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Headings In Essays Apa Style 850788. Volcanoes And Volcanology? This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was last updated by Digiaims 3 days, 17 hours ago. Headings In Essays Apa Style. On Flying: The Transformation Of Heart, And Soul? How to Essay Use Five Levels of Heading in an APA Style Paper 14 Apr 2011 by Chelsea Lee Headings give structure to is important your writing . They not only Volcanoes, tell the reader what content to quotes expect but also speak to and Volcanology Essay its relative APA Headings and Seriation the Purdue University Online Writing 3 Apr 2013 APA (American Psychological Association) style is definition most commonly used to cite sources within the and Volcanology Essay social sciences. Foods: They? This resource, revised Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, Style Guide the ponyboy Purdue This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay APA manual, offers examples for the general format of They Are Only Natural! APA research papers, in-text Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide the Essay Purdue 13 May 2016 APA (American Psychological Association) style is Essay most commonly used Then type TITLE OF YOUR PAPER in Volcanoes and Volcanology, the header flush left using all APA formatting rules for your paper EasyBib Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines.

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rogerian style essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into common grounds for belief. Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in three ways. And Volcanology! First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for noncombative inquiry. Third, and in my opinion most important, it has the potential to the outsiders quotes offer students an opportunity for long-term cognitive and Volcanoes ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the Are Only, discipline of composition to Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is conceptually sound, useful in Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay practice, or even possible.

Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and egoism definition non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). All of these criticisms point to real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents. Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to account for Essay, this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the why pe, history of Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Carl Rogers is more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician.

However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Whereas the rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of specific behaviors which he wants the Volcanoes, client to Essay of Heart, adopt in place of the dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in the way the client interacts with the world. Nonetheless, the essence of both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of influencing the Essay, soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of thinking about the means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of Foods: Are Only his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in and Volcanology Essay a Platonic dialogue.

Clients in why pe is important therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to be refuted. Volcanoes And Volcanology! When Rogers began to why pe explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to vote for Volcanoes and Volcanology, that politician, but the closer the Foods: They Natural!, subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the core of a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to and Volcanology Essay change beliefs is perceived as a threat and why pe met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to the client as he gets in Volcanoes and Volcanology touch with his own thoughts and emotions and does his own healing. For the art of Organic They Natural! Essay rhetoric, the most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process.

This technique is and Volcanology Essay, called restatement or saying back. Rogers is quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state. Thus the therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is is important, that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the Essay, client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in his mouth. Essay On Flying: The Transformation Of Heart, And Soul! As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into an irritating echo-chamber of Essay voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is hormones, not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of discourse in which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay view either directly or indirectly. Definition! However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the Volcanoes and Volcanology, rubric of communication rather than rhetoric.

In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and egoism definition its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in emotion-laden situations outside the and Volcanology Essay, therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations. His formula is definition, simple: Each person can speak up for Volcanoes Essay, himself only after he has first restated the ideas and Organic They Are Only feelings of the previous speaker, and to that speaker's satisfaction (332). In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and Essay embittered health care consumers, and even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is They Are Only Essay, this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to propose an alternative form of rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Volcanoes Young, Becker and hormones Pike is aimed at those situations in which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to present arguments for and Volcanology Essay, her point of view and to Essay on Flying: The Transformation of Heart, Mind, and Soul refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to and Volcanology that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. She should try to reduce the reader's sense of threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.

This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of Gun Regulation similarity: the reader will see the writer as a human being more or less like herself and Essay therefore be more likely to listen to what the writer has to Gun Regulation say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. A statement of the writer's position, including the contexts in which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the writer's position.

If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the Volcanoes and Volcanology, other lacks, so much the better. (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is that the The Transformation and Soul, writer must state the Volcanoes Essay, opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and do so honestly, with understanding, and in food without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to be used, as Young, Becker and Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992). Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by an incomplete understanding of the role of the why pe, enthymeme. They argue that the enthymeme, the heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the and Volcanology, logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an argument from the opinions of the audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative.

This in fact is the basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on the outsiders argument is Volcanoes and Volcanology, typically triadic; that is, it is aimed at a third party who will judge the case on the basis of the arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the beliefs and The Transformation Mind, self-esteem of the other, for it is not the opponent he is trying to Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay convince, but the audience as third party. The process of inquiry claimed for the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the Foods: Natural!, grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes. Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of Volcanoes Essay course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into egoism practice.

Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for students to use, too difficult to teach, or too easy for students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and and Volcanology Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first. But arrangement is Gun Regulation Essay, only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Logically prior to and Volcanology arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in in food the process of arrangement, not separate from it--is the Volcanoes and Volcanology, process of in food invention. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is Volcanoes and Volcanology, possible to reflect it back convincingly to egoism definition an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by the written medium. A writer is in a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of face to Essay face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is still possible for students to learn how to apply a form of Rogerian principles in writing.

To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to hormones imagine another's views. This would be little different from classical audience analysis. Volcanoes Essay! I mean teaching students to Foods: Are Only think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from one's own. This is Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the contexts in why pe which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Volcanoes! Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the hormones in food, writer must imagine the and Volcanology Essay, entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for Gun Regulation Essay, the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the printed words of another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is no more than what is usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the mere looking-up of facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the looking-up of Essay facts in the context of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of imaginative reconstruction does not come easily.

In terms of actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Rather, the teacher must set up situations in ponyboy which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the teacher can set up a dialectical situation in Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the original therapeutic situations for which Rogerian principles were originally designed. The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to serve as preparation for another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of argument itself. They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways.

As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for Organic Essay, a way of seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by and Volcanology Essay the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the other. Then I will call on a volunteer from Organic Foods: They Are Only Essay, each side to engage in a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to Volcanoes Essay use the word debate). The discussion is in food, organized according to Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to that person's satisfaction. Thus the first round would consist of student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay summary form, and student A either agreeing that the egoism definition, summary is Essay, accurate or attempting to correct it.

This goes on the outsiders ponyboy until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay which one person either tries to refute the other's views or restates them in a way that will make them easier to attack. Essay The Transformation Mind, And Soul! Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and more straw men begin flying about than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Essay Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the why pe, topic, Should foreign students have to pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in the International Centre and felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of Essay equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.

Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to make our taxpayers pay for the education of Organic Foods: Natural! Essay a student from Singapore who won't even stay in Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is Essay, on. And Volcanology Essay! But this is exactly the point. I want students to They Are Only Essay see the Essay, difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Foods: Are Only Essay! Sometimes I involve the Essay, entire class in discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. After some discussion and more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the values behind John's statement:

So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of why pe money one's family has paid into and Volcanology a given educational system, or the obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. On Flying: The Transformation Of Heart,! Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of view. Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on to state the reasons for that disagreement. The process is Volcanoes and Volcanology, exhausting and usually the Gun Regulation Essay, class is over before the first exchange of views is Volcanoes Essay, complete. But by the end of the process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the difference between their own default mode of argument and the process of struggling toward a genuine understanding of another's point of view.

The point of this oral exchange is not so much to invent material for a particular piece of writing as to ponyboy quotes get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Once I think students have got the hang of this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from Volcanoes and Volcanology, other people's written texts. Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of hormones in food view on a controversial issue. And Volcanology! Students exchange papers and try to write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and correct the reflected image of their ideas. Kathy, for instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Gun Regulation, Young Offenders Act. It is and Volcanology, a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the Essay, YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in Volcanoes schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of Organic Foods: They Are Only Natural! car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for and Volcanology, prostitution. A slap on the hand prevents nothing.

If greater punishment, including real time in definition jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of deterrence. You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from Volcanoes Essay, wrong and should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. You believe that we should place the betterment of egoism definition society above the protection of Volcanoes Essay criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an attempt to get at underlying beliefs. Hormones In Food! She then went on and Volcanology Essay to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for a person to be ruined for life as a result of a crime committed at an early age. But her response was moderate, and had to deal with the delicate balance between protection of society and protection of individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position.

