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. It may well be that several explanations remain, in which case one tries test after test until one or other of them has a convincing amount of support. [in The Case Book of Sherlock Holmes , 1927] It is a capital mistake to broca's vs wernicke's, theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. [in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes , 1892, A Scandal in Bohemia] I ought to know by this time that when a fact appears to be opposed to a long train of deductions, it invariably proves to be capable of bearing some other interpretation. [in A Study in mass Scarlet , 1887] Data! Data!
Data! he cried impatiently. Narrows Bridge Collapsed Due To. I can't make bricks without clay. [in The Adventure of the Copper Beeches , 1892] Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the Mind - an RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to society and the lives of those around us. Improving Leadership through Better Decision Making: Fostering Critical Thinking, an molar Air University research paper Appendix A discusses the Diversity in Colleges, Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal - which is composed of a series of five tests inference test - gauges ones’ ability to discern the h2o2, degree of truth or falsity of inferences drawn from the broca's aphasia aphasia, data that you are given recognition of assumptions test - samples the ability to h2o2, recognize unstated assumptions in statements deduction test - samples the ability to reason properly when given a statement of premise; to recognize the relation of implication between propositions interpretation test - samples the vs wernicke's aphasia, ability to weigh evidence and make valid generalizations evaluation of h2o2 arguments test - samples the ability to distinguish strong and relevant arguments from ones which are weak or irrelevant Critical Thinking I, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Critical Thinking II, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Logic Tutor, by Green - FREE online tutorial system on definition logic. Think Critically about What You Find on the Web Evaluating Internet Resources, by molar mass U. Albany Libraries Thinking Critically about Web Resources, from UCLA Library ICYouSee Guide to Critical Thinking About What You See on the Web, from Ithaca College Library Testing the Diversity Essay example, Surf: Criteria for Evaluating Internet Information Resources, by Alastair Smith, posted by U. of Houston Markham Nolan: How to separate fact and h2o2 molar, fiction online, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) By the end of this talk, there will be 864 more hours of video on YouTube and of orientalist, 2.5 million more photos on Facebook and Instagram. So how do we sort through the molar, deluge?
At the the tacoma narrows bridge due to, TEDSalon in London, Markham Nolan shares the investigative techniques he and his team use to verify information in real-time, to mass, let you know if that Statue of Liberty image has been doctored or if that video leaked from Syria is legitimate. Science and death penalty, Reason You want to have a mind that’s open enough to accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out. — Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Even for the physicist the molar, description in plain language will be a criterion of the degree of understanding that has been reached. — Werner Karl Heisenberg. This was the pivotal insight of the Diversity in Colleges, Scientific Revolution: that the advancement of knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in the face of molar new insights and discoveries.
In this model of progress, errors do no lead us away from the truth. Instead they edge us incrementally toward it. — Kathryn Schulz, Being Wrong: Adventures in definition of orientalist the Margin of Error. How Science Works ( local copy ), by Goodstein, in h2o2 Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Second Edition , Federal Judicial Center, 2000 - compares Francis Bacon’s Scientific Method, Karl Popper’s Falsification Theory, Thomas Kuhn’s Paradigm Shifts, and more. Steps of the scientific method (from CDC site) Name the problem or question Form an educated guess (hypothesis) of the vs wernicke's aphasia, cause of the problem and make predictions based upon the hypothesis Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment or study (with proper controls) Check and mass, interpret your results Report your results to the scientific community. Baloney Detection Kit, by of orientalist Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine ten questions for assessing believability. Scientific Method Man, article in Wired , Sep 2004 - discussing verifier approach to h2o2 molar mass, problem solution, as used by Gordon Rugg With the verifier approach, Rugg begins by asking experts to definition of orientalist, draw a mental map of their field.
From there, he stitches together many maps to form an molar mass atlas of the universe of knowledge on of orientalist the subject. You look for an area of molar overlap that doesn't contain much detail, he says. If it turns out there's an adjoining area which everyone thinks is someone else's territory, then that's a potential gap. His approach is built on letter the observation, noted as far back as the 1970s, that experts tend to cut to molar, the chase. In their zeal to get to an answer, they make many little mistakes. Letter 3 Summary. (A recent study of h2o2 mass work published in Nature and British Medical Journal , for example, found that 11 percent of papers had serious statistical errors.) Experts unknowingly fudge logic to letter chapter, square data with their hypotheses. Or they develop blind spots after years of working in isolation. H2o2 Molar Mass. They lose their ability to death, take a broader view. If all this is mass, true, he says, think of how much big science is based on flawed intuition. The verifier method boils down to seven steps: 1) amass knowledge of a discipline through interviews and the tacoma narrows collapsed, reading; 2) determine whether critical expertise has yet to be applied in h2o2 the field; 3) look for letter 3 summary bias and mistakenly held assumptions in the research; 4) analyze jargon to uncover differing definitions of key terms; 5) check for classic mistakes using human-error tools; 6) follow the errors as they ripple through underlying assumptions; 7) suggest new avenues for research that emerge from steps one through six.
For more AFSO21 guidance/handbooks/tools/reference/etc. go to the AF Portal and molar, do a search for AFSO21. AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to achieve continuous process improvement. This model is based on Diversity in Colleges Essay the OODA Loop and mass, will make it easier for Air Force members to eliminate waste in the workplace. Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century - Playbook, May 2008 - over 300 pages of tools for improvement, including the 8-step problem solving process The eight steps are expanded starting on page B-1 (pdf page 15) (1) Clarify and Validate the Problem (Observe) (2) Break Down the Problem and definition, Identify Performance Gaps (Observe) (3) Set Improvement Targets (Orient) (4) Determine Root Causes (Orient) (5) Develop Countermeasures (Decide) (6) See Countermeasures Through (Act) (7) Confirm Results and molar mass, Process (Act) USAF 8-Step Problem Solving Process template (AFD-090716-101.pdf) with expanded sub-steps and reference to definition of orientalist, additional tools. Process and Design Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is h2o2 molar, nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.
— Antoine de Saint-Exupry. Performance Improvement Guide (PIG), US Coast Guard ( local copy ) The PIG is an idea source of tools, processes, and models. Organizational Performance Consultants (OPCs) and the latest Commandant’s Performance Excellence Criteria (CPEC) Guidebook are also valuable leadership and aphasia, management resources. Design: Thinking not Process, by McCauley, Small Wars Journal , 15 Oct 2011 Senior officers capable of critical and h2o2 mass, creative thinking are needed more than ever to plan and conduct operations in strategic and operational environments that offer ever-changing uncertainties in increasingly complex conditions. Officers who have a broad body of knowledge gained through experience and extensive study and capable of identifying and evaluating potential military response options within the context of a grand strategy are necessary to achieve the goals of the nation.
The development of such officers requires a shift in their extensive focus from the operational and tactical environments to the strategic environment. This is a tremendous undertaking given that by far one spends the majority of one‘s career at those lower levels of the scarlet chapter war and promotion to h2o2 molar, senior ranks relies upon excellence in the tacoma bridge tactical thinking and execution. The aim of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, is to mass, educate strategically minded officers with the ability to Diversity example, view military affairs in the broadest context. This essay posits that integrating design as a process within JOPP is a shortsighted attempt to legislate thinking whereas the more appropriate option would be to h2o2 mass, develop officers capable of design thinking. To develop senior officers who possess the the scarlet letter, requisite worldview, critical and creative thinking must underpin the concept of mass design. Distance. Senior officers must understand the role constraints play within design and h2o2 mass, how the strategic environment is of orientalist, affected. Two accepted approaches in design thinking, analysis/synthesis and conjecture/analysis, could provide senior officers with the unique perspectives necessary for mass planning at all levels of war. In addition, the unique skills that specific personality types possess that make strategic-thinking and design thinking more inherently natural must be recognized and promoted.
Strategically minded thinkers possess the letter, ability to think critically and h2o2 molar, creatively. To think critically, one needs the penalty, ability to break concepts or objects into simpler parts and understand the relationship and organization of the parts relative to the whole. To think creatively, one needs the ability to rearrange the components or ideas into a new whole; in other words, to molar mass, produce something through imaginative skill. Although some critical and creative thinkers are naturally gifted, given enough time almost anyone can develop these necessary skills. Unfortunately, for the majority of senior military leaders, time is something that is not in vast supply. In fact, given the relatively short duration of the tacoma time that senior officers spend operating in h2o2 mass the strategic environment and the even shorter periods they serve in any one position, it is juvinile death, a natural desire to attempt to develop a checklist or shortcut that will guide these officers through the wicked problems rife within complex environments. The Master Planner interview in the August 2010 issue of Wired Magazine with Fred Brooks, author of h2o2 mass The Mythical Man-Month [focused on writing computer code] and The Design of Design Great design does not come from great process; it comes from great designers. The critical thing about the letter, design process is to identify your scarcest resource. You have to make sure your whole team understands what scarce resource you're optimizing. You build a quick prototype and get it in front of users to see what they do with it.
You will always be surprised. Edwin Land, inventor of the molar mass, Polaroid camera, once said that his method of design was to start with a vision of what you want and then, one by one, remove the cultural definition, technical obstacles until you have it. . I once argued that every member of a team should be able to see the code of every other member, but it turns out that encapsulation works much better. Problem Solving The one common experience of all humanity is the challenge of molar problems. — R. Buckminster Fuller. I am enthusiastic over humanity's extraordinary and collapsed, sometimes very timely ingenuities. H2o2 Molar. If you are in aphasia vs wernicke's a shipwreck and all the boats are gone, a piano top buoyant enough to molar, keep you afloat may come along and make a fortuitous life preserver.
This is not to say, though, that the best way to design a life preserver is in the form of a piano top. I think we are clinging to a great many piano tops in accepting yesterday's fortuitous contrivings as constituting the only means for solving a given problem. — R. Buckminster Fuller. If I had an hour to solve a problem and my life depended on the solution, I would spend the juvinile, first 55 minutes determining the proper question to ask, for mass once I know the proper question, I could solve the the scarlet chapter 3 summary, problem in less than five minutes. Intellectuals solve problems; geniuses prevent them. We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. The biggest problem in h2o2 mass the world could have been solved when it was small.
There is always an easy solution to every human problem—neat, plausible, and wrong. If a problem has no solution, it may not be a problem, but a fact - not to be solved, but to be coped with over definition time. Problem-Based Learning: Instructor Characteristics, Competencies, and Professional Development ( local copy ), by Cianciolo et al, for U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI), Research Report 1936, Jan 2011 Preparing Soldiers to learn from problem-solving experiences requires that Army instructional practices become more responsive to individual student need, better attuned to operational requirements, and more representative of social learning contexts. To help instructors achieve this goal, the principles for facilitating problem-based learning must be investigated and their implications for professional development explicated. In this research, the instructor characteristics and competencies required to implement problem-based learning were explored. Techniques for instructor professional development in civilian and molar mass, military contexts then were examined to identify best practices. Why We Can't Solve Big Problems, by Pontin, in MIT Technology Review , vol. 115, no.
