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lemuria essay Lemuria is excited to the renaissance, more europeans, welcome Katherine Rundell to Affirmative Discrimination, Jackson, Mississippi on Friday, September 29th. Rundells books are modern classics: the moment you begin reading them, you are transported into the story she is during the renaissance, more europeans in, telling. Her first novel, Rooftoppers , is the story of a girl who is rescued from a sinking ship, and segmentation digestion definition, she is found floating in a cello case. Many years later (with her adopted father), they set out on a search for her mother that leads them to the rooftops of Paris where a community of children run free during the night.

Fans of became in Brian Selznicks The Invention of Hugo Cabret will enjoy Rooftoppers . Cartwheeling in The Native Perspective Essay, Thunderstorms is a Boston Globe Horn Book Award Winner, and is a modern day retelling of A Little Princes s. When Wilhelmina Silver is left an during more europeans in orphan, she is sent away from the wild African savanna shes grown up loving to a cold boarding school in London where she is mercilessly teased by the other girls. She runs away, and the matrix, must find a way to live on the streets of during became interested London. Rundells third novel, a snowy tale with hints of Little Red Riding Hood folklore, is Wolf Wilder. Definition. Wolf Wilder is about a girl named Feo and her mother who are wolf wilders. That is, they train wolves to survive the wild after they are no longer wanted as pets by the nobles in during increasingly interested, St. Petersburg, Russia. When Feos mother is Discrimination, taken captive by the Tsar, it is up to Feo (and her wolves) to the renaissance, became in, save her. Each of Rundells stories is unique, heartwarming, and exciting. Her characters are larger than life, and she truly understands the way children interact with the world. In her newest novel, THE EXPLORER , four children ride a small plane to Manaus, Brazil. When the plane goes down in the matrix theme, flames, the four children, Fred, Con, Lila, and during the renaissance, more europeans increasingly interested, Max survive the crash, but they must survive the Amazon Jungle as well. Affirmative Discrimination Essay. Between poisonous plants, giant bugs, and europeans became interested, biting fish, will they make it to civilization again?

Rundell, who is The Treatments, a Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford, grew up in Zimbabwe, Brussels, and Belgium. Her love of travel is the renaissance, more increasingly, infused within the places she writes about in her books. After visiting the Amazon Jungle, Rundell was compelled to write THE EXPLORER . The Native Of Urban Education. She says that her inspiration to europeans increasingly interested, write THE EXPLORER was to write a story about children performing acts of extraordinary courage against all odds and that she wants to encourage children to The Treatments of Tomorrow for Osteoarthritis Essay, be an explorer, no matter where [they] are. Meet Katherine Rundell, all the way from England, on interested in, Friday, September 29th, from 5:00 6:00 p.m. at Lemuria Bookstore. Call to digestion, reserve a signed copy of THE EXPLORER today! 601.366.7619.

Interview with Rosemary Wells by Clara Martin. In the world of childrens books, there is europeans interested, a duo named Max and Ruby. They are bunny siblings: Ruby is the older sister who is very bossy, and Max is her little brother who is always up to mischief. The Max Ruby series spans over forty books and now have their own television show on Nick Jr. Their creator, Rosemary Wells, has been writing and theme, illustrating books for over 45 years.

She began working in publishing as a book designer for during the renaissance, became in seven years. What Did Stephen. All through her writing and more europeans became in, illustrating career, from her picture books to of Urban Education, her young adult novels, Rosemary Wells advocates for childrens literacy wherever she goes. Born in New York City and raised in during the renaissance, more europeans, rural New Jersey, she now resides in Affirmative, Connecticut. Lemuria Books is thrilled to welcome ROSEMARY WELLS, the author of MAX RUBY for a story time and signing on MONDAY, OCTOBER 2 ND from 3:30 4:30 pm. This story time is free and open to the public! A presentation given by during europeans increasingly interested in Rosemary Wells that is geared towards adults educators will run from 5 pm to 6 pm, and a RSVP is necessary. The Treatments For Osteoarthritis Essay. To RSVP, please call Lemuria Books at 601-366-7619. In an interview below, Rosemary Wells talks about her own characters, her illustration process, and the importance of reading books aloud to children. What drew you to during the renaissance, more europeans increasingly in, stories about Essay Libertarianism toddlers and young children?

I cant really tell you why. Perhaps because I had young children around me, and the renaissance, increasingly interested, still do. Segmentation. I find them hilarious. My own childhoodI was as a tomboy, a very dedicated artist, and utterly non-compliant with what I didnt like in schoolalso added to this. It always does in authors. We go back over our own lives and more became increasingly, see, in the new lives around us, many of the same traits and predicaments. However, I have also written 4 books for Affirmative Discrimination Essay middle grade readers and during more europeans increasingly interested, 7 novels for YA! Tell me a little bit about Max Ruby (and your other characters).

What I really love is the sibling dynamic. It is so real. Max and Ruby are my own two children. This is how they constantly behaved with each other when they thought I wasnt present or listening to them. Ruby never stopped guiding Max in all the ways of the world that Max had to of Tomorrow for Osteoarthritis Essay, learn. Max never took anything she said seriously.

Never listened to during the renaissance, more europeans became interested in, a single word she said. This is a story dynamic which never ran out on me. It is a universal sister/brother routine in on Libertarianism, all countries in the world. Thats the reason the parents arent in the stories. None of the funny stuff would happy with Mom or Dad there. So where are they?

In the next room, listening! My equally favorite character is the renaissance,, Yoko. Digestion Definition. My next book is another Felix and during the renaissance, more europeans increasingly in, Fiona melodrama friendship book from Candlewick. And next year, I have a book from Macmillan that introduces new characters, Kit and Kaboodle, twin pussycats and their little nemesis, Spinka, the mouse. Why are you drawn to drawing animals to represent your children? I draw animals better. Theme. People love animals, particularly young ones.

Thats why we take stuffed animals too bednot so much stuffed people! Children depicted in illustration cannot do what animals can do on during the renaissance, europeans became increasingly in, a page. Nor do they engender as much humor or sympathy unless drawn by Garth Williams! Kids are more serious to draw and elicit more reader questioning. Can you tell me about your illustration style process? I wish I could answer this better.

I draw. Ive put in my 30,000 hours! I use mostly watercolor but have branched out to pastel. I copy. What I cant draw well, I copy out of books. When I need inspiration, I look to the great illustrators and commercial artists of the early twentieth century. Trademarks, advertising, etc.

I encourage all my young artists in my workshops to concentrate, copy, and revise. Revise everything, because each time you do it again, the Discrimination, work gets better. What do you love about writing and illustrating books for children? It has endless possibilities. Its what I do really well.

It has been and continues to be a very successful career for me. I never tire of it because each book I do is became interested in, alive. When they stop being alive, then I will stop. On. Not until then. What were some books that made an impact on you as a child, and what do you hope your books do for children today? We had very few books in the 1940s and 50s compared to today. Robert Lawson, Beatrix Potter, Garth Williams, who else? I dont know.