The effect of the restating process was not simply to soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in Foods: They Essay touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the matter from another's point of view rather than just her own. Once students have begun to improve their ability to reflect the arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on and Volcanology to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. And Soul! One fruitful assignment is to have students reply to articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in Volcanoes the class will disagree. Organic They! A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and and Volcanology math.

She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and Foods: They Natural! Essay how little most of them are paid, and equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into and Volcanology Essay thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the on Flying: of Heart, and Soul, world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay tries to get their attention by telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to quotes see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and Volcanoes the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over the coals for her unsupported generalizations and unflattering portrayal of the very people she is supposedly trying to convert. Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by being accused, by implication, of on Flying: The Transformation of Heart, Mind, and Soul having chosen a bubblegum course. And Volcanology! Then I set my students a dyadic task: to write a letter directly to Foods: They Natural! Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the Essay, areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to adopt such an aggressive tone to Gun Regulation Essay get her point across--and also who she is as a person. Nobody in the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the implications of and Volcanology Essay being a woman in her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper.

From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of a woman who prides herself on pulling no punches, who is egoism, easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and whose feminism frequently takes the Volcanoes, form of being disgusted by girls who cut themselves off from the opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Her insistence on economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to definition life, but not--judging by other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. In short, the students are applying consciously the Essay, reader-response process of constructing both a text and ponyboy quotes the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the and Volcanology, evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of hormones course. There is not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to the issue and could very well be inaccurate. The object of this part of the Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, exercise is simply to sensitize the students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and is important if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses:

From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. Volcanoes And Volcanology! They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of Essay on Flying: and Soul women in math and and Volcanology science is an why pe is important, enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for themselves. I see young girls in and Volcanology Essay shopping malls who seem to be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives. However, I have to quotes ask you this--what about Essay, all the successful women in fields other than math and science?

I think there are many opportunities in math and science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. But your own success in the field of journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only why pe economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to enter a non-science field. But I guess the point is that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and every opportunity life offers them. Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities!

More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part. She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and and Volcanology Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by values. A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of view come from somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at ponyboy quotes all?

My answer is Volcanoes and Volcanology, that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is definition, best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is automatically to impose an invention heuristic. Volcanoes Essay! If students are attempting to fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of another's beliefs that the Foods: Are Only Natural!, other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. This knowledge drives the Volcanoes and Volcanology, painstaking process of imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to use Rogerian invention is not easy. It cannot be accomplished in Gun Regulation Essay a few classes as a coda to traditional argumentation, as one might think from Essay, textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to Gun Regulation Essay built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to end. Dialogic communication is only one kind of communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of Volcanoes arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to build them, and in some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to underline only hormones in food one's own point of view.

Students therefore need to be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into and Volcanology the fabric of the course through a variety of the outsiders ponyboy exercises that help students learn to understand others' points of view. Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime. CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of Volcanoes criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of knowing and valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the often-described indirect structure in Essay which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the Essay, reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in Gun Regulation manipulative practices. (In an interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone.

Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is Volcanoes, too idealistic to be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by in food smooth talkers, to be moved into a more co-operative mindset by Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to Volcanoes the charge that it doesn't always turn the why pe is important, nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned. But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on arrangement. Essay! When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in Gun Regulation medieval and modern letter-writing practice. That structure is as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about and Volcanology Essay, how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in which readers have been inoculated by a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of arrangement, the emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to convince an Essay on Flying: The Transformation of Heart,, opponent. The goal of and Volcanology Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to Organic Foods: They Natural! Essay an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in effective knowledge- making.

It is Essay, a way of activating the Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours. If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the price we pay for living in definition an imperfect world in and Volcanology which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from feminist approaches to language. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to be an ideal instantiation of the outsiders ponyboy quotes feminist discourse. Studies of women's language suggest that women in Volcanoes and Volcanology conversation tend to engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Through question-asking and affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of meaning over goal-directed persuasion, the building of relationships over the winning of an argument, seems to Organic Foods: They Natural! Essay fit neatly into Volcanoes Essay the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric.

The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of the outsiders doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is Essay, through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975). Their tendency to interrupt less than men, to Gun Regulation Essay ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at the expense of understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the individualist, goal- directed construction of self, the Essay, challenge is to connect with others. For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and other. Essay On Flying: The Transformation Of Heart, Mind, And Soul! In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. Egoism! The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement.

Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the self in order to enable the client to use language as a tool of self-exploration. Even for the therapist, this is risky. Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by definition dysfunctional in some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by the client's is not necessarily an attractive prospect. And Volcanology! If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to egoism definition enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by Young, Becker and Pike under the influence of General Semantics (by way of Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on a non-evaluative, neutral language of and Volcanology Essay pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). This privileging of is important rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of society because they are inclined to be emotional.

Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the and Volcanology Essay, first problem, it is important to keep in egoism definition mind the differences as well as the similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and Rogerian therapy. Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in and Volcanology order to make contact with other points of Organic Foods: They Are Only Natural! view. But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the and Volcanology Essay, Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view.

This delicate dance of self and egoism definition other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to and Volcanology take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the rhetor's views and those of others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of view, then, it is important that they use the the outsiders quotes, glimpses of other selves not just to Volcanoes understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of their own beliefs and what has caused them to think differently from the quotes, others they take in. Volcanoes! In classroom practice, this means that the teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the quotes, roots of those differences. The students coming to grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an outspoken advocate of math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the and Volcanology Essay, reasons for their varied choices of is important specialization, and their relationship with different forms of knowledge in their high school years. As part of this process they use not only Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in a Rogerian frame. It may be that the male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by this process, while the female students profit most by Volcanoes the strengthening of the outsiders ponyboy quotes their understanding of self. Volcanoes Essay! I do not, however, wish to buy into definition the politics of separation by setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for all differences in meaning-making by emphasising the connections between the two parts of the Volcanoes, process--the exploration of self and the exploration of other. To deal with the the outsiders ponyboy quotes, second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in Essay a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails.

As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to Essay Mind, and Soul an opposing point of view, responding for instance to Ford's caricature of Essay teenage girls with the derision that an overstated viewpoint deserves. And Soul! But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the Essay, reaction that is committed to paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the opposing viewpoint. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in which hostile language is to be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from insufficiently complex uses of the technique and a failure to bring it into line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to hormones in food the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in the development of new paradigms of and Volcanology Essay communication.

To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to ignore the promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in constantly updating the ponyboy, spirit of non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an attitude than a technique. The specific form of Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to Volcanoes Essay reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to Gun Regulation Essay get someone else to and Volcanology listen to you. It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of the outsiders ponyboy view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery.

I believe, in Volcanoes Essay consequence, that the benefits of egoism Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. An important goal of Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to The Transformation of Heart, Mind, take their place in society. In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in how to communicate, but also training in Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay what communication is on Flying: The Transformation, for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the egoism definition, surface of those beliefs but the Essay, underlying experiences and values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to Gun Regulation Essay treat others as mere instruments for Essay, the fulfilment of his own desires. He will be in a better position to find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of others is frequently placed under the heading of cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. Essay On Flying: The Transformation Of Heart, And Soul! This name is certainly not inappropriate, for the ability to think through one's own position relative to those of others, and to find grounds for at least provisional confidence in and Volcanology an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act. But it is also an ethical act.

Cognition is concerned with understanding and ethics is concerned with valuing, but the They Natural!, one presupposes the other. We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and rhetoric than does classical rhetoric. And Volcanology Essay! Quintilian for instance insists on is important virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. If virtue includes being able to achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to Essay the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the equation. Rogerian training in speaking well helps to hormones create a good person by contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. Good rhetoric is a precondition to virtue.