6 - Nov 2012 Since Apollo 17's flight in 1972, no humans have been back to the scarlet, the moon, or gone anywhere beyond low Earth orbit. Mass. No one has traveled faster than the crew of definition of orientalist Apollo 10. Mass. (Since the last flight of the supersonic Concorde in 2003, civilian travel has become slower.) Blithe optimism about technology's powers has evaporated, too, as big problems that people had imagined technology would solve, such as hunger, poverty, malaria, climate change, cancer, and the diseases of old age, have come to seem intractably hard. It's not true that we can't solve big problems through technology; we can. We must. But all these elements must be present: political leaders and the public must care to solve a problem, our institutions must support its solution, it must really be a technological problem, and we must understand it. Storytelling as an vs wernicke's aphasia Instructional Method: Definitions and Research Questions ( local copy ), by Andrews et al, sponsored by AFRL, published in The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning , Fall 2009 - deals with problem-based instruction, scenario-based instruction, case-based instruction, and narrative-based instruction.
AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to achieve continuous process improvement. Mass. This model is the tacoma due to, based on the OODA Loop and will make it easier for mass Air Force members to eliminate waste in the workplace. see AFSO21 section for 8-step problem solving process and other tools. Process explained, narrative format, from handout at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Six steps Objective finding Fact finding Problem finding Idea finding Solution finding Acceptance finding. Traditional Six-Step Problem Solving Process Identify and Select the broca's vs wernicke's aphasia, Problem Analyze the Problem Generate Potential Solutions Select and Plan the Solution Implement the h2o2 molar mass, Solution Evaluate the Solution. Planning Primer, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 23 pages -- includes discussion of problem-solving process ( local copy ) Planning Manual, U.S. Army Corps of juvinile penalty Engineers, 321 pages -- includes discussion of h2o2 problem-solving process ( local copy ) Six-Step Problem Solving Process, as used by Army Corps of Engineers Identifying problems and opportunities Inventorying and forecasting conditions Formulating alternative plans Evaluating alternative plans Comparing alternative plans Selecting a plan.
Techniques for Effective Decision Making, by aphasia Mind Tools Brainstorming - Generating Options Critical Path Analysis - Planning and Scheduling Complex Tasks Decision Trees - Powerful Quantitative Analysis of Decision Impact Force Field Analysis - Analysis of all Pressures For and Against Change PMI - A Powerful Enhancement to Pros and Cons SWOT Analysis - Analysing your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and mass, Threats. Wicked Problems Some problems are so complex that you have to be highly intelligent and well informed just to be undecided about them. — Laurence J. Peter. Battle Command: An Approach to Wickedness ( local copy ), by broca's vs wernicke's aphasia McHenry, School of Advanced Military Studies, May 2009 There are two broad approaches to addressing ill-structured problems. First, a problem-focused approach which prioritizes a robust knowledge of the environment from which the problem has emerged. Second, a solution-focused approach that emphasizes the power of h2o2 molar mass proposing solutions as the vehicle to gain understanding of the ill-structured problem. By providing a robust explanation of ill-structured problems, it can then be shown that existing Army doctrine proves adequate to address and Essay, resolve complex operational problems. Command at the Edge of Chaos ( local copy ), by Schwartz, Naval War College, 28 May 2007 Traditional hierarchical military staff organizations at the operational level of command remain suited for molar executing status quo and slowly evolving military operations focused on simple problems. However, these same hierarchies are rendered ineffective when faced with complex or wicked problems—an increasingly common occurrence.
Replacing traditional staff structures with flat, self-organizing networks at the operational level of command and war will allow commanders to efficiently synchronize vast resources and more effectively attack rapidly evolving, complex and wicked problems. The cost to the commander is a requirement to penalty, cede control to the network while retaining command thereof. This paper looks at molar mass the limitations of hierarchical organizations, the advantages of leveraging self-organizing networks in a contemporary military context, and how such networks should be created and Diversity in Colleges example, commanded. Finally, the paper provides recommendations to operational commanders concerning when and h2o2 mass, how to employ self-organizing networks within operational level staffs. How to Think : Wicked Problems, Reflections from Dr Jack, Combined Arms Center Blog, 11 Nov 2008 The term “wicked problems” was coined by Diversity in Colleges Essay example Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber in molar 1973 to describe problems in definition of orientalist planning that defy analytical methods for solutions includes Rittle and Webber's 10 criteria for defining a wicked problem - with a brief description of each There are a number of key implications from the concept of “wicked problems.” One issue is that there must be constant framing and mass, reframing of a wicked problem to identify the second and third order effects of cultural definition a plan or operation.
A great plan may be only treating a symptom and h2o2, not the underlying causes of the problem – potentially making the letter chapter 3 summary, situation worse. Constant reframing and assessment are necessary to identify this throughout planning and operations. Another issue with “wicked problems” is that there are frequently multiple problems and h2o2 molar, issues within a problem set. The tendency to cultural distance definition, identify a problem as a familiar and simple problem – looking for mass simple cause and effect relationship – may mask multiple problems and lead to wrong solutions. Wicked problem, entry in Wikipedia - includes descriptions of several strategies to death, cope witih wicked problems, and includes the following list of characteristics (from Ritchey, referring to Rittel and Webber) There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem (defining wicked problems is itself a wicked problem).
Wicked problems have no stopping rule. H2o2. Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse. There is the scarlet letter, no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem. H2o2 Mass. Every solution to a wicked problem is a one-shot operation; because there is of orientalist, no opportunity to h2o2, learn by trial and error, every attempt counts significantly. Wicked problems do not have an aphasia enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into h2o2 mass, the plan. Every wicked problem is essentially unique. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem. The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of the scarlet letter chapter explanation determines the nature of the problem's resolution. The planner has no right to h2o2, be wrong (planners are liable for the consequences of the actions they generate). Sandia research team studies best way to solve wicked problems ( local copy ), Sandia National Labs, 29 Nov 2007 Wicked problems are complex problems that change when you apply a solution.
What’s the the tacoma narrows due to, best way to solve a wicked problem — by working in a large group sharing ideas via the intranet or as individuals? That’s the question George S. Davidson and his research team at Sandia National Laboratories attempted to resolve this summer. Molar. . Broca's Vs Wernicke's Aphasia. “We were amazed at the length and quality of the responses, both from the molar, people working as a group and those working individually,” Dornburg says. The Scarlet Letter. “People were very engaged, often writing long, detailed responses.” She adds that what was most interesting is that the molar, quality of definition of orientalist ideas from the people responding as individuals was “significantly better across all three quality ratings.” Dornburg says the finding that individuals are more successful than groups in computer-mediated brainstorming suggests a time- and cost-saving potential for mass companies. Generally, when electronic group brainstorming is compared to face-to-face brainstorming, it is touted as having the advantages of shorter meetings, increased participation by remote team members, better documentation via electronic recording, and the tacoma bridge due to, cash savings. But the Sandia research suggests that people working to solve problems on their own might involve less time and, thus less expenses, than electronic group brainstorming. While individuals working alone nominally faired better in this study, Davidson says, the molar mass, research also indicates that group on-line brainstorming can be effective when ideas are needed from large numbers of people. Pakistan’s FATA – A Wicked Problem ( local copy ), by McMahon, U.S. Army War College, 17 Mar 2009 - explores a wicked problem through the lens of the 10 characteristics of a wicked problem (from Rittel and bridge due to, Webber) There is No Definitive Way to Frame a Wicked Problem. We Cannot Understand a Wicked Problem without Proposing a Solution. Wicked Problems Have No Stopping Rule. Solutions to Wicked Problems are not True-or-False, but Good-or-Bad.
There Is No Immediate and No Ultimate Test of a Solution to a Wicked Problem. H2o2 Molar. Every solution to a Wicked Problem is a “One-Shot Operation.” Wicked Problems Do Not Have an Exhaustible Set of Definable Solutions. In Colleges Essay Example. Every Wicked Problem is Essentially Unique. Every Wicked Problem is a Symptom of Another Problem. The Cause of a Wicked Problem can be Explained in molar mass Numerous Ways. What Are Wicked Problems? ( local copy ), from Ask the cultural distance, Academy at mass NASA Academy, 8 Feb 2006 What is a wicked problem? Conklin draws his definition from the work of the late urban planner Horst Rittel, who coined the the tacoma narrows bridge collapsed due to, term over thirty years ago: You don't understand the problem until you have developed a solution.
Wicked problems have no stopping rule. You simply run out of time or money. H2o2. Solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong. They are better, worse, good enough, or not good enough. Every wicked problem is essentially unique and novel. Every solution to a wicked problem is a one-shot operation. Wicked problems have no given alternative solutions. Aphasia. So where does that leave the project manager?
The short answer — what Conklin calls the Holy Grail of effective collaboration — lies in creating shared understanding about the problem, and shared commitment to the possible solutions. Decision Making and Analysis When you get to the fork in the road, take it. Short term thinking drives out molar mass long term strategy, every time. — Nobel Prize-winning economist Herbert Simon. See also tactical decision games contrasting intuitive and analytic approaches. See also combat leadership , including key historical decisions. U.S. Army War College Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by Allen and Coates and Woods, U.S. Army War College, 2010 Decision-making frameworks for policy levels are important for strategic leaders to appreciate how they can best influence decisions in cultural their external environment. Molar. This article’s purpose is to the scarlet letter, present some models or frameworks for molar understanding how strategic leaders can make decisions as well as recognizing how to influence decisions that affect their organizations or institutions.
The following models presented in this article are drawn from the social psychology, organizational behavior, sociology, and public administration literature. Models discussed: Rational Decision Making Model The Behavioral Model (Bounded Rationality) Bargaining Model Participative Decision Making Model Incremental Model Punctuated Equilibrium Theory Polis Model Garbage Can Model (Multiple or Three Streams Model) Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by Allen and Coates, U.S. Army War College, July 2009 'Strategic decisions entail “ill-structured,” “messy” or “wicked problems” that do not have quick, easy solutions.' How to Make a High-Stakes Decision, by narrows Gallo, on Harvard Business Review Blog Network, 11 May 2011. 21st Century Small Unit Leaders: Developing the Ultimate Smart Power Weapon ( local copy ), by Gideons, paper at Joint Forces Staff College, Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS), 17 June 2011 Globalization and molar mass, the information age have created an environment in which small unit leaders have operational and strategic importance. The demands of the Irregular Warfare require small unit leaders within the General Purpose Forces to the scarlet chapter 3 summary, be more culturally aware; intellectually adaptable; seasoned in their decision-making requiring fundamental changes in the way they are educated, trained, and gain experience. This paper will first address how individuals make decisions by molar comparing and contrasting analytical and intuitive decision-making. Second, it will address the strengths and weaknesses in current training and educational paradigms via an analysis of the definition of orientalist, Systems Approach to Training. Third will be a proposal for the inclusion of new initiatives for developing small unit leader intuition and mass, adaptability in IW.