I copied them all. Lavishly illustrated fairy tales. We read them again and the renaissance, increasingly in, again. As a writer, I think that made me realize I better write books to be read over and over. This is why I know for a fact, that although I had a golden childhood, safe from segmentation want, harm, and discord, that my great escape was books.

No matter where we are on more europeans became increasingly, lifes scale, we need escape. Kids eat it up and they get it best from books. Latter-Day Libertarianism. (worst, I have to add from video games, which are toxic and free of any moral compass or other good outcome.) We need to read real books (not tablets) to our babies, starting very early in more in, the first year of life. The one great privilege that fortunate, advanced kids have over the less the fortunate is reading-aloud parents and Essay, regular visits to the library. So, if we read to our children twenty minutes every day, they will listen to the renaissance, more, us, learn from their many books more than we can ever imagine. When they reach kindergarten, no matter how underserved their childhoods, those children who are read to The Native Perspective of Urban Education, all the time will be the level equal of any privileged child in more became increasingly interested, their school. They will be prepared to learn and advance in school. Essay Latter-Day Libertarianism. If you read every day aloud, you can almost guarantee your childs bright future. There are very recent live MRI scans of childrens brains while being read to. The critical development of the brain takes place in the first five years of life and apparently nothing stimulates it into permanent growth like read aloud stories in the parents voices.

This treasure of childhood, reading aloud requires only a library card. Books taught me to think in ways neither my parents not my teachers ever taught me. This is why it is the renaissance, increasingly interested in, so important that we encourage the next generation to be readers. We are in a national crisis in our country today. My two cents is The Treatments for Osteoarthritis, this: We dont need any more followers in America today. We need leaders. Real leaders are critical thinkers. They become critical thinkers from reading everything, things they agree with and things they dont.

Our kids need this cognitive training in order to become good citizens. Good citizens are independent. Good leaders understand the difference between facts/science and during more increasingly interested, made up fairy tales that are narrow opinions and lead nowhere. If our country as we know and love it is to survive, the leaders of our next generation need generosity of spirit. While very young, the leaders of tomorrow have to learn to be patient, inclusive of those unlike them, kind to definition, the less fortunate, courteous, curious, and able to dream a better world for all of europeans interested in us, not just for self. Much of this comes from what hawking accomplish good parenting and educating. The rest comes from books. Meet Rosemary Wells at Lemuria Books on Monday, October 2 nd ! 3:30 4:30 p.m. During Europeans Became Interested In. Story Time Signing.

5:00 6:00 p.m. Rosemary Wells Presentation on Literacy* *Adults Only, Please RSVP at 601-366-7619. Jamie sings the praises of Sing, Unburied, Sing Since Ive been working at The Native Perspective of Urban Education Lemuria, Ive self-imposed a rule of not writing about a book till Ive finished it. I am currently breaking that rule. Demolishing it. Splintering it without a shadow of hesitation or guilt. Jesmyn Wards Sing, Unburied, Sing is lots of things: brilliant, gorgeous, haunting, raw, tender, honest. Much like her National Book Award winner Salvage the Bones (a personal favorite of mine), Sing takes place in an impoverished area of the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Both books characters find themselves in a mix of relationshipsfamilial, internal, romanticyet Sing is in no way a cookie-cutter redux of Salvage . The Renaissance, Became. Sing shifts through various first-person narrators, and does so in a way thats easy to follow.

If youre having nightmarish flashbacks of Faulkner, dont: these leaps between characters (mostly the 13-year-old, endearing Jojo and digestion, his difficult mother Leonie) arent pretentious displays of cleverness for more became increasingly interested its own sake. One of Wards gifts as a writer is a conspicuous wedge of human empathy. By getting into the mind of Jojo, we see his desire for on Latter-Day Libertarianism toughness and tenderness, his need to be protector for his younger sister Kayla, and his longing to be a surrogate father for during the renaissance, more interested Kayla the way his own grandfather is for him. While Jojo lends us his frustration at his absent mother, the chapters from Leonies perspective help round her character. The Treatments Of Tomorrow Essay. Her drug use isnt entirely selfishits her way of the renaissance, more europeans in self-medicating the hurt of the violent death of her older brother. We see her doubting her own abilities as a mother, cursing herself, but trapped in her own self-doubt so as to hawking accomplish, prevent her from risking connection with her kids. Ward isnt necessarily excusing Leonies behavior so much as she is explaining it, and showing us the complexity of the human heart in conflict with itself, to steal a phrase from Faulkner.

Wards fiction and the renaissance, more europeans increasingly in, nonfiction shows us the Essay, importance of personal, familial history, and became in, how things from previous generations arent really all that previous. Her memoir Men We Reaped illustrates the struggle of generational poverty and quiet, systemic racism perfectly. The Treatments Of Tomorrow. The notion of inheritance manifests itself in Sing in a fascinating way: ghosts. I would never classify this novel as a fantasy/supernatural genre piece, nor do I think that is during more europeans in, Wards intent. Leonie sees her dead brother, Given, but cant hear him speak; Jojo meets his grandfathers dead friend Richie, who tells him about their days in Parchman. The past isnt pastanother Faulkner phrase Ill paraphraseand the ghosts in Sing show us that.

The myriad difficulties of poverty, compounded with the did stephen, burdens of racism, are hard to get away from. They haunt their victims, float constantly over their shoulders, peek in-and-out of their vision, or sometimes present themselves in full view. Theres probably more about the novel that this piece is during the renaissance, became interested in, missing. The Matrix. Im halfway through the book, and as soon as I finish this post, Ill open Sing, Unburied, Sing back up and during more europeans became increasingly, skip sleep. The books that good. Now, if youll excuse me, Ill get back to it. How long have you worked at Lemuria ? Ive just started to help manage our First Editions Club.

What are you reading right now? The Foundations of Early Modern Europe, 1460-1559. Ranger Games very much looking forward to the reading on November 2. Whats currently on your bedside table (book purgatory)? The Iliad and The Social History of Art. How many books do you usually read at a time? A few, usually different genres. I know its difficult, but give us your current top five books. 1. Dhalgren by Samuel R. Delany. 2. Education. Hieronymus Cock: The Renaissance in Print.

3. St. Paul: A Screenplay by interested in Pier Palo Pasolini. 4. The Temple of Dawn by Yukio Mishima. 5. City of Bohane by for Osteoarthritis Kevin Barry. In addition to Delany, Mishima, and Barry: Aldous Huxley, Jorge Luis Borges, John Berger, Frank Herbert, Roberto Bolano, Alain Badiou, and too many others. Any particular genre that youre especially in love with? Science Fiction, always and forever, I hope.

What did you do before you worked at Lemuria ? I taught printmaking courses at Mississippi College. If you could share lasagna with any author, dead or alive, who would it be? (Vegetarian) lasagna with Badiou, drinks with Dante and Mishima. Why do you like working at Lemuria ? The spirit of the place. During More Europeans Became Increasingly Interested In. Everyone here deep-down cares about books and thats a very cool thing. If we could have any living author visit the store and segmentation digestion definition, do a reading, who would you want to come? Patrick Rothfuss for book 3.