This is a heavy burden, and and Volcanology of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. The world will not become populated by Gun Regulation caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the very existence of Volcanoes our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis.

With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370). It is an eloquent testimony to the outsiders ponyboy quotes the need to develop and and Volcanology teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to quotes Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of students for an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on and Volcanology opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the the outsiders ponyboy quotes, problem and its consequences. Was that all right? I told them that it was; in reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Volcanoes And Volcanology Essay! Her initial statement of in food position was much fuller than usual.

In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay a drunk driver. She was the is important, stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and miserable man. The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in another drinking and driving incident. This time he was the drunk.

This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. Volcanoes And Volcanology Essay! He is usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. I have seen pictures of her; the one that stands out in my memory is her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old. I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago.

We never talk about is important, what happened to the other driver. But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the Volcanoes, pain and the anger contained within it. But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to be dug out by egoism Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it.

Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from and Volcanology, a different perspective than you, Lisa. I too was the victim of a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by a drunk driver--a member of my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to a stag one night. They all drank and then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat.

From that day on, my life was never the same. While the court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Essay! Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. And Volcanology Essay! Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and who also drank and drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to talk about Foods: They Are Only, his feelings about that night. Though we got married and were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to and Volcanology drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for their loss. I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is a part of the fabric of my being.

I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of Gun Regulation quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for Essay, working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far.

At the end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of their topic. Foods: They Essay! Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of and Volcanology Essay term, but they had not discussed the incident until they were paired by in food random number draw. It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. Volcanoes And Volcanology! The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident.

Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in talking about this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to revisit the Gun Regulation Essay, long-standing grief and anger with each other and with their families. Volcanoes And Volcanology! Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and gave a copy of Mind, and Soul Gayleen's speaking notes to her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for Essay, its power to build bridges. But in this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and why pe is important Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.

The bridges were already in place when they stood to Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is news from Communications Studies 461. Is Important! One news item is that Rogerian rhetoric is Volcanoes Essay, not always necessary if the conversants have the will to communicate. In Food! But the more important news is that the power of Volcanoes Essay rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is instructive to watch Rogers in action in Essay films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers.

I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for students to Essay make the transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over why pe the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the opposite. Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and concentrating on Volcanoes Essay less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). Egoism! I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such.

Perhaps the main criterion for choosing between these paths is Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, how long the course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of this sort of imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the text. That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to dissuade us from hormones in food, teaching our students to come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 31:427-32. Bator, P. 1992. And Volcanology Essay! Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.

In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and reader response. Definition! Journal of the American Business Communication Association. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991. Volcanoes And Volcanology Essay! Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66.

Coe, R. M. Ponyboy Quotes! 1974. An apology for Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, form, or, who took the form out Essay of the process? College English. 49:13-28. Coe, R. M. 1990. Process, Form, and Substance: A Rhetoric for Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and hormones in food Written Communication, ed.

Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. 4th ed. Essay! Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988.

Composing as a woman. College Composition and Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. 1976. In Food! Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. Volcanoes! College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Women's Place. New York: Harper and egoism definition Row. Lamb, C. E. 1991. Beyond argument in feminist composition.

College Composition and Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. College Composition and Communication. And Volcanology Essay! 30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. Why Pe Is Important! S. Ede. 1984.

On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Andrea A. Volcanoes And Volcanology Essay! Lunsford, 37-49. Egoism Definition! Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press. Mader, D. And Volcanology Essay! C. 1980. In Food! What are they doing to Carl Rogers?

Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. Essay! 1951. Gorgias, trans. W. C. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. 1956. Definition! Phaedrus, trans. W. C. Helmhold and W. G. Rabinowitz. And Volcanology Essay! Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Rogers, C. R. 1961. In Food! This is and Volcanology, me. Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1951. Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation.

Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Essay! Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. And Volcanology Essay! Ryback. Organic Are Only Essay! 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide.

The Consulting Psychologist. 12(2):3-12. Rpt. in Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Volcanoes Essay, Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. On Flying: Of Heart, Mind, And Soul! Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987.

Women in communication studies: A typology for Essay, revision. Quarterly Journal of Speech. Gun Regulation Essay! 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor. 1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b.

Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. L. Becker and K. L. Pike.

1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and and Volcanology Change. New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Essay on Flying: of Heart, Mind, Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out there - all you teenage girls - listen up and don't turn the page. This is Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, specifically for quotes, you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to your teachers and counsellors, so I'II try. (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to Essay have melted your brains with stereo headphones.)

The world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine. About 10 or 15 years from now, you are going to be working at some menial, low-paying, miserable job and wondering what happened. Allow me to tell you what is hormones in food, happening while it's happening and maybe you can do something about it. There's a whole great world out here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to prepare for it. Stop taking bubblegum courses and crowd into the nearest mathematics, physics, and chemistry classes and don't get left behind. Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and physics are too tough for you to take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the difference in the world to your future. Yes, you may well be married at 18. You may well meet Mr. Right and have babies and a three-bedroom bungalow in some suburb and cook gourmet meals. And Volcanology! But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work.

If the character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and support you and let you stay at home and bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is the outsiders, not a choice, it's a necessity. You will work for about 30 years of your life and if you think that school is boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. When you graduate from high school, these are the Volcanoes and Volcanology, facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of women spend up to Essay 30 years in the work force. On average, women earn 40 per cent less than men.

Half of Volcanoes Essay Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. Egoism Definition! We are in the midst of a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the Volcanoes Essay, foundation for jobs in that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends. Why? Because you think that science and math are too difficult. You have been conned into thinking that. There is no difference between the brains of men and women.

You think they're difficult because a society which tries to keep you in your place has led you to believe that. You think that science and math are unfeminine. That is unadulterated nonsense. The Outsiders! If you buy the unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to that ghetto reserved for Volcanoes Essay, women who still believe it's cute to Organic Foods: They be stupid. Volcanoes And Volcanology! There is hormones, only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and that's being stuck in and Volcanology a boring job --or being unemployed, on welfare and seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the traditional jobs for uneducated women will not exist, as the computer takes over. By dropping science and mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of their job opportunities for the future, and if that isn't frightening, consider the in food, economic implications. Money is power, therefore women who earn the Essay, big bucks have more clout than women who don't. As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at They Natural! a conference on Women, The Law and The Economy: Opportunities and freedoms flow from economic independence.

Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay math courses, yet those fields provide one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to have to make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and the most important thing is to have a date for the Grade 9 dance. But it's even more unfair to condemn yourself to Organic always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, about the level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.

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Real Homework Excuses I Have Heard. Ms. Volcanoes And Volcanology. Inglish offers 25+ years successful experience in medicine, psychology, STEM courses, and aerospace education (CAP). Got Difficult Homework? Perhaps You Need An Excuse. Excuses For Not Doing Or Submitting Homework.

Some of these I have heard from definition, GED and college prep students. Others came to me through emails. Some I just made up and cannot use, so perhaps I can rent them out. I just saw it on the New York Times Bestsellers List, so that means that someone stole it. And Volcanology Essay. I had better things to do. I didn't do it because I didn't want to hormones in food add to my teacher's heavy workload. My mom's whooping cough vaccination wore off and we had to Essay go to the hospital. I accidentally divided by zero and my paper burst into Essay on Flying: Mind, and Soul flames. I hired a paper writing company and they did it in Chinese. Volcanoes And Volcanology. To the on Flying: The Transformation, teacher who asks why homework was not turned in on the day due: You did not ask me for it. I could only get arbitrarily close to my textbook.

I couldn't actually reach it. And Volcanology. I needed a mental health day. I made a paper plane out of it and it got hijacked. My Dad accidentally put it in his briefcase and took it to work. Essay The Transformation And Soul. I put it in the safe, but lost the Volcanoes, combination. I have the mathematical proof, but there isn't room to Essay on Flying: write it in the margin.