Following this are recommendations for inculcating critical thinking and decision-making skills in small unit leaders by adopting methods of instruction found in Outcomes Based Training and Education and Adaptive Leaders Methodology as well as the experiential based learning that immersive training environments provide. Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the Mind - an Diversity in Colleges Essay RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only molar mass our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to society and the lives of those around us. TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Dan Gilbert: Why we make bad decisions - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Dan Gilbert presents research and data from his exploration of happiness -- sharing some surprising tests and penalty, experiments that you can also try on h2o2 molar yourself. Watch through to the end for juvinile death a sparkling QA with some familiar TED faces. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the h2o2 mass, successful ones: they were built through trial and penalty, error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to molar mass, embrace our randomness and definition, start making better mistakes. Margaret Heffernan: Dare to disagree - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most people instinctively avoid conflict, but as Margaret Heffernan shows us, good disagreement is central to progress. She illustrates (sometimes counterintuitively) how the best partners aren’t echo chambers -- and h2o2 molar, how great research teams, relationships and businesses allow people to deeply disagree.
The former CEO of five businesses, Margaret Heffernan explores the all-too-human thought patterns -- like conflict avoidance and selective blindness -- that lead managers and organizations astray. Sheena Iyengar on the art of choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on definition YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and how we feel about the choices we make. At TEDGlobal, she talks about both trivial choices (Coke v. Pepsi) and h2o2 mass, profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions. Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of broca's aphasia us will do anything to avoid being wrong. But what if we're wrong about that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for h2o2 molar mass not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Penalty. Malcolm Gladwell on h2o2 mass What we can learn from spaghetti sauce - a TED talk (you may need to in Colleges example, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Tipping Point author Malcolm Gladwell gets inside the food industry's pursuit of the h2o2 mass, perfect spaghetti sauce -- and makes a larger argument about the nature of choice and happiness. Noreena Hertz: How to use experts - and when not to - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on definition of orientalist YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We make important decisions every day -- and we often rely on experts to help us decide. But, says economist Noreena Hertz, relying too much on experts can be limiting and even dangerous.
She calls for us to start democratizing expertise -- to listen not only to surgeons and CEOs, but also to shop staff. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of molar mass choice - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Barry Schwartz: Using our practical wisdom - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In an intimate talk, Barry Schwartz dives into collapsed due to, the question How do we do the right thing? With help from collaborator Kenneth Sharpe, he shares stories that illustrate the h2o2, difference between following the juvinile, rules and h2o2 molar mass, truly choosing wisely. Eric Berlow: How complexity leads to broca's, simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an h2o2 molar mass overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to the scarlet letter, a few elementary points. George Whitesides: Toward a science of simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on molar YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is it, exactly?
In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer. James Geary, metaphorically speaking - a TED talk (you may need to in Colleges Essay example, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Aphorism enthusiast and author James Geary waxes on h2o2 molar a fascinating fixture of human language: the metaphor. Friend of due to scribes from molar Aristotle to Elvis, metaphor can subtly influence the decisions we make, Geary says. Dan Ariely asks, Are we in Essay control of our own decisions? - a TED talk (you may need to h2o2 mass, watch it on definition of orientalist YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Behavioral economist Dan Ariely, the h2o2 molar, author of Predictably Irrational, uses classic visual illusions and his own counterintuitive (and sometimes shocking) research findings to show how we're not as rational as we think when we make decisions. Dan Ariely: Beware conflicts of interest - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this short talk, psychologist Dan Ariely tells two personal stories that explore scientific conflict of interest: How the pursuit of the tacoma narrows knowledge and insight can be affected, consciously or not, by shortsighted personal goals.
When we're thinking about the mass, big questions, he reminds us, let's be aware of our all-too-human brains. Renata Saleci video on (the tyranny of) Choice In this RSAnimate, Professor Renata Salecl explores the paralysing anxiety and dissatisfaction surrounding limitless choice. Does the freedom to vs wernicke's aphasia, be the architects of our own lives actually hinder rather than help us? Does our preoccupation with choosing and consuming actually obstruct social change? Jonah Lehrer - The Decisive Moment, video of 30 min. lecture, plus 15 minutes QA, given at the RSA Jonah Lehrer draws on molar the latest tools of narrows bridge due to neuroscience to ask, how does the mind make decisions? And how can we make those decisions better?
Improving Analysis: Dealing with Information Processing Errors ( local copy ), by Rodgers, Warfighter Interface Division, Cognitive Systems Branch, AFRL, Nov 2006 Although humans restrict information in a variety of ways, the mass, focus here is on three specific forms that affect human information processing: (a) the tendency to see patterns where none exist, (b) the tendency to seek confirmatory evidence, and (c) the use of preconceived biases. Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman presented three heuristics, i.e., factors or conditions that humans use to aid decisionmaking: representativeness, availability, and anchoring. They serve to simplify decisionmaking, making it more efficient; but use of letter 3 summary these heuristics also can result in inaccurate decisions. Analysis Paralysis: A Case of Terminological Inexactitude ( local copy ), by Roberts, Defense ATL , Jan-Feb 2010 In the remainder of this article, I will examine three problematic conditions that are often attributed to analysis paralysis. These are depicted in the figure on the right as overlapping circles, symbolic of the fact that one condition can feed off of another. In the spirit of Churchill, I have also concocted somewhat grandiose but descriptive labels for the three conditions: Analysis Process Paralysis, Risk Uncertainty Paralysis, and Decision Precision Paralysis. Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by Johns, Assistant U.S. Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the military’s design, testing and implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to h2o2 molar, augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD). The Tacoma Narrows. CT training reduces normal human decision error in h2o2 mass individual and group processes. Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in the Swiss Cheese model.
In a group, CT can also move the hole out of Diversity in Colleges alignment. Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in h2o2 molar battlefield simulations. From Tactical Planning to Operational Design ( local copy ), by Davison, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2008 The three military decision-making models reflect a parallel progression in the evolution of systems thinking. Aphasia Vs Wernicke's. Initially, rational military decisionmaking supported solving well-structured problems such as those found in a mechanistic system. Decision-making primed by recognition subsequently evolved to address problems occurring in natural settings with which the molar, decision-maker had experience.
An intuitive decision-making process then emerged to cope with those situations for which decision-makers had no previous experience. Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) Model The Recogition-Primed Decision Model: an the tacoma bridge due to Alternative to the MDMP for GWOT ( local copy ), by Bushey and Forsyth, in mass Field Artillery , Jan-Feb 2006 The Recogition-Primed Decision Model ( local copy ), by distance Ross et al, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2004 Klein, S. Wolf, Laura G. H2o2 Mass. Militellio, and Carolyn E.Zsambok show that skilled decisionmakers usually generate a good COA [course of action] on their first try. J.G. Johnson and M. Raab replicated this finding, extending it to show that when skilled decisionmakers abandon their initial COA in favor of a later one, the of orientalist, subsequent COA’s quality is significantly lower than the first one. Decision Making and the Levels of War ( local copy ), by molar Killion, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2000 Recognition-Primed Decision Strategies: First-Year Interim Report ( local copy ), by the scarlet chapter Klein and h2o2 molar, Crandall, ARI Research Note 90-91, 1990. Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by juvinile death penalty Williams, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 The Army values MDMP as the sanctioned approach for solving problems and making decisions.
This stolid template is comforting; we are familiar with it. However, what do we do when our enemy does not conform to our assumptions embedded in h2o2 the process? We discovered early in Iraq that our opponents fought differently than we expected. Fortunately, some have come to see the shortcomings of the classical MDMP process. It is illsuited for broca's aphasia vs wernicke's the analysis of problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. The Army’s nascent answer, called “Design,” looks promising. As outlined in the new version of FM 5-0, Operations Process, Chapter 3, Design is defined as “a methodology for applying critical and creative thinking to understand, visualize, and h2o2 molar, describe complex, ill-structured problems and develop approaches to solve them.” Instead of a universal process to solve all types of problems (MDMP), the aphasia, Design approach acknowledges that military commanders must first appreciate the situation and molar, recognize that any solution will be unique. With Design, the most important task is framing a problem and then reframing it when conditions change. In this article, we will survey three important heuristics to military decision making: availability, representativeness, and anchoring. When combining hindsight bias and retrievability biases, we potentially fail to guard against an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Instead of the usual striving toward a “best practices” methodology, which is also full of potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for “valuing the processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. continuous truth seeking) and by embracing the inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking.”
Battle-Wise: Gaining Advantage in Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by the tacoma narrows bridge collapsed Gompert et al, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, Jan 2005 Battle-Wise: Seeking Time-Information Superiority in Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by Gompert et al, Center for Technology and molar mass, National Security Policy, National Defense University, July 2006 Chapter One - From Firepower to Information Power to Brainpower Chapter Two - Cognitive Demands of death penalty Networked Warfare Chapter Four - Defeating Networked Adversaries Chapter Five - Integrating Intuition and Reasoning in Action Chapter Six - From Networking Power to h2o2 molar mass, Cognitive Power. Net Assessment: A Practical Guide, by Bracken, in Parameters , Spring 2006 Net assessment is one of the 3 summary, principal frameworks for analyzing the national security strategy of the United States. It has been used by molar the Department of Defense for many years. Understanding net assessment—what it is and what it can do—is important for two reasons. Cultural Definition. First, it has general application to many military issues.
Military planners always need to be on the lookout for approaches that can help them do their jobs better. Net assessment should be in that tool kit. Shaping the Next One Hundred Years: New Methods for Quantitative, Long-Term Policy Analysis, by Lempert, Popper, and Bankes; RAND report, 2003 A sophisticated reader ought to view with great skepticism the mass, prospect of Diversity Essay answering questions about the long-term future. The checkered history of predicting the future — from the famous declarations that humans would never fly to the Limits to Growth study to claims about the “New Economy” — has dissuaded policymakers from considering the h2o2, effects of their decisions more than a few months or years ahead. However, today’s choices will significantly influence the course of the twenty-first century. New analytic methods, enabled by modern computers, may transform our ability to reason systematically about the long term. The Scarlet. This report reviews traditional methods of grappling with the h2o2 molar, morrow, from vs wernicke's aphasia narratives to scenario analysis, which fail to address the h2o2 mass, multiplicity of plausible long-term futures. Cultural Distance. The authors demonstrate a quantitative approach to long-term policy analysis (LTPA). Robust decision methods enable decisionmakers to examine a vast range of plausible futures and design near-term, often adaptive, strategies to be robust across them. Reframing the question “What will the long-term future bring?” as “How can we choose actions today that will be consistent with our long-term interests?” these methods provide powerful analytic support to humans’ innate capacity for h2o2 molar “what-if-ing.” Theory of Effectiveness Measurement ( local copy ), by in Colleges example Bullock, AFIT dissertation, Sep 2006 Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy.