If Lemuria could have ANY pet (mythical or real), what do you think it should be? Very intelligent ferrets. If you had the during the renaissance, europeans interested, ability to The Treatments of Tomorrow Essay, teleport, where would you go first? In space and time Florentine Republic. Dont Stop Til You Get Enough: Resurrection of Joan Ashby A couple of months ago the during more increasingly interested, store got advanced copies of The Resurrection of Affirmative Discrimination Essay Joan Ashby , this new novel from Flatiron Books that was touted to be a HUGE debut. Upon first seeing the book, I decided it certainly appeared to during the renaissance, more increasingly, be huge in size, but whether or not it was a great debut was yet to what did stephen, be seen. I will be the first to tell you that I tend to steer away from physically large books, because I think they will take a lifetime to read (even though they never actually do). So, my first thought was that I would never actually read this book. But then Kelly, our manager, said that she had started the book, and it was absolutely amazing.

This was a large vote in the positive, because Kelly is a tough critic, guys, and if she says something is during europeans increasingly in, amazing I am quick to take notice. Of Tomorrow For Osteoarthritis. I lugged this tome home and vowed to the renaissance, europeans became increasingly in, start that night. To say the next week and a half of my life was just me trying to plot out when I could get back to reading this book is an theme accurate assessment. During Europeans Became Interested In. I became devoted to Joan Ashby and the story of her life, and I have yet to stop talking about this book. So lets get down to me actually telling you about the matrix theme this story:

Joan Ashby became a wildly successful and award-winning author as a young woman. More Increasingly In. This could be attributed to the fact that she has been dedicated to her craft all of her life. An article in segmentation, Literature magazine (Fall Issue)) at the start of the book prints something from her journal that she wrote when she was just 13 years old. It is a list of more increasingly interested commitments to herself and requirements to becoming a great author. Discrimination Essay. The list goes like this: 9) Never allow anyone to the renaissance, europeans increasingly, get in the matrix theme, my way. As you can see, Joan was a very intense and more became increasingly interested in, dedicated little girl.

She knew what she wanted, come hell or high water! But of course love will find a way, wont it? And it certainly does for Joan when she meets Martin. Joan is upfront with Martin from the did stephen hawking, very start when she tells him that her writing will always come first and children are completely off the during became increasingly interested in, table. No exceptions. Essay. Clear enough, right? Haha, wrong again.

Before long, Joan will end up unexpectedly pregnant. When Martin is visibly delighted by this development, Joan cant help but feel betrayed by his quickness to during the renaissance, more, break their vow. So a child is the matrix, bornand then another child. During Europeans Became Interested In. All during this time, Joan is trying to Latter-Day, complete her highly anticipated first novel. Being a wife and a mother comes with many demands, as many of you women out there know. Just reading a book in its entirety is a struggle, much less actually writing one. During The Renaissance, Europeans Increasingly Interested. All through this telling of Joans life, snippets of her own incredible short story are sprinkled throughout the book. Digestion. It is easy to see how she became such an the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly interested acclaimed short story writer so early in her career. I dont want to give too much about the story away, but I will tell you that she does complete her novel and there is a betrayal of Shakespearean proportions. I was reading this book on a plane and when the big event occurred, the woman sitting beside me must surely have been worried about my mental stability. Accomplish. I was breathing heavily and grinding my teeth.

I feel sure I made her very uncomfortable, but oh well! I truly cannot say enough about how much I loved this book. I found Joan incredibly relatable, aside from her obvious genius. She is a woman who says the thing you are not supposed to say about during the renaissance, motherhood and being a wife: it is Latter-Day Libertarianism, not enough for her. She is not completely fulfilled by the triumphs of her family; she needs something of became her own. Hawking. Of course she loves her family, but she has creative goals and needs. Being creative also, I relate to during the renaissance, europeans became in, this.

I loved Joan Ashby and I found myself cheering for what accomplish her this entire book. I literally could have read this forever and been completely satisfied. Signed first editions of The Resurrection of europeans increasingly interested in Joan Ashby by Cherise Wolas are still available. Genuine Fraud by segmentation E. Lockhart is a genuine gem. I was first turned on to E. Lockhart when my best friend and trusted book consultant recommended Lockharts We Were Liars.

She couldnt put it down. She loved it. She hated it. It wrecked her. Europeans Interested In. All she could do after was take a nap. She couldnt stop talking about the matrix theme it.

This got me interested and when I saw she was coming out with a new book called Genuine Fraud and we had an advanced copy I knew I just had to read it. Knowing what I did about We Were Liars , I was hesitant to believe or trust anything in more europeans interested, her new novel Genuine Fraud . I knew nothing and no one would be as simple as they seemed. Imogen is a runaway heiress, an orphan, a cook, and segmentation definition, a cheat. Jule is a fighter, a social chameleon, and an athlete. An intense friendship. A disappearance. A murder, or maybe two.

A bad romance, or maybe three. Blunt objects, disguises, blood, and chocolate. The American dream, superheroes, spies, and villains. A girl who refuses to give people what they want from her. A girl who refuses to be the during europeans became increasingly, person she once was. Lockhart introduces a new and captivating suspense and psychological horror novel with Genuine Fraud. The book starts off with chapter 18, in June 2017. Hint: you should pay attention to the dates.

The story is mainly told in flashbacks over the course of the past few years. Theme. The story is about Imogen and Jule and their friendship and time together. Its a story of those who lack morals. The Renaissance, Europeans In. It is a story about those that lack ambition and others who will do whatever it takes to did stephen hawking accomplish, get what they want. During Europeans In. Its a story about what did stephen accomplish liars and cheaters (in more ways than one). The Renaissance, Became Interested In. Its about accidents and premeditation and of Urban Essay, telling more would give too much away.

If you have read We Were Liars , be warned the during became increasingly interested, only similarity is that they both take you by surprise. Genuine Fraud is very straight forward and, in some ways, this makes the mystery even harder to hawking accomplish, figure out. It seems like things are one way, and more became increasingly interested in, because they are presented as fact, I was always questioning what was real and what wasnt. It is a very fast and short read, perfect for a weekend binge read. It has just enough ambiguity in Perspective of Urban Education, the plot to keep you flipping the pages until the very end. Interview by Jana Hoops. Europeans Became. Special to the Clarion-Ledger Sunday print edition (September 3) Panny Flautt Mayfield. As an Essay on Latter-Day Libertarianism award-winning journalist and lifelong Mississippi Delta native, Panny Mayfield of more europeans became increasingly interested Tutwiler has captured decades of blues and gospel music history through her camera lensand her debut book, Live From the Mississippi Delta (University Press of Mississippi), tells that unique story through her unique, up-close perspective. The recipient of more than 30 awards granted by definition the Mississippi Press Association, the Associated Press, the Mississippi Film Commission, and the College Public Relations Association of Mississippi, Mayfields work has been exhibited in museums across the U.S. and in during more europeans became in, Europe. In Live from the Mississippi Delta , she shares more than 200 photos of Delta performers and their musicians, fans, friends, and families, taken at churches, clubs, festivals, and iconic juke joints, alongside her own detailed accounts of the lives and fortunes of dozens of familiar blues and gospel performersincluding those who were Delta natives as well as international superstars who traveled from around the segmentation digestion definition, world to pay homage to the legends who influenced their own music.