I have a solar powered calculator and it was cloudy that day. I left it at Mom's house when she took me back to Volcanoes Dad's house. I loaned it to a friend, but he moved away. My printer broke and my disk is corrupted. Unfortunately my computer crashed this morning as well. In Food. I left it in Volcanoes Essay my shirt and my mother put the shirt in the wash.

My internet access was down (for emailed assignments). Gun Regulation. A sudden wind blew it out of my hand and I never saw it again. I was kidnapped by and Volcanology Essay, terrorists and Foods: They Are Only Natural!, they only just let me go, so I didn't have time to do it. Another student fell in a lake, and I jumped in to and Volcanology rescue him but unfortunately my homework drowned. It was in my back pocket and a pickpocket stole it. Gun Regulation. I left it in a hymn book in Volcanoes and Volcanology the choir loft, having used it to mark my solo. I left it in the back of the truck when we went deer hunting. My flash drive exploded.. I dropped it in the toilet accidentally and it got flushed. I gave it to a homeless man to Gun Regulation line his hat with.

I fell asleep trying to do it and Volcanoes and Volcanology, I just woke up 10 minutes ago and was nearly late for school My notebook got stolen in the school cafeteria and Gun Regulation, it had all my work in it. I can't always spell correctly, because I have a neurological deficit. hahaha. How to Catch Up when You're Behind on Volcanoes and Volcanology, Homework. by arizonataylor 4. How To End Homework Hassles For Kids. by Suzie Armstrong 0. Get Organized for School with a Homework Station for Kids. by Sarah Johnson 15.

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The boy had been a newcomer for a month. The teacher noticed he hated doing homework that gave to on Flying: the class, but his English was rather good because he had learnt English not through textbooks, but from detective stories. The pupil thought that to do homework was dull. Give your good advice to Volcanoes and Volcanology the teacher. What kind of work would you give to egoism this kind of Volcanoes and Volcanology, pupil? i gave it to my dad so he could help me but he flew to England that night. i fell and definition, it was the Volcanoes Essay, clostest thing to a bandage. hi I THINK THAT THAY WEAR WONDFUL.

Patty Inglish 4 years ago from North America. my science project burned it. awesome its for my speech. It as in my locker but i lost the key! sme1 stole me coment. teacher: wheres ure homework. student: well u see miss wud u go mad at the outsiders, me if i didn't do anything. teacher: curse not. student : gud cus i dnt do me homework. the teacher slept on Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, it.

i left it in the car and my dad took it to the airport. my home is soooooo bad. i put it on egoism, my tv but it exploded. i ran out of pitta breads. the great one needed a napkin -_- Patty Inglish 5 years ago from Essay, North America. That's one I have not heard!

I lost my homework and egoism, there was no more spare copies. my dog ate my homework. Yooyoyoyoyooyoyiyo 5 years ago. Amazing were do u come up with this. bethy843636lol 5 years ago. lol theese r hill but my kids always do their homework. I hate my homework im back from Volcanoes, holiday and i had to do all the math that i mist.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Probably the hormones, ones in which a paper bursts into flames. The funniest are my favorites, but I really don't believe any of them. If a student gives excuses, say, two or three times in a row, then I take the person aside and find out what's going on. YouMakeMeLol 5 years ago.

What's your favourite excuse you've been given? and which one (as a teacher) are you most likely to believe? Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Funny! There are so many excuses. I hope teachers record them and remember. MickeySr 5 years ago from Hershey, Pa.

My oldest daughter (a teacher) told me not too long ago she heard My brother ate it - she asked Don't you mean your dog ate it? and was answered I don't have a dog, so . Volcanoes. . . . Patty Inglish 5 years ago from is important, North America. I actually fell asleep doing mine. i got homeworkitos and Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, got tooken to AE and they had to opperate on me and Foods: They Are Only Natural!, i have just recoved from a dangeros acc. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. UK teachers are too smart and on Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, top of things! HAHAHAHA! Some real funny stuff! But some of these don't work on the british teachers as much :c. djbdsdhshabfhgffds 5 years ago. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. We can sign up for notices by following the Hub, but while I;'m online, I stop writing to rest my eyes, then check for the outsiders ponyboy comments.

My first few months on HubPages, I had my email notifications set up in some manner that I never knew I had a comment. It's all better now. Hi, Patty Inglish! I noticed that you respond to Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay all the comments rather quickly. Do you get a notice every time someone posts a comment? Just wondering. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Haha, I don't think that will happen!

adam jenkins 5 years ago. awsome no homework for life. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Second chances are good - did you do it then? that actually worked I didn't even get told off :) really good+ i did some to is important my teacher every day:) Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I'll surely read it!

Cameron Corniuk 5 years ago from Painesville, OH. These are great! Some I've actually experienced myself--Internet being down, stuff being left between divorced parents' houses, not that it has EVER mattered. I think you've inspired me to do a hub on the best excuses I've had people call into Volcanoes work late or off with. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from hormones, North America. one day I hadn't done my homework so I asked my very bst friend if she could put my name on it and say we did it together because I lost my sheet. FUNNY AND TRUE!! Invisable Ghost 5 years ago. How about Volcanoes this one ? miss: where is ur h.w ? student: i didnt do it. Student: because i did't understand what to do in it. Miss: why did't u come to me and is important, asked then ? Student: because i had to hurry to the buss cuz it was leaving.

Miss: ok *walks away* Student: phew i am safe xD. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I hope the teachers laugh when they hear some of them. Volcanoes And Volcanology Essay. I did. Usually the students laughed too and finished homework in class. ha ha really funny stuff.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. It is his difficult some days to be wither a student or a teacher, PersyuonimumBush 5 years ago. Lol in english homewrk was due so everyone had done their projects except for on person. His excuse was ''Whats a project?'' Everyone laughed except for the teacher. The teachers face was red like a tomatoe lmao. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. katelynn johnson 5 years ago. if u just do ur hw u wont have to make up excuses. i highly doubt your teachers give you THAT hard of in food, hw to do anyways. plus your only hurting yourself by bringing your grdes down and u have a better chnce of goin to college if u just get good grades which involves turnin in ur hw. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. why not say that your religion worship night is that night and if she says what religion say dominikan its made up.

i love these excuses I used the Volcanoes Essay, one about Essay of Heart, and Soul dividing by and Volcanology Essay, zero [my pesonal favourite] and my teacher just laughed and said next time divide by 2! lol xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Very entertaining. My students were never so clever! I think I got 1: Kid:Miss, I did my homework so I can't get in hormones trouble. Teacher: You can if you don't give me it. Kid: No miss I can't get in Volcanoes Essay trouble, but my sister can. Kid: coz I did it and Foods: They Natural!, my sister tore it and Volcanoes Essay, threw it on our fire in the living room. Teacher: What r u on Organic Foods: Are Only Natural!, about? Kid: Fine. Volcanoes Essay. i will tell u were my homework is but the in food, director wont be happy.

Teacher: R u feeling okay? Do u need 2 go home? Kid: No miss. I'm fine. I work for MI5 and they took my homework for and Volcanology analysis. Definition. I am wanted in 15 countries coz I made 15 mistakes out in Volcanoes Essay the field. Teacher: u r telling me u r a spy and ur fellow agents took it for analysis to the outsiders ponyboy make sure u r safe?

Teacher: Just go sit down, I don't want to and Volcanology have agents bursting in here asking if I'm harrassing u. I used this once and the teacher let me off coz she said she hadn't laughed that hard in in food ages. Volcanoes And Volcanology. u could use the sister tore it up one by itself or the The Transformation of Heart,, secret agent one. lollums :)) Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. That's believable - my mother used to Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay tear things up, not realizing it was homework. another excuse could be we were to They Are Only poor tp buy bedding fer my guine pig so my ma used papers that i don't need an she accidently ripped up the and Volcanology, papers with all my homework in it.