Currently, however, there is no formal foundation for formulating effectiveness measures. This research presents a new framework for effectiveness measurement from both a theoretical and practical view. . H2o2 Mass. Finally, the pragmatic nature of the definition of orientalist, approach is illustrated by measuring the effectiveness of molar a notional, security force response strategy in a scenario involving a terrorist attack on a United States Air Force base. Cultural Differences Cultural Factors in Complex Decision Making, by of orientalist Strohschneider, in Online Readings in h2o2 molar Psychology and Culture , Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002 Decision Making in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures, by aphasia aphasia Gss, in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002. Custer in Cyberspace ( local copy ), by h2o2 molar mass Gompert and cultural definition, Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 One of the consequences of the molar mass, network revolution and corresponding distribution of authority is that many more persons up and down the ranks will be making combat decisions than compared to the days of broca's aphasia centralized command and control. Power is migrating from headquarters “to the edge.” Therefore, it is essential to h2o2 molar mass, foster battle-wisdom not just for senior officers but also for the junior officers and noncommissioned officers leading units in cultural distance definition the field. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking . New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by Norton, in Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Future Warfare and the Decline of h2o2 molar Human Decisionmaking, by Adams, in Parameters , Winter 2001 In short, the military systems (including weapons) now on Diversity in Colleges the horizon will be too fast, too small, too numerous, and will create an environment too complex for humans to direct.
Furthermore, the proliferation of information-based systems will produce a data overload that will make it difficult or impossible for molar humans to directly intervene in decisionmaking. This is not a consideration for the remote science-fiction future. Weapons and other military systems already under development will function at increasingly higher levels of complexity and responsibility--and increasingly without meaningful human intervention. Extending Naturalistic Decision Making to Complex Organizations: A Dynamic Model of Situated Cognition, by Shattuck and Miller, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006 Naturalistic decision making (NDM) has become established as a methodological and theoretical perspective. It describes how practitioners actually make decisions in complex domains. However, NDM theories tend to focus on the human agents in the system. We extend the NDM perspective to chapter 3 summary, include the technological agents in complex systems and introduce the mass, dynamic model of situated cognition. A Literature Review of Analytical and Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), by Zsambok, Beach, and Klein, for Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, Dec 1992 - examines many decision models/strategies.
Experts, expertise, and experience ( local copy ), course module from NOAA What do experts do so well that others don't? Recognize patterns Detect anomalies Keep the big picture (situation awareness) Understand the way things work Observe opportunities, able to improvise Relate past, present, and future events Pick up on very subtle differences Address their own limitations What is an expert? Novice - Lives in the moment. Can’t recognize complex relationships. Produces limited options. Routine Expert - Great at everyday stuff, strong procedural knowledge. Runs into trouble when problems are ill-structured or novel. Adaptive Expert - Has a deep comprehension of definition conceptual structure of the problem domain. 25 hours of well done simulations can achieve the same effect as 2 years of experience (or much more) NASA's ASK Talks with Dr. Gary Klein - use of storytelling, even internally, to improve decision making and problem solving and development/use of expertise.
Military Decisionmaking Process (MDMP) Implications of Modern Decision Science for Military Decision-Support Systems, by h2o2 Davis, Kulick, and Egner, RAND, 2005 Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP) ( local copy ), chapter 5 of definition FM 101-5 Staff Organization and Operations Is It Time to h2o2, Abandon the Military Decisionmaking Process ( local copy ), by cultural distance definition McLamb, in Military Review , Mar-Apr 2002 US Army Decisionmaking: Past, Present, and Future ( local copy ), by Paparone, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2001 How Critical Thinking Shapes the h2o2 molar mass, Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is a causal factor in military failure at the operational level. However, critical thinking can improve the MDMP of the COCOM. This paper analyzes the effects of critical thinking on narrows bridge collapsed due to the combatant commander’s decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on intuitive and analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to h2o2 mass, use critical thinking in the MDMP. Descriptive Models of Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Klein et al, ARI Research Note 90-93, 1990. Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan Management Decision Model ( local copy ), DoD IG, July 2005 Considering the definition of orientalist, request for assistance and the proposed application of the h2o2 molar mass, MDM, the DoD IG Team created a “universal” model that can be used to assess the death, capability and capacity of any organization founded on democratic principles and the “Rule of Law.” For the purposes of this model, the definition of “organization” includes the molar mass, full spectrum of cultural organizational structures—from a nation-state to any type of government-, military-, or business-related entity.
Consequently, the DoD IG Team built the attached model and identified the high-level elements common to most organizations that should be considered to h2o2 molar mass, establish a viable, stable, and selfsustaining institution. This document, therefore, includes the Management Decision Model, instructions on death penalty how to molar mass, use the Essay example, model, and h2o2, a comprehensive description of the of orientalist, various elements embedded in the model’s architecture. Applying Dialectic to Acquisition Strategy ( local copy ), by Peeler, in Acquisition Review Quarterly , Spring 1997 - includes discussion of Kant's Hierarchy of Reason Hegel's Dialectic Karl Popper Simultaneous Antitheses. General Robert E. Lee and Modern Decision Theory, by Gilster, in AU Review , Mar-Apr 1972, including discussion of battle of h2o2 mass Chancellorsville, and brief discussion of vs wernicke's aphasia Lanchester Equations Bayes’ Theorem Von Neumann-Morgenstern Utility Theorem. Decision Sciences Institute (DSI), multidisciplinary international association dedicated to advancing knowledge and improving instruction in all business and related disciplines. Are You a Good Decision Maker? ( local copy ), from SBA -- includes Ten Steps to Wise Decision-Making and h2o2, Common Decision-Making Mistakes The Human Side of distance Decision Making ( local copy ), from FAA -- brief examination of the human traits that interfere with decision-making.
Ladder of h2o2 molar mass Inference ( local copy ), from NIH - a model that describes an the scarlet chapter 3 summary individual's mental process of observing situations, drawing conclusions and mass, taking action War in the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in letter chapter decision making wargame. The Collapse of h2o2 mass Decisionmaking and Organizational Structure on Storm King Mountain ( local copy ), by Putnam, USDA Forest Service, 1995 Numerous studies show no matter how many factors are important, the human mind normally can handle only about seven factors (e.g., seven-digit telephone numbers). People are not always aware of which factors dominate their decision process. Although we say “safety first,” this doesn’t mean it’s necessarily first in actual decisions. Also, people are seldom aware of the few factors they actually are processing so tend to be overconfident in their decisionmaking ability. Studies also show that our linear thinking tends to of orientalist, underestimate hazards, particularly if the hazard is h2o2, increasing at a logarithmic or exponential rate as can happen on the fireline.
An example would be estimating rates of fire spread. A computer would give the better decision in chapter a heartbeat. People would tend to underestimate the rate of mass spread and have difficulty deciding on an appropriate course of action. And so it is important to understand the limits of how we process information and common types of errors that can occur. Revisiting the Abilene Paradox - Is Management of Agreement Still an Issue?, by juvinile penalty Deiss - brief discussion of the mismanagement of agreement, where nobody in a group wants to do an activity, but the group does it because each member thinks all the others want to h2o2 molar mass, do it.
Intuition: an Imperative of Command ( local copy ), by Rogers, in the scarlet letter 3 summary Military Review - examines relevance of h2o2 molar intuition to decision making in the context of warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is narrows, a desirable trait Note 18. Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by Gary A. Klein (based on h2o2 molar mass 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the cultural distance definition, time and analytical methods 13 percent of the time. Molar Mass. Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in due to favor of h2o2 molar mass analysis . More recent studies estimate the broca's aphasia aphasia, breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to 5 percent analytical.
G. H2o2 Molar Mass. A. Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in William B. Distance Definition. Rouse (ed.), Advances in h2o2 molar mass Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. Distance Definition. L. Kaempf, S. Wolf, M. L. Thordsen, and G. Klein, Decision Making in molar the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. Pascual and distance, S. Henderson, Evidence of h2o2 mass Naturalistic Decision Making in Diversity in Colleges example Command and Control in h2o2 molar mass C. Death Penalty. Zsambok and G. Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of h2o2 molar California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and Control The intuitive approach is clearly more appropriate for the fluid, rapidly changing environment of combat, when time and uncertainty are critical factors. Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), an attempt to understand how humans actually make decisions in complex real-world settings, by Klein and Klinger, 4 pages, in Human Systems IAC Gateway , vol XI, nbr 3 -- article contrasts naturalistic with recognition-primed decision (RPD) model. A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Diversity in Colleges, Prospect Theory - Command Decisions, collection of essays on h2o2 molar mass the key decisions by both sides in juvinile death penalty both theaters of h2o2 molar WW II. Some Commercial Tools Influence Net Modeling tools from SAIC, combining subjective with objective Definitive Software, with tools re: scenarios, risk analysis, decision-making Decisioneering software, with tools for optimizing decisions in complex situations Reason!Able, software for organizing thoughts, analyzing arguments, and building decision skills Rationale ™ , argument mapping software. Decision-Making, by Kent, in AU Review , May-June 1971 - addressing the definition, problems and use of analysis More On Decision-Making, by Blythe, in AU Review , Jan-Feb 1972 - follow-on and response to above article. Gaming and h2o2, Decision Theory Coevolution: Studying the Dynamics of Competition, and Diversity Essay, Gauss: Scenario Translation ( local copy ), by McDonald, of SAIC, at Project Albert International Workshop 5, posted by USMC Warfighting Lab - includes out-thinking, out-doing, reflexive control, OODA loop, recursive anticipation, co-adaptation, adaptive mental model, and more.
Game Theory.net, a resource for molar educators and students of game theory Stability Modeling and Game-Theoretic Considerations, Los Alamos National Labs ( local copy ) Decision-Theory for Crisis Management, Final Report, ARPA ( local copy ) A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of the tacoma narrows collapsed due to Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) -- see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory. Paradox of Choice Sheena Iyengar on the art of h2o2 molar mass choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and how we feel about the choices we make. At TEDGlobal, she talks about penalty both trivial choices (Coke v. Pepsi) and profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of mass choice - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. Broca's Aphasia Aphasia. In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Renata Salecl - The Paradox of Choice - an RSA video Fusing sociology, psychoanalysis and philosophy, Professor Renata Salecl shows that individual choice is rarely based on a simple rational decision with a predictable outcome. Baba Shiv: Sometimes it's good to give up the driver's seat - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Over the years, research has shown a counterintuitive fact about human nature: That sometimes, having too much choice makes us less happy. This may even be true when it comes to medical treatment. Baba Shiv shares a fascinating study that measures why choice opens the door to doubt, and suggests that ceding control -- especially on life-or-death decisions -- may be the best thing for us. Game Theory .net - a resource for educators and students of game theory - with online interactive materials, syllabi, etc. Courses at Sloan School of Management, available online as part of MIT OpenCourseWare Project - includes syllabi and course materials includes Game Theory for h2o2 molar mass Managers.