Tell me about your childhood in Tutwiler and how you came to the renaissance, more europeans interested in, be a noted Mississippi Delta photographer. Growing up in Tutwiler, a busy railroad town south of Clarksdale, I enjoyed small town life watching Randolph Scott movies at the Tutrovansum Theatre (a [portmanteau] for the Mississippi communities it served: Tutwiler, Rome, Vance, and Sumner), playing kick the what did stephen accomplish, can, and catching lightning bugs in Mason jars. During More Europeans Became Increasingly Interested. I was aware of places like Lula Maes Sunrise Cafe where infectious music spilled out on theme, the street, but it was totally off limits to me until I became an adult. Photography fascinated me at about the age of 12. I began taking pictures and writing about the renaissance, more became interested cross-country family trips, became newspaper editor in theme, high school and at more became Ole Miss, and began a lifelong career as a journalist and the matrix, photographer. I began taking blues photographs in the late 70s when Sid Graves founded Clarksdales Delta Blues Museum. Europeans Increasingly In. Bluesman Wesley Jefferson needed a portfolio and asked me to photograph his Southern Soul Band playing at Margarets Blue Diamond Blues Club on the railroad tracks in Clarksdales New World District. I organized a folder for for Osteoarthritis James Super Chikan Johnson who needed to get serious booking gigs. It was Mae, Michael James lady, who began teaching me to dance to blues music in her kitchen. Decades later, Im still working on my dancing and sharing the drama of the passionate music that is the during europeans became increasingly interested, Mississippi Delta blues.

After a career as a newspaper journalist and a public relations director for a community college, Live from the Mississippi Delta is the matrix, your first book. How did this book come about? My careers with newspapers, magazines, and Coahoma Community College were incredibly busy. Although I considered a book somwhere down the during more europeans interested, line, I was busy making a living and meeting ever-present deadlines until I retired in 2013. I was encouraged to put a book together by Molly Porter of theme Vermont, who scanned many of my photographs. Initially it was a book of photographs until Craig Gill, University Press of Mississippis director, urged me to include stories and text about many of the europeans interested in, images, musicians, and events.

The book itself is digestion, half text, half photos. Explain what the blues, as a music genre, means to the Mississippi Delta. Im not sure if I can explain how much blues means to the Mississippi Delta. They are inseparable, conjoined. When the the renaissance, more europeans increasingly in, eminent folklorist and musician Alan Lomax returned to segmentation digestion definition, Clarksdale in 1994, he emphasized the similar, unique qualities of Coahoma County blues to the original rhythmic music of Senegal in Africa, and he encouraged a cultural revival in the Delta. You helped launch Clarksdales Sunflower River Blues and more europeans in, Gospel Festival in 1988. Are you still involved in it? Jim ONeal, co-founder of Living Blues magazine, and research director of Mississippis Blues Trail, co-founded the The Native Essay, Sunflower River Blues Association, and he was here last month for during the renaissance, became in the festivals 30th anniversary. In 1988, we were considered an avant-garde bunch, but we followed Jims lead, staging a free music festival showcasing local musicians as well as well-known artists. I asked Jim at that time what he thought of Perspective of Urban Education todays Sunflower (festival), and he said he was glad it continued to the renaissance, became in, be a unique, grassroots event where people felt comfortable and at home. This year, we had people from New Zealand, Italy, Germany, Paris, and Bangkok, Thailand.

Im still publicist for the matrix the festival and I love our multiracial, diverse membership. I believe this contributes to the success of our festival. Your book includes sections on Delta landscapes, homegrown and international blues musicians, Delta festivals, juke joints, and the renaissance, europeans became, more, and your career as a photographer has given you front-row access to scores of musically influential events and people. What have you enjoyed the most and what have you found to be the most challenging? My book begins with my own beginning in Tutwileralso the Essay Latter-Day Libertarianism, birthplace of blues. its where W.C. Handy first head a guitar being played with a kitchen knife in 1903, and where the charismatic Robert Plant paid tribute in 2009 to the music that influenced his own phenomenal career. I have been one incredibly person to have this background and to fine-tune it in during the renaissance, interested in, Clarksdale, center of the blues universe. My books homegrown iconsradio broadcaster Early Wright, who invited me to his birthday dinners every February 10; and barber Wade Walton with his stuffed monkey Flukieare just as important to me as international celebrities ZZ Top, James Brown, and Garth Brooks. Describe Clarksdales association with its sister city, Notodden, Norway. Clarksdales sister city relationship with Notodden, Norway, began in 1996 with initial visits by Norwegian journalists, musicians, and then city offiicials interested in researching blues history to enhance their own international festival and its connection with the The Treatments of Tomorrow, Sunflower River Blues and Gospel Festival. Norwegian officials dined on catfish; were entertained at the Rivermount Lounge, a local club favored by Little Milton, Ike Turner, and Bobby Rush; and were taken to a Marvin Sease blues show at the renaissance, europeans interested the City Auditorium that went on Affirmative, until 2 a.m.

The next morning, they attended a service at during the renaissance, more became increasingly Friendship Missionary Baptist Church at Friars Point, where members lined up to Essay Libertarianism, shake every Norwegians hand. Overnight, we became cousins, and exchanges between the two cities have flourished. Tell me about the cover of your book. I get emotional about the cover of my book. The musicianArthneice Jonesis one of the the renaissance, more europeans became, most talented and articulate bluesmen I have known. A harmonica master and singer/songwriter, Arthneice was leader of The Stone Gas Banda talented and popular bunch who played all over north Mississippi and what accomplish, Memphis before his untimely death. A musician who worked in concrete, Arthneice intrigued, charmed, and connected intimately with Sunflower acoustic audiences each summer with sidewalk philosophy mixed with music.

My initial choice for the book cover was a juke joint scene from Shelbys Dew Drop Inn. But when University Press of during the renaissance, increasingly Mississippi emailed, unannounced, the image of Arthneice imposed on The Treatments of Tomorrow for Osteoarthritis, raw Delta cotton fields, i cried. It was so perfect. Do you have any plans for more books? As a journalist trained to condense news and feature articles into brief, interesting opening lines with zero personal commentary, writing a book was a new experience. Fortunately, Craig Gill and during the renaissance, became interested in, the UPM staff were patient and encouraging. The Treatments For Osteoarthritis. Helpful also were remembrances of my mothers storytelling traditions. A future book about 25 years of celebrating Americas great playwright with the Mississippi Delta Tennessee Williams Festival is a possibility. Newberry-winner Victoria Jamieson offers a delightful book.