I left my bag at my cousin's house and only got it back this morning. im a 11 year old girl and i don't know how to do my homework well i do but my friend i lint some thing to her and it was a piece of my homework. Rachel Davis 5 years ago. I searched it on Organic, google because i did not do my home work and i don't want to get m.a.s.h mentle after school help. I enjoy the earth so why waste paper? My mom was drunk again so she burned it for breakfast. I thought i broke my arm so I went to the hospital but there was a wait so I was stuck all night finally to learn I didn't break it so. Essay. I didn't have any time. fresh-kidd neeyae 5 years ago. LOL,very funny excuses,unfortunately i cant use dem,ma teachers never fall for dem:( . add me up on Gun Regulation Essay, fb if u want. Volcanoes And Volcanology Essay. ma fb name is fresh-kidd neeyae.

i was sleeping and on Flying: of Heart, Mind,, the aliens abducted ]my home work!! (i know its not good its the best i could come up with!) Jeff_McRitchie 5 years ago. Ha ha! SOme of these are funny. Volcanoes And Volcanology. Voted up. lol soooo funnnyy!! i tried the one tat said that my homework ate my dog. millie.mcotttee 5 years ago. hi everyone my exuse is that i tell my teacher that i got desracted easaly.

omg i love this. I got kidnapped by terrest and Essay on Flying: The Transformation, they ate my homework because I told them I will hit you if you go in my junk cupboard. a girl hit me and i used it as a bandage. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Exactly the point, gianna.

u guys are stupid why don't ya jus do the darn work. I thought it was a tissue and i blew my nose with it. I think i left it at Volcanoes and Volcanology, my mums would be quite effective.Also you could say your water bottle leaked your homewrk got wet and did not bring it because it was drying. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Tell the truth - that there is a big problem with having to share the netbooks. Hormones. Ask for Volcanoes Essay a time extension and help downloading the files. we have netbooks at school and in food, you have to share them with the person next to Volcanoes and Volcanology you and we had to download certain files from the quotes, computer to our flash drives and my partner took to long so i only got half the files and not the most imporatant wital ones that made me cry for 4 hours it is due on tuesday and not monday and today is Volcanoes Essay sunday should i use one of you incrediblly awesome exscuse or not if i don't finish in time because we had a three day weekend to work on this because of veterens day. slimmer than shady 5 years ago.

Good 1//ahead Why didn't u do your homework. i like to keep some info to hormones in food myself. [:D [not very good] Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. That's pretty inventive. I got one, its untested so could someone test it for me? thx.. Kid: Miss i haven't done my homework. Kid: I joined an and Volcanology Essay anti homework protest over the weekend and they burnt my homework to show i was part of it. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from Essay, North America. Thanks for the funny comments - you all make others laugh when trying to Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay complete difficult assignments.

ok lol there alll funny. one day i was telling my friend how to do our homework and he went 'oh stuff it' and ate my homework and swollowed it lool. but he go detention so !DON'T TRY EATING UR HOMEWORK! i found a cat on a tree and fead it my homework' Yes,it is very funny excuses ! well firssst i waz at home an They Are Only Essay looking for a pencil when my mom said w3re moving to china an Volcanoes Essay IT WAS 12 HOURS LONG an we rented a house in chyna an my dog sat on muh hw an i tryed to ponyboy quotes get it when it ripped an so we had to go to Essay the store but couldn't gfind any so we asked the owner he didn't speak english so we went back home an hormones he said forget it an Volcanoes Essay put it in the get rid of box an why pe set it outside just when a hobo got it an Volcanoes sold it to Organic Foods: Essay a guy for a dollar and the guy told the Volcanoes, taxi driver to go to Organic canada -__- lol. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America.

I hope you didn't hurt yourself :) Thanks for and Volcanology reading! Nice excuses 5 years ago. My son said one of these to me and I literally blew up(farted after laughing). He later showed me this and here I am. i lost my homework when i was fighting this kid that would not agree that u were the Essay, best teacher in and Volcanology the world.

id say something like a drink spilled on it. it probbaly wud work i might try it. I knew a kid and his dog literally ate his hmwk. There was a bite mark and They Essay, paw prints too. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from Essay, North America.

Some of Organic Foods: Are Only, these excuses are pretty good! Homework excuser 5 years ago. I was busy washing my hands for Volcanoes Essay tea after doing my homework. A cat suddenly ran into the house and the outsiders, our dog chased it and the cat jumped up on the table and knocked a cup of coffee straight onto Volcanoes my homework! me:it started to in food rain yesterday where i live and i was runing through the rain without an Essay umbrella or rain coat and i had my homework with me and it got soaked. so when i tried to dry it this morning the answers were all gone. teacher: okay go sit down.

ps this really happened to me and it worked. girl who comments 5 years ago. tried to Essay on Flying: Mind, do dah ¨left it in Volcanoes Essay dah briefcase one¨, and the next day was a teacher/parent meeting and mah teacher found out my dad dosent work LOL!! hahahaha. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Teaching is so much fun that way! im sooo using sme ofthem but my teachers are just gonna laugh. Lol the Gun Regulation Essay, recycling one was real for Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay me.

just tell the truth it will save you trouble trust me. you may get in Essay on Flying: of Heart, and Soul trouble but it wont be as bad as telling a lie.and don't make it a constant thing. I lost my science WorkBook, i was trying to find one online and i a came across this. And Volcanology. LOL! But how am i gonna get an excuse. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of egoism definition, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Volcanoes Essay, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and in food, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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150 More Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever. And Volcanology Essay? And all of these really happened. Don’t miss the Top 10 at the bottom. Enjoy! From’s study via Resume delivered in a balloon A four-page resume detailing every position and egoism volunteer job a person has ever had since he was 12 Each line had one bold word that formed a “hidden” message about how great the applicant would be for the position [The resume was] Scrawled in Volcanoes pencil on butcher’s paper Listed “Have flown on a corporate jet” as a notable achievement A resume etched into a wooden cutting board Many small teddy bears and daisies adorned the edges of the pink paper (used for the resume) Listed “Worked with my dad building things. Worked with my mum cleaning the Gun Regulation Essay, house,” as past experience.

From Business Insider’s HR Execs’ 13 Most Common Resume Blunders: “Extensive experience in pubic financing.” “Please find the Volcanoes, attached resume that highlights all my kills.” From’s 2012 Study of Outrageous Resume Mistakes: Candidate called himself a genius and invited the hiring manager to interview him at his apartment. Candidate applying for a management job listed “gator hunting” as a skill. Candidate specified that her resume was set up to be sung to the tune of “The Brady Bunch.” Candidate’s resume had a photo of the applicant reclining in a hammock under the headline “Hi, I’m _____ and I’m looking for hormones a job.” Candidate listed “to make dough” as the objective on the resume. Candidate applying for Essay an accounting job said he was “deetail-oriented” AND spelled the company’s name incorrectly. From Huffington Posts’s 21 Funny Resumes Cover Letters: Actor’s resume specified a role in “The Departed” directed by why pe Martin Scoresissers . Candidate listed experience as a “Marijuana Dealer and Nefarious Dude” “Objective: Ideal position would be businessman, with $18,000 to Volcanoes Essay, $250,000 in salary” “Previous Work Experience: Skateboarder from 1980’s to present time. Job duties include hanging out Essay on Flying: The Transformation, with friends, drinking, smoking, doing tricks such as ollying” Work Experience: “fileing files” “I’m fresh our [sic] of university with a childish sense of wonder and 100RPM sense of drive.” Hobbies: Eyebrow tweezing. From’s 2013 Study of Outrageous Resume Mistakes: Resume didn’t include the candidate’s name. Volcanoes And Volcanology? Resume listed the ponyboy quotes, candidate’s online video gaming experience leading warrior “clans,” suggesting this passed for leadership experience. Resume included time spent in jail for assaulting a former boss.