Game Theory, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of letter chapter 3 summary Philosophy. Risk intelligence: How to live with uncertainty, RSA video by Evans Risk intelligence expert Dylan Evans outlines a powerful form of h2o2 molar mass thinking; one where the same intuition seen in the best poker players can be effectively transferred to business, politics and everyday life. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. This new insight has profound implications for the scarlet 3 summary economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in molar mass Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is a desirable trait Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning ( local copy ), by Davis, occasional paper for Diversity Essay example CIA's Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning - includes discussion of Substantive Uncertainty and Strategic Warning and Analytic Tradecraft for Managing Substantive Uncertainty and Averting Strategic Surprise through Alternative Analysis
Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by Frasqueri-Molina, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from chaos. Remain calm. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break. Immediately gather the resolution team, which consists of the h2o2 molar mass, project manager and any of the people who can offer solutions; meet privately. The Tacoma. Assess risk impact. Brainstorm solutions. Choose a solution. Obtain project sponsor approval.
Communicate the solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory - Complex vs. Complicated Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to h2o2 molar, a better, simpler solution. Illustrating the tips and tricks for cultural distance definition breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in h2o2 molar Afghanistan to a few elementary points. Systemic Operational Design: Learning and Adapting in Complex Missions ( local copy ), by de Czege, Military Review , Jan-Feb 2009 Nearly all missions this century will be complex, and the kind of thinking we have called “operational art” is often now required at battalion level. Fundamentally, operational art requires balancing design and planning while remaining open to learning and adapting quickly to change. Design is not a new idea. Command has always entailed responsibility for designing operations while penetrating complexity and framing problems that planners have to of orientalist, solve.
Individual ability to learn effectively, adapt rapidly and appropriately, and to h2o2, solve problems has always been self-evidently valuable to commanders. Yet, collectively, a command’s overall quality of design, learning, and adaptation is what determines results. Military leaders may value individual creativity, critical thinking, continuous learning, and adaptability in their staffs and letter, subordinate commanders, but individual traits do not necessarily add up to collective abilities needed for the best outcomes. Complicated versus complex systems. Merely complicated systems are composed of numerous parts and structures, all logically separable from their environment. Molar. An example would be the system for cultural distance deploying units on a time table for an operation like D-day. Such a schedule could be accurately analyzed in the abstract. Complex systems are made up of dynamic, interactive, and adaptive elements that cannot be separated from mass interaction with their environments.
The significant elements of complex systems are human beings and their relationships. An example would be the the tacoma narrows collapsed due to, action-reaction interplay of the various actors in cooperation and contention on h2o2 molar D-day. Analysis could never predict the relationships that were the most important part of the flow of events. Where merely complicated systems require mostly deduction and in Colleges Essay example, analysis (formal logic of breaking into parts), complexity requires inductive and abductive reasoning for h2o2 molar mass diagnostics and synthesis (the informal logic of making new wholes of parts). Because the elements of complex systems we care most about are human ones, making sense of relationships requires hypothetical synthesis in the form of maps or narratives. Such maps and narratives evolve as informal products that reflect a dimly perceived truth at a moment of understanding in time. To make the best sense of human relationships, interactions, trends, and propensities, military commands have to adopt a habitually skeptical approach to such non-deductive conclusions. Penalty. Such habituation implies a new intellectual culture that balances design and planning while evincing an appreciation for the dynamic flow of human factors and a bias toward perpetual learning and adapting. Adding to the Toolkit: Three Conceptual Tradeoffs ( local copy ), by Austin, SAMS paper, AY10 This monograph shows how understanding three conceptual tradeoffs of complex versus complicated, complexity at large-scale versus fine-scale, and exploration of h2o2 mass potential problems versus exploitation of known solutions can help the military practitioner better learn, anticipate and adapt to difficult problems.
It does so by defining the three conceptual tradeoffs and then applying them to broca's aphasia, Operation Iraqi Freedom for h2o2 mass the United States in 2003 and the Israeli incursion into Southern Lebanon by the scarlet chapter the Israeli Defense Forces in 2006. These difficult operations involved conventional, guerilla, counterinsurgency and irregular operations that provide two relevant examples to help the military practitioner better prepare for 21st century operations. Being a complicated or complex problem does not imply that one is easier or harder to manage than the other. They are just different. Complicated problems are problems that can be reduced and then reassembled into molar, a whole based solely on their parts. They are understandable, controllable and cultural definition, more predictable than complex problems. Organizations do best with complicated problems when they focus on internal efficiency and optimization. Mass. Complex problems are not as predictable due to interdependencies and feedback. Organizations that learn, evolve, and adapt with distributed command and control manage them best. Although the ends may be the same, the ways and means to solve complex versus complicated problems are different. To help understand how organizations orient towards complex problems, the scientist William Ross Ashby created a useful concept called the juvinile penalty, Law of Requisite Variety.
It states that a problem can only be controlled if the variety of the controller matches the variety of the situation to be controlled. Put another way, the complexity of a task must be matched by h2o2 molar mass the complexity of a system trying to perform the task effectively. Much as hierarchically controlled organizations are able to focus on efficiency and optimization, the more distributed the the scarlet chapter 3 summary, command and control of an organization, the less efficient it becomes, despite its potential ability to molar, manage more complexity. Hierarchical and definition of orientalist, distributed command and mass, control systems therefore involve important tradeoffs, each bringing its own unique strengths and Diversity in Colleges Essay example, weaknesses. TED videos Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on molar YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution.
Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on collapsed U.S. strategy in h2o2 mass Afghanistan to a few elementary points. George Whitesides: Toward a science of simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to the scarlet, watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is it, exactly? In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the h2o2 molar mass, successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes.
The Decision-Making Process for the scarlet chapter Complex Situations in a Complex Environment, by Benner and Benner, First chapter in Burstein, F. and Holsapple, C.W. (Eds). Handbook on Decision Support Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag (2008) While all decisions are a guess about the future, as complexity builds upon molar complexity decision-makers must increasingly rely on their intuition and judgment. This chapter explores the definition of orientalist, decision-making process for complex situations in a complex environment (complex adaptive messes) in terms of: laying the groundwork for decision-making, understanding and exploring complex situations, discussing human additive factors, preparing for the decision process and mechanisms for influencing complex situations. H2o2. Laying the groundwork introduces the concepts of emergence, the butterfly effect, the tipping point, feedback loops and power laws. Mechanisms for influencing complex situations include structural adaptation, boundary management, absorption, optimum complexity, simplification, sense and the tacoma narrows collapsed, respond, amplification, and seeding. The authors forward that decision-makers may be able to construct a strategy that guides problem resolution through a sequence of decisions and actions leading toward an acceptable solution. Leading Complex Projects in the DoD ( local copy ), by molar Meier, in Defense AT L , May-June 2013 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] There is a quote from Albert Einstein that is very relevant to complex projects: “Any intelligent fool can make things bigger and broca's aphasia, more complex. . It takes a touch of genius—and a lot of molar courage—to move in the opposite direction.” In many cases, it is organizations, agencies, and distance definition, senior committees that make projects bigger and more complex than they need to be. My hope is h2o2 molar mass, that this article will provide leaders of complex projects with the data and the courage to reduce complexity and deliver complex projects within scope, cost, and schedule. Leadership and Systems Thinking ( local copy ), by Reed, in Defense AT L , May-June 2006 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] The Department of Defense is a large and the scarlet chapter, complex social system with many interrelated parts. As with any system of h2o2 molar this type, when changes are made to aphasia, one part, many others are affected in a cascading and often unpredictable manner.
Thus, organizational decisions are fraught with second- and h2o2 mass, third-order effects that result in unintended consequences. Aphasia. “Fire and forget” approaches are rarely sufficient and are sometimes downright harmful. Peter Senge submits, in The Fifth Discipline , that systems thinking provides just the type of discipline and toolset needed to encourage the seeing of h2o2 “interrelationships rather than things, for seeing patterns of change rather than static ‘snapshots.’” Senge argues that this shift of mind is necessary to deal with the complexities of dynamic social systems. Peirce, Pragmatism, and broca's aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia, The Right Way of Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is known as the molar, founder of the definition of orientalist, philosophy of molar mass pragmatism and broca's, these lectures, given near the end of mass his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. In Colleges Essay Example. Peirce’s decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the important points in the lectures. Adaptive Peircean Decision Aid Project Summary Assessments ( local copy ), by Senglaub, Sandia National Laboratories, Dec 2006 Abstract - This effort's objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain.
The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and molar mass, information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill’s canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment / domain to assess predictions from the of orientalist, reasoning engines. Mass. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of Diversity in Colleges Essay ancillary queries. Figure 1 [on PDF page 5] shows a decision making paradigm The reasoning engine is based on C.S. Peirce’s model of scientific inquiry. This philosophical construct provides the foundation for how we as humans reason about situations new to us. This model consists of three reasoning capabilities; Abduction, deduction and induction. A crude way of looking at this suite of logic is abduction provides plausible hypotheses to explain an observation, deduction provides a basis for selecting from h2o2 mass that set of hypotheses, and induction is the means to validate the hypothesis selected. Bringing Intelligence About: Practitioners Reflect on Best Practices ( local copy ), ed. by chapter 3 summary Swenson, Joint Military Intelligence College, 2003 Reasoning: The ability to reason is h2o2 molar, what permits humans to process information and formulate explanations, to assign meaning to observed phenomena.
It is by reasoning that analysts transform information into intelligence, in these three ways: 1. Induction: Inductive reasoning combines separate fragments of information, or specific answers to problems, to the scarlet letter 3 summary, form general rules or conclusions. For example, using induction, a child learns to associate the h2o2, color red with heat and heat with pain, and then to generalize these associations to definition, new situations. Rigorous induction depends upon demonstrating the validity of causal relationships between observed phenomena, not merely associating them with each other. 2. Deduction: Deductive reasoning applies general rules to specific problems to arrive at conclusions. Analysts begin with a set of rules and use them as a basis for interpreting information. For example, an analyst who follows the nuclear weapons program of a country might notice that a characteristic series of events preceded the last nuclear weapons test. Upon seeing evidence that those same events are occurring again, the analyst might deduce that a second nuclear test is imminent. H2o2 Molar. However, this conclusion would be made cautiously, since deduction works best in aphasia vs wernicke's aphasia closed systems such as mathematics, making it of limited use in h2o2 mass forecasting human behavior. The Scarlet Letter. 3. Abduction: Abductive reasoning describes the thought process that accompanies “insight” or intuition. When the information does not match that expected, the analyst asks “why?,” thereby generating novel hypotheses to explain given evidence that does not readily suggest a familiar explanation.
For example, given two shipping manifests, one showing oranges and lemons being shipped from Venezuela to Florida, and the other showing carnations being shipped from Delaware to Colombia, abductive reasoning is what enables the analyst to take an analytic leap and ask, “Why is citrus fruit being sent to the worldwide capital of h2o2 citrus farming, while carnations are being sent to the world’s primary exporter of Diversity Essay example that product? What is h2o2 molar, really going on here?” Thus, abduction relies on the analyst’s preparation and experience to narrows bridge collapsed, suggest possible explanations that must then be tested. H2o2 Molar Mass. Abduction generates new research questions rather than solutions. Manual of juvinile Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about real-world events, and h2o2, statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. Statistics and Trace Evidence: The Tyranny of Numbers ( local copy ), by Houck, in broca's Forensic Science Communications , FBI - discusses induction and deduction and their application in establishing evidence - see especially the molar mass, section How Do We Know All Ravens Are Black? quick definitions at an NIH site listing desired job skills Deductive Reasoning - Able to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers, including deciding whether an answer makes sense. Juvinile. Inductive Reasoning - Able to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. This includes coming up with a logical explanation for why seemingly unrelated events occur together.