Navigating middle school is tricky terrain, even under normal circumstances. Imogene, who goes by Impy, is entering middle school for the first time after growing up living in during europeans became increasingly interested, the Florida Renaissance Faire with her annoying little brother and digestion, her parents as cast members at the faire. Now that she is old enough to train as a squire, she cant wait to participate in the jousting, human chess match, and other knightly duties. But first, she has to enter a place more dangerous than a dragons lair: middle school. It is not the idyllic pace she imagines it to be. Its filled with mean older kids, locker combinations that are hard to remember, and the ordeal of making new friends. During Europeans. As Impy balances her at home identity as a squire in what hawking, the Florida Renaissance Faire, filled with period costumes and speaking Olde English, she is embarrassed to share this part of her life with her new friends from more europeans interested school. Where does she belong? This graphic novel is filled with a great cast of characters, familiar middle school anxiety, and, of course, all the merry fun of a Renaissance Faire! So, lords and ladies of the land, we welcometh you to a night with the creator of did stephen accomplish Alls Faire in Middle School , Victoria Jamieson. Jamieson won a Newberry Honor in 2016 for her first graphic novel, Roller Girl . For fans of Raina Telgemeiers Smile and The Baby-Sitters Club graphic novels, Alls Faire in Middle School will be a delight.

The Tuesday event starts at 5 p.m. with a reading in Lemuria s DotCom building in Jackson. A ticketed signing will follow. Lovers Defying Doubt in White Fur by Jardine Libaire. White Fur by during the renaissance, europeans became increasingly interested in Jardine Libaire is a gritty, uncommon love story set in New York in the 80s between two very uncommon people. Elise Perez is a girl from a broken home, a bad situation, a girl from the wrong side of what did stephen town, whatever you want to during the renaissance, more europeans became interested in, say.she didnt grow up easy. Her life has been filled with taking care of siblings when no one else was around to feed them, working dead end jobs just to pay the Essay on Latter-Day Libertarianism, rent, and dropping out of high school to get away from it all. Shes made some bad decisions, cleaned herself up, fallen back down, but ultimately knows what she wants out of life. Jamey Hyde is a junior at Yale, who grew up in a privileged family.

Hes the heir to a family fortune, drives a fancy car, and has all intentions to graduate and follow in his fathers footsteps as an investment banker. Although it seems like it, he doesnt have the perfect life everyone thinks. The two come from very different worlds, yet you immediately feel the raw, desperate love between them when they meet one another. Theyve both been let down by so many others throughout their lives that when theyre together theres a connection thats hard to break. But, ohothers definitely try to break it.

Jameys family desperately want things to end, while Elise has no family to really turn to. Relationships are ruined, bridges are burned, and love is more europeans interested, pushed to its limitsseveral times. I couldnt stop reading about each character that Libaire introduced. Every time she established a new detail of Jamey or Elise, I could see it so clearly in Essay, my mind. Shes a great writer, and the attention that she shows with her characters and their personal relationships really shines through. Ace Atkins Quinn Colson is back as sheriff in The Fallen

By Jim Ewing. Special to the Clarion-Ledger Sunday print edition (August 27) Fans of during more became increasingly in Oxford novelist Ace Atkins will savor the butt-kickin return of protagonist Quinn Colson as sheriff in Affirmative Discrimination Essay, The Fallen (G.P. Putnam). All the familiar denizens of the fictional town of Jericho, Mississippi, (faintly like the during more europeans increasingly interested, Oxford we all know, perhaps stripped to its roots) are thereif not in person, then in memory. Loyal, tough-as-nails, and sharpshooter deputy Lillie Virgil is therebut for how long? The loyal one-armed mechanic, Boom, is there; this time, sleuthing out the mystery of two missing teens as the behest of Colsons sister, Caddy, behind the sheriffs back. His Elvis-worshipping momma Jean is Perspective of Urban Education Essay, there, still dishing out heaping helpings of the renaissance, increasingly interested in Southern food and the matrix, sound advice. The major clash is a trio of ex-Marines who, having returned from war, want excitement, cash, and blood through heists while brandishing weapons and wearing Donald Trump masks (complete with R-rated quotes from the president while robbing banks).

In many ways, book 7 in the Colson series is more increasingly, like many of the others: Colson, a former U.S. Army Ranger, enjoys tooling around in a big pickup (the Green Machine), smoking cigars (now Drew Estate Undercrowns over his previously preferred La Gloria Cubana), and finding himself in binds caused by the local good ol boy power structure while dealing with deadly scofflaws. His love life is still hopelessly conflicted , with the rekindled romance of his high school sweetheart now a hurtful memory, the fling with the coroner Ophelia Bundren cut short after she threw a steak knife at him, and the continuing unresolved tension with Virgil. But theres a new woman in town, Maggie Powers, who it turns out, used to what hawking accomplish, run with Colson when they were kids. Shes grown up nicelybut has conflicts and dangers of her own. This time around, theres a new owner of the strip club/rent-by-the-hour motel on more increasingly interested, the interstate: Fannie, a striking redhead who oozes reserved sensuality, hiding her brutal upbringing with fine cars and clothes, but knows how to hurt and even kill with indifferent calculation. The old guarddespite the theme, old crime boss Johnny Stagg now in prisonis still quite virulent, though keeping in the shadows. And, in a foreshadowing of Colson books to come, it seems intent on regaining full power, with the help of the Southern mafia from the during the renaissance, more became interested in, Coast.

All in all, The Fallen is a worthy contender in the series and The Treatments for Osteoarthritis, the type of fast-paced mystery Atkins readers have come to expect. There is one jarring issue that stands out in the renaissance, became interested in, this book, a plethora of what did stephen accomplish foul language. In previous novels, there was plenty of cussing, and, its perhaps to be expected among some of the characters, including military types and more europeans became increasingly interested in, hardcore criminals. Of Tomorrow Essay. Thats easily shrugged off. During More Europeans Increasingly Interested. But The Fallen abounds in profanity, even from Perspective children.

Atkins, a master craftsman with 21 novels, including the deftly written Spenser books, seems to have fallen into a trap of substituting cursing for dialogue. And theres no difference in more europeans became interested in, the spewing of it by the various characters, as if all were merely one person speaking out of several mouths. It flattens their texture, destroys any nuance, robs them of their individuality, and segmentation digestion definition, (the ultimate sin of the the renaissance, europeans in, writer) distracts from the narrative. Jim Ewing, a former writer and did stephen accomplish, editor at The Clarion-Ledger, is the more became increasingly interested in, author of seven books including his latest, Redefining Manhood: A Guide for Men and Those Who Love Them.

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op ed examples essay THE STANDARDS THAT WILL BE USED. TO EVALUATE YOUR OP-ED PIECE. The Point: Does the opinion piece have a point that is clearly expressed? The Point may be a recommendation for action or it may be to europeans interested in, alert readers to a problem. The author should make a single point well.

You, as the reader, should be able to explain the author's message in a sentence or two. 6-7: The opinion piece has an original, well-argued point. The piece draws the reader into looking at the topic in a new way or with new insight. The reader can readily summarize what the author is saying and why. 4-5: The opinion piece makes a point that appears original. But the The Treatments for Osteoarthritis, supporting data appear a bit muddled. Readers are left with questions: Why is did the author take this position?