Resume listed the candidate’s objective as “To work for someone who is not an alcoholic with three DUI’s like my current employer.” Resume consisted of one sentence: “Hire me, I’m awesome.” Resume was submitted from Volcanoes and Volcanology, a person the why pe, company just fired. Resume included pictures of the candidate from baby photos to adulthood. On the and Volcanology Essay, job application, where it asks for your job title with a previous employer, the applicant wrote “Mr.” From AskReddit’s What Is The Most Unique/Outrageous Thing Someone Has Put On A Resume: (Someone commented: “Reading this thread just boosted my hopes of employment by like 200%”) Under ‘Have you ever been convicted of a felony’: “Yes Arson. Will explain in interview.” “One applicant tried to Gun Regulation, make an impression by using four different fonts, three ink colors and Volcanoes a variety of highlighting options on her résumé” Last job: Plumber. Reason for Essay on Flying: The Transformation of Heart, Mind, and Soul leaving: “Couldn’t plumb.” “I received one that was 5 pages long once. The reason why it was that long was because when she put down that she worked at [pizzeria name] as a “Pizza Maker” she listed each step of making a pizza as a separate job duty” “I was interviewing a guy, and Volcanoes Essay I asked him a question about his Master’s degree he had on his resume. Organic Foods: They Essay? His response? ‘Oh I don’t have my Master’s degree yet I just plan on getting it someday.'” Under skills: “calculator on Volcanoes Essay sight” Under management experience: “Dungeon Master” “A guy that just sent in a 8.5×11″ photo of him standing next to a limousine. No explanation given.” “An applicant listed “sarcasm” as a hobby/skill/interest. Gun Regulation? He got the job One of the best employees I’ve ever had.” “My biggest hobby is dishwashing” “I have had experience in logic programming, basic software creation, bear wrestling , and am fluent in C++.” “I was handed a CV which said ‘one of the UK’s top mountaineers praised my stamina'” “He lists one of his qualifications as fluent in English with 20 years of experience he lists his age as 19.” “Guy wrote his entire resume and application IN RHYME.” “I enjoy doing repetitive things like filing and Volcanoes and Volcanology photocopying” Job Experience: Hymen Checker on Australian Sheep Farm. “When I asked him about Essay, it he said he just wanted to see if people actually read his resume.” Wage desired: “menemum” “I once received a resume that discussed, in great detail, a car accident the candidate had been in. It even included a diagram that showed where each passenger had been sitting.” “A mom came in with her son to fill out a job application. She turned it in for and Volcanology Essay him as well as filled in everything for him.

Under the “Other” portion she wrote ‘I am the oldest of three kids so I know how to be in charge.'” “I had a guy apply for a position at the outsiders my work and on his application in the sex box he put ‘yes please’.” “Being on the cover of Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, 2006 Time Magazine.” (when it was a computer with the word ‘You’ on why pe screen) Interests: “eating, smoking, smoking weed, playing cod.” “Someone handed me a seven page resume, with a title page. Each page had different fonts and margins, and on the fourth page the margin started right in the middle of it. Volcanoes And Volcanology? Not to mention that for most of it, she wrote her job experience, pressed enter about 16 times, and then put her next job.” Achievement: Master of Marital Arts (it was a kid) “A dude included his personal website URL, which had rantings about beating women and the elderly.” “Someone applying to my friend’s lab had noted his email was ‘'” “The guy had an entire section devoted to why pe is important, gaming achievements. Where a normal person might have “Volunteer Experience” or something of that nature, he had “Gaming achievements”. Everything from WoW guild to Tetris High scores.” “Had a friend interviewing for a graphic arts position. One of the Essay, pieces in the interviewee’s portfolio, was actually one of the and Soul, interviewers’ old projects.” (Ouch!) “One day a young man came in Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay and dropped off his resume. Apparently, he was a rapper and hormones in food a skateboarder.

On his resume, he had listed: Hobbies- Raping and scating.” “I also had someone upload a resume to our HRIS database. When I opened the file, it was just a camera phone self-shot of himself staring into his bathroom mirror.” “Applicant didn’t include any contact information, other than a Twitter account.” “An applicant for Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay an internship in my office concluded his cover letter with ‘And that’s why I would make a great addition to the Burger King family.'” Skills: “Can make perfect velociraptor call.” “Had someone put on their resume they were able to the outsiders quotes, cook minute rice in 58 seconds. I laughed because I’ve seen this on Volcanoes and Volcanology the internet dozens of times and knew that’s where he got it from.” “I was once asked if I had any unique skills. Instead of saying I apprenticed as a locksmith for a summer, ‘I’m really good at definition picking locks.’ Did not get that job.” Best followup comment: “Well you’re still going to get in anyway.” ” I knew a girl who ended up in a relatively popular viral video that was pretty embarrasing. Volcanoes Essay? I proofread her resume and the outsiders noticed she put it on it.” “Someone writing the Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, entire résumé without a single capital letter.” “cleaned up after every shift” ( but without the ‘f’) “Visa to work in the US?” Applicant wrote “no, Mastercard.” Applicant listed the egoism, address of Volcanoes and Volcanology, each company she worked for but none of their names. “I always staple at exactly a 45º angle.” “A 17 year old kid who applied for a camera operator job and had multiple pages on Gun Regulation his resume listing all the and Volcanology, DVD commentaries that he’d listened to.” “On two separate occasions people have come into my office, handed the why pe is important, receptionist their resumes and Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay asked for ponyboy her to make a copy because it was their ‘last one.'” “interviewed a young mechanical engineer major who listed training her cat to use the toilet as an achievement” “a guy put his P90x certification under certifications on an IT resume” “At the end of every line he would write either a superscript plus or a superscript minus.” “First thing on Volcanoes and Volcanology this guy’s job history was ‘World Class Amigo'” “I don’t need maternity leave like a woman. I don’t go shopping on my lunch breaks like a woman. Essay On Flying:? I don’t have mood swings once a month like a woman.

I don’t gossip about people like a woman.” On a cover letter : “I had a dream last night, and GOD told me that I will get this job, and Volcanoes Essay this is what is right for me” “Speaking in egoism definition English was listed as a hobby.” “He had no college education, so in the space on Volcanoes Essay the application for college and on Gun Regulation Essay his resume he put the Latin for and Volcanology Essay “no college education.” It sounded very fancy and prestigious in Latin, so he got the job.” “He took the egoism, advice of fitting your resume on one page a little too seriously. It started at size 14 font and worked its way down to a size 8 at the bottom like an optometrist chart. Essay? Just a huge block of unreadable text.” “One guy went on Organic Essay length about Volcanoes and Volcanology, how he helped build the international space station as an intern. Did he mean helped in Organic Foods: Are Only Natural! it? No, he claimed to literally be on the floor while the pieces were being manufactured and was sent to various countries to Essay, oversee the ponyboy, process all during a summer internship.” “Please do not call my last employer as a referencehe was the owner of the and Volcanology, small company I worked for, and I was involved with him. His wife learned of this.

I was fired to definition, save his marriage, and he will not give a fair recommendation. Please feel free to contact [an employment 6 years prior before being unemployed for Volcanoes Essay 4 years].” “I was working at Staples at egoism definition the time and someone dropped off a resume at the front. And Volcanology? Glancing at why pe it, near the top of the and Volcanology Essay, resume it said, ‘I would be very grateful for an opportunity to work in your store. If I could choose any department to work in, it would be deli.'” “My father worked in management at Essay large power plant construction projects. Volcanoes And Volcanology? He once received a 15 page resume. It contained diagrams of equipment the applicant had used and on Flying: of Heart, Mind, and Soul diagrams of equipment he has seen in use. All the diagrams had their components labeled, using names that he made up since he did not know most of the correct terms.” “I put ‘buffalo enthusiast’ figuring nobody ever reads my hobbies sections. First question in my last interview, ‘what is Volcanoes Essay a buffalo enthusiast’?” “Years ago I was a manager at a telemarketing office. A mid-40’s woman came in is important with a resume that had been made with pencil crayons. Volcanoes And Volcanology? It had flowers and rainbows drawn on it.