Janusian Thinking and Acting ( local copy ), by Paparone and Crupi, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2002 The authors maintain that the current U.S. approach to military operations-strategic, operational, and tactical-is too linear for today's contemporary operating environment. They argue that future warfighters must move beyond linear thought and h2o2 molar, action to a realm of thinking and acting that recognizes and accepts paired yet opposite the scarlet letter 3 summary ideas and h2o2 molar, actions Instead of ruling out alternative hypotheses, Janusian thinking calls on juvinile penalty us to embrace contradictions as naturally occurring phenomena. H2o2 Molar. When we create insights for thinking and acting from the Janusian framework, we achieve remarkable explanatory power over Diversity Essay example the nature of human information processing. The seats of reason? An imaging study of h2o2 molar deductive and inductive reasoning, by Diversity in Colleges Essay example Goel et al, Dept of molar Psychology, York U., North York, Ontario, CA -- abstract posted by National Library of Medicine. We carried out a neuroimaging study to test the neurophysiological predictions made by different cognitive models of reasoning. Ten normal volunteers performed deductive and inductive reasoning tasks while their regional cerebral blood flow pattern was recorded using [15O]H2O PET imaging. In the control condition subjects semantically comprehended sets of three sentences. In the deductive reasoning condition subjects determined whether the juvinile, third sentence was entailed by the first two sentences.
In the inductive reasoning condition subjects reported whether the third sentence was plausible given the first two sentences. H2o2. The deduction condition resulted in activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 45, 47). Definition. The induction condition resulted in activation of molar mass a large area comprised of the left medial frontal gyrus, the definition, left cingulate gyrus, and h2o2 mass, the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 24, 32). Induction was distinguished from deduction by the involvement of the medial aspect of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9). Juvinile. These results are consistent with cognitive models of reasoning that postulate different mechanisms for inductive and h2o2 mass, deductive reasoning and view deduction as a formal rule-based process. PMID: 9175134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Deductive Logic, by St. George Stock, posted by Project Gutenberg. Counterfactual Reasoning Counterfactual Reasoning: A Basic Guide for Analysts, Strategists, and Decision Makers ( local copy ), by Hendrickson, The Proteus Monograph Series , Oct 2008 Counterfactual reasoning is the process of evaluating conditional claims about alternate possibilities and broca's aphasia, their consequences (i.e., “What If” statements). These alternatives can be either past possibilities (e.g., “If the h2o2 molar, United States had not abolished the Iraqi army in 2003, then the definition of orientalist, Iraqi insurgency would have been significantly smaller in 2005”) or future possibilities (e.g., “If Iran had nuclear weapons, then it would provide this technology to molar, Hezbollah”). Counterfactuals are essential to intelligence analysis because they are implicit in all strategic assessments.
Counterfactual claims are widespread among our national security analysts, strategists, and decision makers. Unfortunately, this is not widely recognized. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive model of counterfactual reasoning to the tacoma narrows bridge collapsed due to, which anyone may turn if they do become aware of the ubiquitous nature of counterfactuals within intelligence and national security. Molar Mass. Instead, there are several fragmented approaches in philosophy, logic, history, political science, and broca's aphasia vs wernicke's, psychology. To make matters worse, none of mass these approaches has been applied to the unique challenges of the scarlet 3 summary intelligence and security. In response, this work seeks to demonstrate both the structure and the significance of counterfactual reasoning. It offers not only the first complete system of counterfactual reasoning (of which this author is aware), but the first one specifically designed to h2o2 mass, address the domain of intelligence analysis and aphasia, national security. Furthermore, this work proposes three major claims about the place of counterfactual reasoning in analysis and strategy. Therefore, this work is not only intended to serve as an molar education in counterfactual reasoning, but also as an exhortation to counterfactual reasoning. First Major Proposal (The Strategic Presumption of distance definition Counterfactuals): All strategies (and analyses of them) are grounded in a series of h2o2 counterfactual claims about alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them.
Second Major Proposal (The Systematic Potential of Counterfactuals): Major extant methods for assessing alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them may be viewed as ultimately not distinct, but as aspects of a single process—counterfactual reasoning. Third Major Proposal (The Structural Priority of Counterfactuals): All assessment of alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the scarlet, the relationships between them should ultimately be conditional (as it is in counterfactual reasoning). Thinking, Fast and h2o2 molar mass, Slow , by Kahneman, 2011 Book review of Thinking, Fast and the tacoma, Slow , by Kahneman ( local copy ), review by Babetski, in h2o2 molar mass CIA Studies in Diversity in Colleges example Intelligence Vol. 56, No. H2o2 Mass. 2 Kahneman, who won the Essay example, 2002 Nobel Prize in molar Economics for his work with Tversky on Diversity example prospect theory, also highlights the molar, best work of death other researchers throughout the book.
Thinking, Fast and Slow introduces no revolutionary new material, but it is a masterpiece because of the way Kahneman weaves existing research together. System 1, or fast thinking, operates automatically and quickly with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control. Molar Mass. System 2, or slow thinking, allocates attention to the mental activities that demand effort, such as complex computations and conscious, reasoned choices about what to think and what to do. Kahneman focuses much of the definition of orientalist, book on the interactions of System 1 and System 2 and the problems inherent in mass those interactions. Diversity Example. Both systems are “on” when we are awake. H2o2 Molar Mass. System 1 runs automatically and effortlessly but System 2 idles, because using it requires effort and is tiring. Distance Definition. System 1 generates impressions and molar, feelings, which become the broca's aphasia aphasia, source of System 2’s explicit beliefs and deliberate choices. Mass. System 1, when it encounters something it cannot quickly understand and vs wernicke's, did not expect (in other words, a surprise), enlists System 2 to make sense of the anomaly. H2o2 Molar. The alerted System 2 takes charge, overriding System 1’s automatic reactions. System 2 always has the last word when it chooses to assert it. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on definition YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to h2o2 molar, colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and definition of orientalist, founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently.
This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in mass Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Integrating Fast and Slow Cognitive Processes ( local copy ), by Kennedy and Bugajska, for the Naval Research Laboratory, 2010 Human reactions appear to be controlled by Diversity two separate types of mental processes: one fast, automatic, and unconscious and the other slow, deliberate, and h2o2, conscious. With the Diversity Essay, attention in the literature focused on the taxonomy of the two processes, there is little discussion of how they interact. In this paper, we focus on modeling the mass, slower process's ability to narrows bridge due to, inhibit the fast process. We present computational cognitive models in which different strategies allow a human to consciously inhibit an undesirable fast response. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking . New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by Norton, in Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Intuition The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and molar mass, the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.
See tactical decision games on the Simuations page, contrasting intuitive and analytic approaches. See also - Recognition-Primed Decision Model - references in the Decision-Making section above. How We Decide ( local copy ), by juvinile death penalty Schmitt, in Designing TDGs: A Tactical Decision. Games Workbook , Marine Corps University, 26 Apr 1996 Not surprisingly, the research revealed that proficient decision makers rarely make decisions by concurrent option comparison. Instead they use their intuition to recognize the essence of a given situation and to tell them what appropriate action to take.
In fact, separate studies by Dr. Gary Klein and molar, others conclude that decision makers in a variety of fields use the analytical apaproach to the scarlet, decision making less than 10 percent of the time and h2o2, employ intuitive techniques over juvinile penalty 90 percent of the h2o2 molar mass, time. Custer in Cyberspace ( local copy ), by Gompert and Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 When conditions are complex and dynamic, time is short, and critical information is available, the key to making good decisions is to blend intuition with reasoning—more specifically, reliable intuition with timely reasoning . From The Personal Relevance of Great Campaigns - by broca's aphasia vs wernicke's Bird, 22 Feb 2001, Command and h2o2, General Staff Officer's Course Carl Von Clausewitz explains that events in Diversity warfare are surrounded by uncertainty, and molar mass, that there are few universal truths. Because of aphasia this, leaders must sort through this “fog” to h2o2, find the truth, often a daunting endeavor that’s permeated by broca's aphasia aphasia chance. The commander must sift through this information and decide what pieces are relevant and h2o2 molar, require action. Clausewitz specifically refers to the capability of the chapter 3 summary, mind to discriminate information allowing quick, correct decisions. Mass. He describes this ability as coup d’oeil, “the quick recognition of a truth that the narrows bridge due to, mind would ordinarily miss or would perceive only after long study and h2o2, reflection .” 2 Napoleon faced such a scenario in the battles of Jena-Auerstadt.
With limited information, he turned an entire field army in place to the tacoma collapsed due to, seek decisive battle with the Prussians and won the day. [ 2 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War , ed. and h2o2 molar, trans. by Michael Howard and Peter Paret, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), p. 100-102. ] Intuition: an death Imperative of Command ( local copy ), by Rogers, in Military Review - examines relevance of h2o2 molar mass intuition to decision making in the context of warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is definition of orientalist, a desirable trait Note 18. Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for h2o2 the vast majority of tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by Gary A. Klein (based on 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the time and analytical methods 13 percent of the letter, time. H2o2 Mass. Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in favor of analysis . More recent studies estimate the breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to Diversity in Colleges Essay example, 5 percent analytical.
G. A. Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in William B. Rouse (ed.), Advances in Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. L. Kaempf, S. Wolf, M. H2o2 Molar. L. Thordsen, and G. Klein, Decision Making in bridge collapsed due to the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. Pascual and S. Henderson, Evidence of Naturalistic Decision Making in h2o2 mass Command and Control in C. Zsambok and broca's aphasia aphasia, G. Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of h2o2 mass California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and Control The intuitive approach is clearly more appropriate for the fluid, rapidly changing environment of bridge due to combat, when time and uncertainty are critical factors. War in molar the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at letter chapter much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in decision making wargame. Intuitive people worse at h2o2 molar detecting lies, by the tacoma collapsed Young, NewScientist.com, 18 Mar 2002 People who think of h2o2 mass themselves as being intuitive make worse lie detectors than those who do not trust in a gut instinct, according to new research. One possible explanation is that intuitives in fact rely on common misconceptions about cultural distance how to spot a liar, he says. Situation Awareness, Situational Awareness To see, to h2o2 molar mass, hear, means nothing. To recognize (or not to recognize) means everything. Individual Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from aphasia NOAA Situation Awareness Definition (from Mica Endsley, 1988) Level 1 - Perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of space Level 2 - Comprehension of their meaning Level 3 - Projection of their status in the near future. Situation Awareness Demons: the mass, Enemies of Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from NOAA Discusses the eight demons laid out by Endsley et al, in Designing for Situation Awareness Attentional Tunneling Requisite Memory Trap Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors (WAFOS) Data Overload Misplaced Salience Complexity Creep Errant Mental Models Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome. Ye Olde Brain, and Its Workings The destiny of every human being is decided by what goes on inside his skull when confronted with what goes on outside his skull. I know you think you understand what you thought I said but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant.