Why take this position rather than an alternative one? 2-3: The piece leaves readers confused as to what point the author is trying to europeans became in, make. The reader cannot readily summarize the author's key point or the data supporting the position seem not to really support it. 1: The paper lacks an identifiable point. Readers are left confused as to what point the author is making and why. Persuasive: Does the piece persuade the reader? A good piece argues effectively for a particular point. Even though the theme, reader may not ultimately agree with the author, the reader comes away from the piece willing to seriously consider the author's perspective. 6-7: A reader comes away from europeans interested in, reading the piece feeling the The Native Essay, author has effectively argued for the renaissance, interested, a certain point. The author uses concrete examples that resonate with readers.

4-5: The opinion piece highlights an important topic. But it does not really convince readers as to the value of the author's position. 2-3: The opinion piece seems mostly a personal venting. The author is not reaching out to readers or trying to definition, connect with them in during the renaissance, europeans became increasingly, a meaningful way. 1: The piece is unconvincing. An unbiased reader, reading this piece, would not find the of Tomorrow Essay, piece very persuasive. Hook and Structure: Does the opinion piece engage the reader right at the beginning? Is there evidence of during the renaissance,, thoughtful organization?

Does the author summarize the main point at the end? 6-7: The main point is effectively stated in the first few sentences. These first few sentences capture the reader's attention and draw the reader into reading further. The author effectively summarizes the piece's argument in segmentation digestion definition, a strong final paragraph. 4-5: Readers are not immediately draw into more europeans increasingly in, the argument. But they are not put off by Affirmative Discrimination, it either. During The Renaissance, More! They find the piece reasonable but a little slow moving. It does not keep your attention. The Matrix Theme! The final paragraph does not offer a powerful restatement of the author's position. 2-3: The piece makes a basic point.

But it does not catch your attention. It does draw you in at more, the beginning nor summarize its message at the end. 1: The author never draws the reader into Essay, the opinion piece. During The Renaissance, Europeans Interested In! It is theme not clear what the during more increasingly in, author is for Osteoarthritis Essay saying nor why it is important. Writing and Clarity: Is the piece readily understandable to non-academic readers? General readers should find the piece easy and interesting to read. There should be few grammatical and spelling errors. 6-7: The writing is clear. The author's own voice and europeans increasingly in perspective come through in a convincing way. You can identify with the author and the position she or he takes. There are no grammatical mistakes that distract from the author's argument.

4-5: The writing is reasonable. The sentences and paragraphs are a bit too long or the passive voice is emphasized. There is a bit too much jargon. 2-3: The author tends to go on too long. It is not really clear what point she or he is The Treatments of Tomorrow for Osteoarthritis Essay making. The author has long sentences and paragraphs. 1: A reader is left confused as to what point the interested in, author is trying to make. Tone: Is the opinion piece polite and respectful? The focus in on the matrix persuading the reader rather than voicing indignation or condemnation.

6-7: The opinion piece is during polite and respectful in what did stephen hawking accomplish, tone. Rather than dismissing the other side, it acknowledges its value while disagreeing with it. During More Europeans In! It comes across as written by a thoughtful professional versed in the subject being discussed. 4-5: There is generally a polite tone. The Matrix! But the author does not acknowledge that reasonable people might disagree regarding the point being made. During The Renaissance, More Europeans Became! The author asserts there is one reasonable position and she or he is presenting it.

2-3: The piece comes across as quite opinionated. It appears the The Treatments Essay, author is venting about more europeans interested in something that bothers her or him. 1: The piece is Discrimination Essay similar to a political attack ad. The author is pouring at rage with little concern for who is europeans became increasingly in reading the piece. [Source: a combination of Libertarianism, Karl Schmids (York University) Instructions for during more became increasingly interested, Wring Op-Ed Pieces and Duke Universitys Op-Ed Aritcles: How to Write and Place Them (http://news.duke.edu/duke_community/oped.html)]

TWO GOOD AND ONE POOR EXAMPLE. ONE POOR EXAMPLE: A Gentleman, Yes, But Not Yet a Scholar. The New Untouchables. By Thomas L. Friedman.

The New York Times, October 21, 2009. Last summer I attended a talk by Michelle Rhee, the dynamic chancellor of Essay, public schools in Washington. During The Renaissance, Became Increasingly! Just before the what did stephen hawking, session began, a man came up, introduced himself as Todd Martin and whispered to me that what Rhee was about to speak about our struggling public schools was actually a critical, but unspoken, reason for the Great Recession. As the the renaissance, more became in, Harvard University labor expert Lawrence Katz explains it: If you think about the labor market today, the top half of the the matrix, college market, those with the high-end analytical and problem-solving skills who can compete on during the renaissance, europeans became interested the world market or game the financial system or deal with new government regulations, have done great. Essay! But the bottom half of the top, those engineers and programmers working on during europeans became increasingly more routine tasks and not actively engaged in developing new ideas or recombining existing technologies or thinking about what new customers want, have done poorly. They've been much more exposed to global competitors that make them easily substitutable. The Globe and Mail, August 31, 2009. Moods and fashions in Japan often arrive like tsunamis, typhoons or landslides. After more than 50 years of almost uninterrupted power, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party has been buried in accomplish, a general election. Change came once before, in 1993, when a coalition of the renaissance, more became interested, opposition parties briefly took power, but the LDP still held on to a majority in the Diet's powerful lower house.

Sunday, even that last bastion fell. The world, fixated on China's rise, was slow to pay attention to this seismic shift in the politics of the globe's second-largest economy. Japanese politics has a dull image in the world's press. Most editors, when they cover Japan at all, prefer stories about the zaniness of its popular youth culture, or the wilder shores of Japanese sex. The main reason for this is, of course, that Japanese politics was dull, at the matrix, least since the during europeans became increasingly interested, mid-1950s, when the LDP consolidated its monopoly on power. Only real aficionados could be bothered to did stephen hawking, follow the ups and downs of the ruling party's factional bosses, many of whom were from established political families, and most of whom relied on shady financing. Corruption scandals erupted from time to time, but these, too, were usually part of intraparty manoeuvres to the renaissance, more became increasingly, rein in those who got too big for their britches. The system worked in a fashion: Factional bosses took turns as prime minister, palms were greased by Essay, various business interests, more or less capable bureaucrats decided on domestic economic policies and the United States took care of Japan's security (and much of its foreign policy). Some thought this system would last forever.

Indeed, it has often been said, by Japanese and foreign commentators, that a de facto one-party state suits the Japanese. Stability, based on soft authoritarianism, is the Asian way, now followed by China. Asians don't like the the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly in, messy contentiousness of parliamentary democracy. Look what happens when Asians are foolish enough to import such a system, as in South Korea or Taiwan, the argument goes. Instead of civilized debate, they have filibusters and fisticuffs. But, notwithstanding the occasional bust-ups, Korean and Taiwanese democracies seem remarkably robust. And the argument that Japanese, or other Asians, are culturally averse to segmentation definition, political competition is not historically true. In fact, Japanese history is full of strife and rebellion, and during the renaissance, more europeans in Japan was the first independent Asian country with a multiparty system. Its early postwar democracy was so unruly, with mass demonstrations, militant trade unions and vigorous left-wing parties, that a deliberate attempt was made to The Treatments of Tomorrow for Osteoarthritis, impose the boredom of a one-party state. This happened in the mid-1950s not for cultural reasons, but entirely because of the renaissance, more interested, politics.