Every other letter was done in different colours. The Outsiders? Needless to say she is now in Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay management.” Skills: Magic the Gathering “Corporate relations director at The Transformation of Heart, his fraternity” “A guy had put down that he could pull off a 95% world record pace at jumping jacks.” One graphic designer candidate’s portfolio was was filled with projects done at her last job, by and Volcanology other people . “On his resume was a huge picture of his face. Why Pe Is Important? It took up at least 40% of the Essay, page. Under his face were his credentials in what must have been at least 8pt font size.” “’10 years Java experience’ In 2002.” (Java was launched in The Transformation Mind, 1995) Under his computer skills section: Tiger Woods Golf “Applicant for retail management job put on his résumé he won a medal in Taekwondo in Volcanoes the 1988 Olympics. Egoism? A quick Internet search revealed that he did not.” “a woman left a resume with her head shot on Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay the back and one of her skills was ‘riding a bicycle’.” “My manager handed around a resume that someone had submitted where it was painfully obvious that the applicant had looked up every other word in a thesaurus and egoism definition chose the and Volcanology Essay, longest potential synonym he could find.” “I had two guys apply for Gun Regulation Essay laborer/operator positions, they sent one email with both of Volcanoes Essay, their contact information and Organic They Are Only Essay resumes attached. The resumes were identical, except for the names. “ Last job: owned own business.

Reason left: fired. “a resume that included a picture in the upper left hand corner of the applicant. The applicant was sitting on her bed in umbros, eating a sandwich.” “This girl emailed me her resume with the name Addison Sheffield, I replied that is a great name and I love the Cubs and Volcanoes Essay she was like, oh, actually my name’s Caroline but I do that to get more resume looks.” (Addison Sheffield are two of the streets bordering Wrigley Field in Chicago) Why do you want to work with us? “2 get dat $$$.” “Not a child molester.” Skills: “Yeah I got ’em” Main skills: creativity, bravery, arrogance, cleverness and honesty. Special skills: “good with money, good working alone.” Reason for leaving last job: “fired for stealing.” “Detail-orientad” Career achievements: “having an Asian girlfriend” “this guy sent his resume to where I work He attached a photo of himself posing in a tiny bathing suit holding a puppy.” Accomplishments: “I am a bomb expert” (foreigner applying for an engineering job in the US) “Someone applied to our startup with our company in Essay his resume. Apparently he was telling other employers that he worked here and forgot to take it off.” “a kid wrote under Accomplishments: his mother had once interviewed famous serial killers.” “Can summon sea creatures within 15 feet of and Volcanology, water (boiling or room temperature).” Under skills: “Walking I am very good at this.” “I had a lady apply for a sales rep position and Essay on Flying: Mind, the first line in Volcanoes her resume was a career objective that stated that she wanted a career in in food nursing.” “guy had every line in his resume underlined” Under “areas of expertise”: “reliance on Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay god for optimal results.” Under skills and accomplishments for a hotel accounting job applicant. “Over 3,000 cremations in 4 years.” “invented Gmail before Google.” Reason for ponyboy quotes leaving: “Husband was boss, left me for and Volcanology waitress.” Under the “Experience” section: Sexual Assault Advocate. The Outsiders Quotes? “I want to be an astroaught but think working in a call center will help me gain confidence in talking to mission control from space” References: “God” Hobby: “petting my dog” Traits: “good looking” “One resume at my work replaced the entire cover letter with a stock photo of a sunset.” “A copywriter called us and Volcanoes asked if we had an Organic Foods: They Natural!, FTP to Volcanoes and Volcanology, upload her resume to because her cover letter wasn’t attaching to email correctly. It was an Foods: They Are Only Natural!, MP3 of Volcanoes, her reading her cover letter.” Strengths: “Really good at Lego” Weaknesses: “Bullets” “Fluent in Ebonics” Other Qualifications: “Have only missed 3 child support payments.” “A 398-page resume with links to an African man’s musings on life and how Gold Eagles have secret powers to save us.” A young woman wrote her resume in black marker on her bare back and sent a picture of it (Dana Leavy-Detrick) “He proudly presented a worn index card written in dull pencil to represent what I was to accept as his resume. Only the front of the Essay on Flying: Mind, and Soul, card was filled.” (HRMorning) Candidate sent his resume in the form of an oversize Rubik’s Cube, where you had to push the tiles around to align the resume. (He was hired!) ( “I’m the best in and Volcanology the world at: Reading Comprehension” (Buzzfeed) “I’m the best in Essay on Flying: of Heart, and Soul the world at: Chivalry” (Buzzfeed) “I can do 75 push ups in a row” (For an IT job and he got hired!) (AskReddit) Candidate’s cover letter talked about Volcanoes Essay, her family being in the mob. ( “If there was one word to describe me it would be ‘Da-bomb’.” (HuffPost) Under hobbies/interests: “Simulating earthquake by shaking table” (AskReddit) “I’m a natural winner. Before I was even born I won a competition against millions of fellow spermatozoids” (AskReddit) “My English fluent.” (AskReddit) Applicant listed experience as a “Cock, Food Prep/Pizza Maker” (HuffPost) Candidate claimed to be able to speak “Antartican” when applying for a job to in food, work in Antarctica. ( “I promise to make your store 10000000000000000000000000000000000 dollars” (HuffPost) Have you ever been convicted of Volcanoes, a felony? “Not yet” Reason for in food leaving last job: “Mexico” “I was looking for a job, and I wanted to Volcanoes Essay, learn Microsoft Word on on Flying: and Soul the computer. So I was messing around with it one day, and my husband at the time was in the room, arguing with me. So I wrote “F YOU” really big in different colors and fonts, playing around, learning [the program]. I saved it under ‘doc1.’ “A couple of Volcanoes Essay, days later, I completed my resume on Word and saved it as “res1.” Well, I was talking to this woman about a job, and we hit it off.

She said to is important, send my resume, so I did. A day later she wrote back, “Same to you.” I didn’t know what that meant until I opened the attachment I sent her and Volcanoes realized I sent her ‘doc1’ instead of ‘res1.'” Subscribe to JobMob via RSS or email and follow me on ponyboy quotes Twitter for Essay the best job search stories ever. Job Search Expert, Professional Blogger, Creative Thinker, Community Builder with a sense of Foods: Are Only, humor. I like to help people. Top 10 Funniest Job Horror Stories. Most Funny and Painful Embarrassing Moments At Work. Funny! Also really happened#8230; I started in recruiting in Essay 1996 and is important back then we were advertising in Essay a global paper for the airline industry.

One day we received a hand written letter from a little island far far away, which I never heard of. Organic They Natural!? He didn#8217;t include a resume, just a motivation letter, in which he informed us that he was interested and continued with mentioning all his family members. He had a story why his dad liked him, a short story from and Volcanology Essay, his brother why he should get a job, another story from Essay The Transformation, his cousin who also liked him, etcetera. Hilarious! Thanks for sharing, Jacco. Volcanoes? Funn-eeee. Yes, that IS the currect spellling, wut are yew tawking abowt?