Daniel Amen - Change your brain, change your life, a TEDx talk Change your Brain, Change your Life. Revelations based on cultural studying 63,000 brain images across 90 countries over 20 years. How Brain imaging can change paradigms and our understanding of healthy life, no matter where we live. Steve Ramirez and h2o2 mass, Xu Liu: A mouse. A laser beam. A manipulated memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Can we edit the content of our memories? It’s a sci-fi-tinged question that Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu are asking in their lab at MIT.
Essentially, the pair shoot a laser beam into aphasia, the brain of a living mouse to activate and manipulate its memory. In this unexpectedly amusing talk they share not only how, but -- more importantly -- why they do this. (Filmed at h2o2 molar mass TEDxBoston.) From Bench to Bunker: How a 1960s discovery in neuroscience spawned a military project, by definition Bardin, in The Chronicle of Higher Education , 9 July 2012 The man has a machine strapped to his head, an array of electrodes called an electroencephalogram, or EEG, which is recording his brain activity as each image skips by. It then sends the brain-activity data wirelessly to a large computer. H2o2 Molar. The computer has learned what the man's brain activity looks like when he sees one of the visual targets, and, based on definition that information, it quickly reshuffles the images. When the man sorts back through the hundreds of images—most without structures, but some with—almost all the ones with buildings in h2o2 molar mass them pop to the front of the pack. Aphasia Vs Wernicke's Aphasia. His brain and the computer have done good work. That display was a demonstration of a new technology being developed through a collaboration between the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the military's research arm, and a private company called Neuromatters, which was founded by a team led by the Columbia University bioengineer Paul Sajda. The hope is that, in h2o2 mass the near future, military analysts might use the technology to eliminate worthless images in seconds, speeding up their review of satellite images by orders of magnitude. Aphasia. By the looks of h2o2 it, it's working. Paolo Cardini: Forget multitasking, try monotasking, a talk from TED.com - if TED site is blocked, you may be able to cultural definition, watch it on YouTube or one of the h2o2, other sites People aren’t just cooking anymore -- they’re cooking, texting, talking on bridge due to the phone, watching YouTube and uploading photos of the awesome meal they just made.
Designer Paolo Cardini questions the h2o2 molar, efficiency of our multitasking world and makes the case for -- gasp -- monotasking. Amy Cuddy: Your body language shapes who you are, a talk from TED.com - if TED site is blocked, you may be able to the tacoma narrows, watch it on YouTube or one of the other sites Body language affects how others see us, but it may also change how we see ourselves. Social psychologist Amy Cuddy shows how “power posing” -- standing in a posture of confidence, even when we don’t feel confident -- can affect testosterone and cortisol levels in the brain, and might even have an impact on our chances for success. Amy Cuddy’s research on body language reveals that we can change other people’s perceptions — and even our own body chemistry — simply by changing body positions. New TED Book: Brain Power, by Tiffany Shlain - announcement includes an overview video Discusses items such as the h2o2 molar mass, fact that a child's brain has 10 times as many connections as the entire internet. Iain McGilchrist: The divided brain - a Best of the Web talk featured by the tacoma narrows collapsed TED Psychiatrist Iain McGilchrist describes the real differences between the left and right halves of the human brain. It's not simply emotion on mass the right, reason on the left, but something far more complex and interesting.
A Best of the the tacoma bridge, Web talk from RSA Animate. Scott Fraser: Why eyewitnesses get it wrong, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Scott Fraser studies how humans remember crimes -- and bear witness to them. H2o2 Molar. In this powerful talk, which focuses on a deadly shooting at sunset, he suggests that even close-up eyewitnesses to Diversity example, a crime can create memories they could not have seen. Why? Because the brain abhors a vacuum. H2o2 Molar Mass. Tan Le: A headset that reads your brainwaves, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on cultural definition YouTube if the mass, TED.com version won't run on definition of orientalist your computer) Tan Le's astonishing new computer interface reads its user's brainwaves, making it possible to control virtual objects, and even physical electronics, with mere thoughts (and a little concentration). H2o2 Molar Mass. She demos the headset, and talks about its far-reaching applications. Rebecca Saxe: How we read each other's minds, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Sensing the motives and feelings of cultural others is a natural talent for humans. H2o2 Mass. But how do we do it? Here, Rebecca Saxe shares fascinating lab work that uncovers how the brain thinks about other peoples' thoughts -- and in Colleges, judges their actions.
Kwabena Boahen on a computer that works like the h2o2 molar, brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on distance your computer) Researcher Kwabena Boahen is looking for ways to h2o2 molar, mimic the brain's supercomputing powers in silicon -- because the messy, redundant processes inside our heads actually make for a small, light, superfast computer. Diane Benscoter on how cults rewire the brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the definition, TED.com version won't run on your computer) Diane Benscoter spent five years as a Moonie. She shares an mass insider's perspective on letter chapter 3 summary the mind of a cult member, and proposes a new way to molar mass, think about today's most troubling conflicts and extremist movements. talks about viral memetic infections and compromised emotional immune systems Al Seckel says our brains are mis-wired, a talk from broca's aphasia aphasia TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Al Seckel, a cognitive neuroscientist, explores the perceptual illusions that fool our brains. Loads of eye tricks help him prove that not only are we easily fooled, we kind of like it. Steven Pinker on language and thought, a talk from mass TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the distance definition, TED.com version won't run on your computer) In an molar exclusive preview of his book The Stuff of example Thought, Steven Pinker looks at language and how it expresses what goes on in our minds -- and how the words we choose communicate much more than we realize.
Keith Barry does brain magic, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) First, Keith Barry shows us how our brains can fool our bodies -- in a trick that works via podcast too. Then he involves the audience in some jaw-dropping (and even a bit dangerous) feats of h2o2 molar mass brain magic. The Secret Powers of Time, video by Zimbardo Professor Philip Zimbardo reveals how our individual perspective on the tacoma narrows collapsed time affects our work, health and well-being. Mind Reading Machine on CBS Reads Your Thoughts - (10 out of 10 at h2o2 molar mass guessing what a scanned person is thinking about) – also reading/assessing “intentions” and definition, being able to assess if you’ve been somewhere before (for example, when you were robbing the house) and neural marketing – and brain patterns indicating various emotions. Science Nation - Mind Reading Computer System May Help People with Locked-in Syndrome Imagine living a life in which you are completely aware of the world around you but you're prevented from engaging in it because you are completely paralyzed.
Even speaking is impossible. For an estimated 50,000 Americans this is a harsh reality. It's called locked-in syndrome, a condition in which people with normal cognitive brain activity suffer severe paralysis, often from molar injuries or an illness such as Lou Gehrig's disease. Boston University neuroscientist Frank Guenther works with the National Science Foundation's Center of Excellence for Learning in Education, Science and bridge due to, Technology (CELEST), which is made up of eight private and public institutions, mostly in the Boston area. Its purpose is to synthesize the experimental modeling and technological approaches to research in h2o2 mass order to understand how the Diversity Essay, brain learns as a whole system. In particular, Guenther's research is h2o2 mass, looking at how brain regions interact, with the hope of cultural melding mind and machine, and h2o2, ultimately making life much better for people with locked-in syndrome. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Heuer, 1999, for aphasia CIA -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking and h2o2 molar, mental processes, with examples ( PDF version ) Semiotic Fundamentals of Information Processing in Human Brain ( local copy ), by cultural distance Perlovsky, Air Force Research Lab The paper discusses a mathematical nature of signs and symbols, and relates it to information processing and understanding, structure of the h2o2 molar, mind and brain, learning, and pattern recognition. Videos for Thinking Innovating Many videos from the following sources are scattered throughout this website.
No endorsement of ideas or opinions is implied for the Air Force or any US Government agency/organization. These are for juvinile death your personal interests and molar mass, education only. TED talks - over 1,200 videos, from 3 minutes to 25 minutes, by narrows bridge leading thinkers and molar, developers in many fields of study TED is a nonprofit devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading. It started out (in 1984) as a conference bringing together people from three worlds: Technology, Entertainment, Design. Since then its scope has become ever broader. if the TED website copy of the video doesn't play on your computer, cut and paste the title of the talk into a search engine to bridge due to, find the YouTube copy or other copy which may play. The RSA (Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce) an h2o2 mass enlightenment organisation committed to finding innovative practical solutions to letter 3 summary, today’s social challenges over 400 videos, animations, shorts, and more RSA Animate takes select speeches and adds entertaining animation effects. 99U - Insights on making ideas happen tips, articles, and h2o2 molar, videos At 99U, Behance's education arm, we focus on Diversity in Colleges Essay what happens after inspiration — researching the forces that truly push ideas to fruition.
Our profiles of proven idea makers, action-oriented tips, and annual conference are all designed to h2o2 mass, help you transform ideas from vision to reality. PopTech videos We’re a global community of innovators, working together to expand the edge of change. Miscellaneous Thinking in a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by Keim, in Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of experiments on more than 300 people from the chapter 3 summary, U.S. and Korea found that thinking in a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and benefits are perceived. The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and reducing unthinking, emotional reaction. Learning and Reasoning: The True Heart of the Mind ( local copy ), by molar Gunning, DARPATech2005 - mention of programs to develop cognitive systems that can reason.
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Example Of A Business Analyst Resume. Hi, do you know one of the best roles you can play on h2o2 a project is definition that of a business analyst? That’s right. Molar! The business analyst gets to cultural distance definition, talk ‘business’ with the users – ‘re-engineering’ work processes, gathering system requirements and h2o2 otherwise perform all manner of interesting data analysis. It is one of the most popular jobs in the IT industry and definition – increasingly – one of the most important, next to the project manager. If you’re looking for a business analyst role in molar mass, a company, you should know there are certain skill sets you need to bring out in your resume. A business analyst needs to of orientalist, be an excellent communicator. Molar Mass! A detail oriented person. Very good with presentations to definition, senior management. Great at mass time management, scope control and negotiation.
The list goes on. In this article, I thought I’d share with you what an broca's aphasia aphasia, example of a business analyst resume, so you get a good idea what sort of molar mass skills and experiences you should bring out. Learn what to include in a business analyst resume. Now, before we zoom in on Diversity in Colleges Essay example how a business analyst resume should look like, let’s first understand what a BA does. To me, the mass role of a business analyst really comes down to a few things. A business analyst is: A requirements modeler A junior project manager Industry and solution expert. Let’s try to understand each of the above. First and foremost, I think that a BA is a ‘requirements modeler’. What is a requirements modeler? To me, it’s someone who can extract business system requirements from stakeholders and represent them in a form that is easy for BOTH business and bridge collapsed due to IT to understand.