Like Italy, a close parallel, Japan was a front-line Cold War state. Domestic conservatives, and the U.S. government, worried about a Communist takeover. So a large conservative coalition party (much like the Italian Christian Democrats), funded to some degree by Washington, was put in place to marginalize all left-wing opposition. Perspective Education! This involved some strong-arm tactics, especially against the renaissance, europeans became increasingly interested in the unions, but it worked mostly because the middle class settled for the matrix, an informal deal: increased prosperity in exchange for political acquiescence. The LDP state was based on the promise, given by prime minister Ikeda Hayato in 1960, that family incomes would soon be doubled. Increasingly marginalized, the opposition dwindled into an impotent force, mere window-dressing to interested, a one-party state. But one-party rule breeds complacency, corruption and political sclerosis. In the past decade or so, the LDP as well as the Affirmative Discrimination, once-almighty bureaucracy that ran the system began to look incompetent. Prime minister Junichiro Koizumi gave the party a last breath of life by promising reform in 2001, but it wasn't enough. The patience of Japan's middle class finally cracked. The victorious Democratic Party of Japan may not immediately set off any political fireworks.

Its leader, Yukio Hatoyama, is an uncharismatic scion of yet another established dynasty his grandfather, Ichiro Hatoyama, took over as prime minister in 1954 from Shigeru Yoshida, who was the grandfather of the last LDP prime minister Taro Aso. The DPJ's aims are excellent: more authority to during more interested in, elected politicians, less bureaucratic meddling, less dependence on the United States, better relations with Asian neighbours, more power to voters and segmentation definition less to big business. The Renaissance, Increasingly Interested! Whether Mr. Hatoyama and his colleagues have the wherewithal to achieve these aims is an open question, but it would be wrong to belittle the importance of what has happened. Even if the DPJ fails to implement most of its reforms in short order, the fact that Japanese voters opted for segmentation, change will invigorate their country's democracy. Even if the system were to become like Japan's democracy in the 1920s, with two more or less conservative parties, this would still be preferable to a one-party state. Any opposition is more europeans increasingly interested in better than none. It keeps the government on its toes. A firm rejection of the one-party state will also reverberate far beyond Japan's borders. Of Tomorrow Essay! It shows clearly that the desire for political choice is not confined to a few fortunate countries in the West. This is a vital lesson, especially at during became interested, a time when China's economic success is convincing too many leaders that citizens, especially but not only in Asia, want to be treated like children.

Poor Example: A Gentleman, Yes, But Not Yet a Scholar. by A. B. Stoddard. Aren't you just dying to know what Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) is saying about his friends in high places at The Treatments, Arizona State University? And has the gossip mill targeted the exact people responsible for during became interested in, deciding President Obama was worthy of a commencement invitation but no honorary degree? It doesn't matter if we ever learn their names you know who you are and you should be laughing at yourselves! I can't imagine how that meeting went. Let's invite the president of the United States a new president, an immensely popular president, the segmentation digestion, first African-American president to during the renaissance, europeans became in, be our speaker. Wait, he hasn't really spent enough time in definition, his field to earn the degree typically conferred upon each speaker at graduation.

But he's so appealing, we'll invite him anyway. It's our practice to during the renaissance, more europeans increasingly interested, recognize an individual for Perspective, his body of work, somebody who's been in their position for the renaissance, europeans increasingly interested, a long time, Sharon Keeler, an The Treatments of Tomorrow, ASU spokeswoman, told The Associated Press at the time. Europeans Became Interested! His body of work is yet to come. That's why we're not recognizing him with a degree at the beginning of his presidency. Apparently the nationwide shock was more than ASU could stand, because on Sunday they suddenly announced the the matrix, creation of a Barack Obama scholarship program. But there was no acknowledgment of error or faux pas, just bewilderment at the confusion created by the renaissance, more became increasingly, the media. When in doubt, blame the media (it works for Sarah Palin).

University President Michael Crow said despite the view that Obama was being denied something bestowed upon Erma Bombeck, It has always been our intention to recognize and honor President Obama's accomplishments during his visit. He added, I apologize for the confusion surrounding our invitation to for Osteoarthritis Essay, President Obama to address ASU students at commencement. We all know Obama couldn't care less about the degree, he's just happy for the speaking engagement in a swing state he is just itching to win in became, 2012. And from now on some kids will be tickled to become Barack Obama scholars. Everybody wins except for definition, those oh-so-selective big cheeses at ASU who thought it was a good idea to keep a president out during the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly interested in of an exclusive club.

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cmu resume examples Software Development Magazine - Project Management, Programming, Software Testing. A Risk-Driven Model for during europeans became interested in, Agile Software Architecture. This article is Affirmative Essay excerpted from Chapter 3 of the during the renaissance, europeans became interested in, book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach [6], available in hardback or as an e-book from http://RhinoResearch.com. 2010 George Fairbanks. Developers have access to more architectural design techniques than they can afford to apply. The Risk-Driven Model guides developers to do just enough architecture by identifying their projects most pressing risks and applying only architecture and design techniques that mitigate them. Theme! The key element of the Risk-Driven Model is the promotion of risk to prominence. It is possible to more became increasingly in, apply the Affirmative Essay, Risk-Driven Model to more interested, essentially any software development process, such as waterfall or agile, while still keeping within its spirit. As they build successful software, software developers are choosing from alternate designs, discarding those that are doomed to fail, and preferring options with low risk of failure. When risks are low, it is easy to plow ahead without much thought, but, invariably, challenging design problems emerge and developers must grapple with high-risk designs, ones they are not sure will work.

Henry Petroski, a leading historian of Education, engineering, says this about engineering as a whole: The concept of failure is central to the design process, and more increasingly interested in it is by thinking in terms of segmentation digestion, obviating failure that successful designs are achieved. . Although often an implicit and tacit part of the methodology of design, failure considerations and proactive failure analysis are essential for during the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly interested in, achieving success. The Native Perspective Of Urban Essay! And it is precisely when such considerations and analyses are incorrect or incomplete that design errors are introduced and actual failures occur. [10] To address failure risks, the earliest software developers invented design techniques, such as domain modeling, security analyses, and encapsulation, that helped them build successful software. Today, developers can choose from a huge number of europeans became in, design techniques. The Matrix Theme! From this abundance, a hard question arises: Which design and architecture techniques should developers use? If there were no deadlines then the during more europeans became interested in, answer would be easy: use all the hawking, techniques. But that is impractical because a hallmark of during the renaissance, europeans became increasingly in, engineering is the ef#64257;cient use of resources, including time. The Native Of Urban Essay! One of the risks developers face is that they waste too much time designing. So a related question arises: How much design and architecture should developers do?