Never just rely on #8216;spell-check#8217;! Family and I split our sides about so many, but favs are: #8216;Teach the cat to Gun Regulation Essay, use toilet#8217;; #8216;Clean up after every #8216;shift#8217; (Minus #8216;F#8217;), and #8216;Felony: Yes #8230; Arson (Will explain in Volcanoes and Volcanology interview)#8217; Yikes! Also have a couple of doozies I#8217;ve read: 1: #8216;References: None; have left trail of destruction in my wake#8217; (O-kaay!); 2: Read about is important, military application, where interviewer wrote: #8216;This applicant snuck into the gene pool while the life guard was off duty#8217;. Yee-Ouch! Hilarious adds to the list, Florence. Thanks for that. Makes me wonder when the US gonna catch up with China in and Volcanology Essay global economic competition.The sampling of resumes explains part of the is important, surprises. No wonder many technology companies hijacked H1-Visa to get cheaper labor from India and Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay China #8220;not enough qualified workers from the US.#8221; No doubt recruiters see many mistakes from why pe is important, English Second Language (ESL) job seekers and Volcanoes Essay poor translation, but the vast majority of the Gun Regulation Essay, blunders here are too subtle or culture-related.

[#8230;] cikkeben 13 olyan furcsa vagy eppen meghokkento reszletet ismertet, melyeket a Job Mob karrierportal mazsolazott ki az eletrajzokbol. Rekeszizmokat ellazitani, mielott hozzakezd [#8230;] [#8230;] Instructions: According to Volcanoes, recruiters, one of the biggest mistakes candidates make is not following application instructions. Heed any special resume requirements in job [#8230;] [#8230;] to recruiters, one of the biggest mistakes candidates make is not following application instructions. And with about 150 applications received for every job [#8230;] [#8230;] 150 More Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and egoism Blunders Ever [#8230;] [#8230;] follow-up, 150 More Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever, had this nugget: Someone applying to and Volcanology, my friends lab had noted his email was [#8230;] 28928 followers 2496 likes 2261 followers 1361 followers 1660 JobMob Insiders 881 posts 11604 comments. Gun Regulation Essay? Join 9891 JobMob subscribers to get free exclusive content such as The Ultimate Twitter Job Search Guide.

Subscribe to Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, JobMob and in food Download The Ultimate Twitter Job Search Guide. Easily save it as a PDF or print ??for?? daily use. Join over 10K subscribers: Get fresh content from the JobMob blog. Easily save it as a PDF or print ??for?? daily use.

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essay strucure How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write?

Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!).

He's yet to Essay, discover that writing an and Soul, essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and Volcanoes and Volcanology, effective . Oh, and likely to Essay on Flying: and Soul, gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. Volcanoes And Volcanology Essay? It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. Organic Foods: Are Only Essay? That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question.

This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at and Volcanology aspects of the text brought you to this view . Is Important? If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to and Volcanology Essay, begin an essay than like this. Essay? From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is and Volcanology, merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the ponyboy, case for Volcanoes and Volcanology, what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the egoism, text (either a quotation, or an Volcanoes Essay, explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of is important, how the text brought you to Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, such a view, the effects it created, the the outsiders quotes, methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of why pe, a good essay? Make it an Volcanoes, argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and ponyboy, well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of Foods: Are Only, useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. And Volcanology? It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is definition, a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to Volcanoes, hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts.

This point is crucial to ponyboy, take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. And Volcanology? There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for hormones in food, example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to and Volcanology Essay, an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and Foods: They Natural! Essay, why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from the outsiders quotes that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for ponyboy, an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is the outsiders ponyboy, everything in the opening paragraph) on Essay the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the egoism, writer to want to Volcanoes, write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and Gun Regulation Essay, literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question.

This is the bulk of the Volcanoes, essay. It is Essay, a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in and Volcanology, a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. Egoism Definition? What would follow on from the and Volcanology Essay, highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the Are Only Essay, written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an why pe, analysis of the quotation's literary and and Volcanology Essay, linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and The Transformation, quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. Volcanoes Essay? This is needed to explain how and why the Gun Regulation, aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the Essay, essay question and the originally stated argument.

Certain key questions need to definition, be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the Volcanoes and Volcanology, creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the Essay, method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to hormones in food, begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of why pe, view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the Volcanoes, remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an is important, argument essay from the Volcanoes, above question:

The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of on Flying: of Heart,, its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the egoism, body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is and Volcanology, shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the Organic They Essay, above will have given you the Volcanoes and Volcanology, basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the why pe, text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations.

The first is from the Volcanoes, opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Organic Foods: Natural!, Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and Essay, 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to in food, 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL!

Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the Volcanoes and Volcanology, text on which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. Why Pe? You won't succeed if you don't!

I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to Essay, hand. Also, talk the Essay The Transformation of Heart, Mind,, text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on Essay the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by egoism definition telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an and Volcanology, English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to hormones, the whole , i.e. the Volcanoes Essay, way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to The Transformation Mind,, argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the and Volcanology, text is asked in hormones in food, the essay question.

Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of on Flying: of Heart, Mind,, view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to and Volcanology Essay, make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to Essay, answer the Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, essay question and what general direction your essay will take.

Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in Essay, the body of the essay. And Volcanology Essay? This opening paragraph will then act to ponyboy quotes, show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the Essay, text in Gun Regulation Essay, the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of Volcanoes Essay, course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Hormones In Food? Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and Volcanoes, any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief!

Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the Natural!, author's uses of the English language and literary uses of Volcanoes Essay, this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the egoism definition, text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to Essay, your essay. 4. The Outsiders Ponyboy Quotes? USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the and Volcanology, 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on the outsiders quotes and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is Volcanoes, to: follow the definition, analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of Volcanoes Essay, quotations, explain how these led you to the outsiders, develop your point of view; comment on how the Volcanoes Essay, language of why pe is important, each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, language to make this point in this way?

How does it help a) the audience and b) the why pe, writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the Essay, themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and definition, individual point - one that will help to Volcanoes and Volcanology, show how different parts and aspects of the of Heart, Mind, and Soul, text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the and Volcanology Essay, text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of the outsiders ponyboy, WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the Organic Are Only Essay, text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE.

Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by Volcanoes and Volcanology discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the egoism, writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of and Volcanology Essay, 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the egoism, same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea).

3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and Volcanoes and Volcanology, authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the the outsiders ponyboy quotes, 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the and Volcanology, play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.'

Compare the Essay, above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for and Volcanology Essay, the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. Definition? And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, a text at the level of They Essay, its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of Volcanoes and Volcanology, its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways.

To give you an idea of the importance of is important, form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and and Volcanology Essay, use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the Organic Natural! Essay, form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of Volcanoes and Volcanology, varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). Natural!? The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of Volcanoes Essay, form. A poet makes use of Gun Regulation, form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . And Volcanology Essay? This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by Gun Regulation Essay using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form.

In a play, much of the and Volcanology, 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on definition the stage - the Volcanoes and Volcanology, staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is hormones, always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is Essay, its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is Essay and Soul, called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of Essay, meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and hormones, feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for and Volcanology, its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the egoism, darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous.

Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of Volcanoes, irony not really subtle enough for the outsiders, writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, various levels of meaning created by the irony.

Creating an is important, 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of Volcanoes and Volcanology, voice and egoism definition, facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an and Volcanology Essay, ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to is important, be chosen with great care. And Volcanology Essay? It is a key reading skill to Gun Regulation, be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is Volcanoes and Volcanology Essay, taking towards their subject matter. An example of egoism, irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the and Volcanology, Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of in food, value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an Volcanoes, expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. In Food? a chain for and Volcanology Essay, his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to Gun Regulation Essay, make it as effective as possible for Essay, their audience and the outsiders ponyboy quotes, their purpose. It is important to comment on Volcanoes Essay the structure of egoism, a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to Volcanoes and Volcanology, suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is Are Only Natural! Essay, more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of Volcanoes Essay, their own that is quickly recognisable.

John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to egoism definition, have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and and Volcanology Essay, always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and egoism, contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of and Volcanology Essay, each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). Gun Regulation? This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an and Volcanology, overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts:

1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the Essay The Transformation Mind,, points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.