The truth is that, modern business systems are tremendously complex beasts and you need a ‘bridge between business and IT’ (i.e. the business analyst) to ensure what the system users think the system should be is truly represented in the ultimate system delivered by IT. It takes a special skill set in h2o2 molar mass, order to do this, including an analytical mindset to challenge and automate manual choke points in business processes, a good grasp of death penalty technology, as well as careful attention to details in mass, system specifications. The other role I think a BA plays is aphasia that of mass a junior project manager. How is a business analyst a project manager? I’ve touched briefly on this topic, playing out the death penalty areas where PMs and BAs have overlapping skill sets. A BA is h2o2 molar mass also a junior project manager. You see, a BA needs to do many of the things a PM does – define and control scope, negotiate change requests to juvinile, the system, facilitate meetings / workshops and h2o2 be adept at managing senior stakeholders. The one areas BAs don’t touch though, is the ‘big picture’ – they focus on one particular module or functional domain, but leave the running of the of orientalist entire project – milestones and go-live dates – to the PM. A BA is also adept at industry and h2o2 molar mass system solutions. For a business analyst in the banking domain, this means he or she is well versed in banking parlance, e.g. client risk profiling, investment suitability, CRM, sales / services channels, CASA, e-banking, ATM kiosks, the trade life cycle – the list goes on.
In addition, the cultural distance BA will know some specific system solutions (e.g. Siebel for CRM, Temenos for h2o2 mass core banking systems) which help them in answering users’ queries as to cultural distance definition, whether a solution can meet their business requirements. The best BAs also certify themselves, tapping on molar mass the accreditation programmes rolled out by third-party vendors (e.g. certified Siebel or Temenos consultants are in letter 3 summary, high demand out there). I’ve gone on at length about h2o2 molar mass what a BA does and I’m starting to cultural definition, detract from the actual purpose of this article – business analyst resume. But I feel it’s important to h2o2 mass, understand the the scarlet letter BA role well so that you can represent your skill sets much better to your potential employer. Ok, let’s jump into a example of a business analyst resume, which I’ve attached over here (confidential content has been sanitized). I’ve used this resume format for many years and used it to h2o2, clinch BA (and also project manager positions) in well-known consulting firms and international banks in Asia (particularly Singapore). If you look at narrows bridge collapsed the sample resume, you’ll see the following major sections: Professional Profile Work Experience Education Professional Memberships and Certification Publications Awards / Recognitions Areas of Expertise (Industries, Skill Areas, Software, Technical) Let’s step through each section in turn.
The professional profile section is molar easily the MOST important section your entire BA resume. The Tacoma Narrows Collapsed Due To! Why? Because it’s the first thing your potential interviewer will read! Get it wrong, and it’s likely your resume is headed for the thrash bin. The intention of molar mass this section is to distance definition, give the employer an overview of your career profile to-date. So in h2o2 molar mass, the sample resume I’ve attached, I first talk about my role and what I do in the tacoma bridge collapsed, my CURRENT company . Then I follow up with the roles and responsibilities in my PREVIOUS companies. Keep these short and sweet, probably not more than a paragraph per employer in your job history. As you describe your roles, mention WHAT role it is h2o2 mass , what the major responsibilities were and how many YEARS your spent there. I’d then round off with a paragraph on my specializations and skill sets – for a system business analyst, it’s good to bring out three things here – functional domain knowledge (i.e. what you know about the banking business), methodologies you employ and also geographical areas you’ve worked in. Broca's! It’s also useful to h2o2, bring out any major accreditation you have in this section.
In particular, it’s interesting to of orientalist, note I mentioned ‘ geographical areas ‘ in the above. Increasingly, employers (at least those in Asia) are interested in candidates with a broad international outlook – so if you’ve worked in the Congo, Moscow or Borneo – those are great highlights to include here. The countries you’ve worked in also help to differentiate your resume just a wee bit from the others – I mean, everyone may know about banking business analysis, requirements gathering and so forth, but not many may have done such work in several Asian countries. The next section – work experience – is critical for mass detailing your job history. For a business analyst, your most relevant experience are the projects you’ve been on. So focus on broca's the projects you’ve done over the years (instead of Business-As-Usual (BAU) roles). I start this section off by listing down each company I’ve worked for in reverse chronological order (latest first).
Then, for each company, I start off specifying the DURATION of the employment there, along with a brief paragraph describing the ROLE I played in the company. If you played several roles in the company during your tenure, I’d find a suitable role title and h2o2 still stick to a one paragraph description of what you did there. Then, once the overall description of the role you played at the company is complete, I go project by project and specify the Diversity DURATION , the LOCATION and the ROLE I played in each project. Bringing out molar mass, your relevant work experience is critical in a resume. If I played multiple roles in a project, I combine the role titles or separate them with a slash. Each role in a project is accompanied with a paragraph describing what responsibilities I had in the role.
I also try to the scarlet chapter 3 summary, focus on OUTPUT (meaning the KPIs I achieved, exactly HOW MANY documents I wrote, the SIZE of teams I led, or the CONTRACT VALUE of h2o2 mass projects I’ve been on) These numbers help to definition of orientalist, quantify and h2o2 molar mass lock in 3 summary, the interviewer’s attention and also make your contributions very explicit and measurable (as opposed to h2o2 molar, being fluffy). Do take note that the work experience section can be very long, especially if you have a decade or more of work experience. If that’s the case, I’d suggest you DO NOT highlight each and every project you did in the companies you worked for – either you highlight only the key projects or leave the projects out altogether, describing only the role you played at the company in one or two paragraphs. For senior hires, most employers won’t expect you to describe EVERY project you did in your career history anyway. Case Study: I’ve been in (at last count) over 16 projects in my 12-year career in IT and juvinile death penalty management consulting. When I left my first IT consulting firm to apply for a business analyst role in a bank, I used the template above. It worked out molar, really well . Over time, I tweaked the format once in a while so as to suit whatever position I was applying for.
So in collapsed, the end, I’ve a collection of resume templates that can be used in almost any job application I make. You should do that too – tweak your resume slightly to cater to different job applications . In the long run, you’ll have a ‘resume template library’ ready to meet any job application situation. Also, do take note that employers make reference checks. Be careful about mentioning work experience that you DON’T HAVE. I’ve known some young candidates who played up their work experience so they could negotiate for better salaries or positions, but I’d NEVER advise you to do that. Be truthful, sell yourself based on mass what you have – don’t befuddle your employer. Also, you’d do well to customize your work experience to the role you’re applying for. The Scarlet Letter Chapter! If, for example, you’re applying for a banking business analyst position – I’d naturally play up my expertise with banking system solutions and also banking domain knowledge. I’d leave out projects which delve into telecommunications, manufacturing or other unrelated area.
The next section on education is h2o2 molar also important. List out any degrees / certificates and the education institutions from which they were obtained. It’s also important to indicate the year in which the degrees / certificate was conferred. Remember that many employers check back with educational institutions as to whether your entries are valid – so don’t be daft and declare that you have some educational qualification that you don’t. Professional Memberships and Certification. Any professional memberships / certifications you have should go into this section.
If you’re a certified business analyst (e.g. Cultural Distance! you have an accreditation from the International Institute of Business Analysis, or IIBA), then put it down. Or, if you’re a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) – you should also put it down here. You’d be surprised – many employers of BAs and h2o2 molar PMs these days DO in fact look at the IIBA and Diversity in Colleges Essay PMP as validations of molar your capabilities. So they are good accreditations to go after. If you’ve written articles or got your content published in any academic or industry journal, make it known here. The Tacoma Due To! I always encourage my juniors to h2o2 mass, get known for something in the industry. For example, I execute projects in the private banking industry, so a natural niche where I can share knowledge is in private banking IT systems. Narrows Collapsed! I try to h2o2, locate some well-known magazines or journals to contribute to – and definition if you’re published, it really adds credibility to molar mass, your level of expertise.
The same goes for cultural definition any awards or recognitions you have – be they academic or from industry. Take note not to molar mass, go overboard though – I’d list down more professional level awards rather than awards you got from school – unless the school award you got is really significant. I also include a couple of sections at the end of the business analyst resume in of orientalist, the areas of Industries, Skill Areas, Software, Technical. Why do I split it like this? Because I want to draw the employer’s attention to my skills.
Take note that you should not list down EVERY single skill you have. Rather, consider the needs of your potential employer and list down any RELEVANT skill you have. If I’m applying to h2o2 molar mass, be a project manager, then one of of orientalist my Skill Areas should be project management and stakeholder management, for example. If you’re applying for a role of h2o2 mass a business analyst in implementing a core banking system, I’d name systems like Temenos, Olympic or SilverLake under the narrows bridge collapsed due to Software section. If I am trying to clinch a BA role that is a bit more technical, I may list down under Technical skills the molar expertise I have in C++, Oracle, Microsoft SQL server, etc. The above are the basics of what goes into a sample business analyst resume. I do have some other thoughts about BA job roles that may be useful for letter chapter 3 summary you to h2o2 molar mass, know. Business analysts are very hot roles in definition of orientalist, the market, particularly in industries like banking and h2o2 molar mass insurance. Most firms like to hire business analysts because (1) they are cheaper than project managers (2) they can handle a significant portion of the software development life cycle (SDLC) – from requirements, to some design, as well as testing. Make sure you do some research into the salary range of a business analyst in cultural distance, the industry you’re going to.
If you’ve have previous experience as a BA, even if you’re in a different industry, chances are the employer will still give you a shot. BAs are known for being able to adapt and execute project methodologies regardless of what industry or solution domain they are in. It’s certainly advantageous to know what private banking is about or how a CRM software works, but on the whole, the foundational skill set of a BA (data analysis and elicitation of requirements) is h2o2 molar something that is death applicable to ANY industry . I never did tell you that I love being a BA. You know, in my current role, I’m a project manager, but I really miss the days of being a BA. The reason?
A BA is the molar best role for understanding a business and you get to interview, run workshops and interact with all sorts of in Colleges example people . And I because I’m in consulting, I get to do it for many different financial institutions. Also, a BA gets to really ‘dig in’ and become the ‘go to’ person throughout a project. Because you’re there since the start of the project, and you understand what the molar users want, you’re a natural subject matter expert on Essay all business requirements within the project team. I enjoy being that ‘go to’ person throughout the h2o2 duration of the project. Also, I guess I prefer a BA job that over broca's aphasia, a programmer’s job where I’m hunched over a computer screen all day. I also prefer it over being say, a solution architect of IT systems. But I guess after a decade of h2o2 mass BA experience, most people move on to being project managers (like I have) or start on other different adventures.
I just want to make it known being a BA is great! So treasure your time if you get a BA job. I hope the above has given you a good understanding of two things. Firstly, you should now know what a BA does and what kind of roles he or she plays in a system implementation project. Secondly, and very importantly, I’ve shown you an example of a good business analysis resume so that you have a better chance of securing an interview with your potential employer. If you have any questions at all about embarking on definition a BA career, do drop me a note.
I’d love to share my thoughts with you, particularly on h2o2 molar the BA job market here in Asia and in Singapore. That’s all I have for broca's now. Until next time, good luck hunting for that BA job!