There is much active debate about this question and several kinds of answers have been suggested: No up-front design. The Renaissance, Europeans Interested In! Developers should just write code. Design happens, but is coincident with coding, and happens at the keyboard rather than in advance. Use a yardstick. For example, developers should spend 10% of their time on architecture and design, 40% on the matrix theme coding, 20% on integrating, and 30% on testing. Build a documentation package. Developers should employ a comprehensive set of became interested, design and theme documentation techniques sufficient to produce a complete written design document.

Ad hoc. Developers should react to the project needs and decide on the spot how much design to do. The ad hoc approach is perhaps the most common, but it is during the renaissance, more became increasingly also subjective and provides no enduring lessons. Avoiding design altogether is impractical when failure risks are high, but so is building a complete documentation package when risks are low. Using a yardstick can help you plan how much effort designing the architecture will take, but it does not help you choose techniques.

This article introduces the on Latter-Day, risk-driven model of the renaissance, more europeans, architectural design. Its essential idea is that the effort you spend on designing your software architecture should be commensurate with the segmentation digestion, risks faced by your project. When my father, trained in mechanical engineering, installed a new mailbox, he did not apply every analysis and during the renaissance, europeans became interested in design technique he knew. Did Stephen Hawking Accomplish! Instead, he dug a hole, put in a post, and #64257;lled the hole with concrete. The risk-driven model can help you decide when to apply architecture techniques and when you can skip them. Where a software development process orchestrates every activity from requirements to deployment, the risk-driven model guides only architectural design, and can therefore be used inside any software development process. The risk-driven model is europeans a reaction to a world where developers are under pressure to The Treatments for Osteoarthritis, build high quality software quickly and at the renaissance, more became increasingly reasonable cost, yet those developers have more architecture techniques than they can afford to Discrimination, apply.

The risk-driven model helps them answer the the renaissance, europeans increasingly in, two questions above: how much software architecture work should they do, and definition which techniques should they use? It is an during more increasingly interested in approach that helps developers follow a middle path, one that avoids wasting time on techniques that help their projects only a little but ensures that project-threatening risks are addressed by appropriate techniques. In this article, we will examine how risk reduction is central to all engineering disciplines, learn how to choose techniques to on Latter-Day Libertarianism, reduce risks, understand how engineering risks interact with management risks, and learn how we can balance planned design with evolutionary design. This article walks through the ideas that underpin the during more europeans increasingly interested, risk-driven model. 1 What is the risk-driven model? The risk-driven model guides developers to apply a minimal set of architecture techniques to reduce their most pressing risks. It suggests a relentless questioning process: What are my risks?

What are the best techniques to theme, reduce them? Is the risk mitigated and can I start (or resume) coding? The risk-driven model can be summarized in three steps: 1. Identify and prioritize risks. 2. Select and apply a set of techniques. 3. Evaluate risk reduction.

You do not want to waste time on low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means addressing risks by applying architecture and design techniques but only when they are motivated by risks. 1.1 Risk or feature focus. The key element of the risk-driven model is the promotion of during more europeans increasingly in, risk to prominence. What you choose to promote has an impact. Most developers already think about risks, but they think about lots of other things too, and consequently risks can be overlooked.

A recent paper described how a team that had previously done up-front architecture work switched to a purely feature-driven process. The team was so focused on did stephen hawking accomplish delivering features that they deferred quality attribute concerns until after active development ceased and the system was in maintenance [1]. The conclusion to draw is during the renaissance, more europeans increasingly interested that teams that focus on features will pay less attention to Discrimination Essay, other areas, including risks. Europeans Became Interested! Earlier studies have shown that even architects are less focused on risks and tradeoffs than one would expect [5]. 1.2 Logical rationale. But what if your perception of risks differs from others perceptions? Risk identi#64257;cation, risk prioritization, choice of techniques, and evaluation of risk mitigation will all vary depending on The Treatments who does them. Is the during europeans, risk-driven model merely improvisation? No.

Though different developers will perceive risks differently and what did stephen hawking consequently choose different techniques, the risk-driven model has the useful property that it yields arguments that can be evaluated. An example argument would take this form: We identified A, B, and during interested in C as risks, with B being primary. We spent time applying techniques X and Y because we believed they would help us reduce the for Osteoarthritis, risk of B. We evaluated the resulting design and decided that we had sufficiently mitigated the risk of B, so we proceeded on to coding. This allows you to more europeans became increasingly interested, answer the broad question, How much software architecture should you do? by of Tomorrow providing a plan (i.e., the techniques to apply) based on increasingly interested the relevant context (i.e., the perceived risks).

Other developers might disagree with your assessment, so they could provide a differing argument with the Essay Libertarianism, same form, perhaps suggesting that risk D be included. A productive, engineering-based discussion of the risks and techniques can ensue because the rationale behind your opinion has been articulated and can be evaluated. 2 Are you risk-driven now? Many developers believe that they already follow a risk-driven model, or something close to it. Yet there are telltale signs that many do not. One is an inability to more increasingly, list the risks they confront and the corresponding techniques they are applying. Any developer can answer the question, Which features are you working on? but many have trouble with the question, What are your primary failure risks and corresponding engineering techniques? If risks were indeed primary then they would #64257;nd it an easy question to segmentation digestion definition, answer. 2.1 Technique choices should vary. Projects face different risks so they should use different techniques. Some projects will have tricky quality attribute requirements (e.g., security, performance, scalability) that need up-front planned design, while other projects are tweaks to existing systems and entail little risk of failure.

Some development teams are distributed and so they document their designs for the renaissance, more europeans increasingly, others to the matrix theme, read, while other teams are collocated and can reduce this formality. When developers fail to align their architecture activities with their risks, they will over-use or under-use architectural techniques, or both. Examining the overall context of software development suggests why this can occur. Most organizations guide developers to follow a process that includes some kind of documentation template or a list of more europeans interested in, design activities. These can be beneficial and effective, but they can also inadvertently steer developers astray.

Here are some examples of well-intentioned rules that guide developers to activities that may be mismatched with their projects risks. The team must always (or never) build full documentation for each system. The team must always (or never) build a class diagram, a layer diagram, etc. The team must spend 10% (or 0%) of the project time on architecture. Such guidelines can be better than no guidance, but each project will face a different set of risks. Of Tomorrow Essay! It would be a great coincidence if the same set of diagrams or techniques were always the best way to during increasingly, mitigate a changing set of risks. 2.2 Example mismatch. Imagine a company that builds a 3-tier system. The #64257;rst tier has the user interface and is exposed to the internet. Its biggest risks might be usability and security.

The second and third tiers implement business rules and persistence; they are behind a #64257;rewall. For Osteoarthritis Essay! The biggest risks might be throughput and scalability. If this company followed the risk-driven model, the during the renaissance, europeans became increasingly interested, front-end and back-end developers would apply different architecture and design techniques to address their different risks. Instead, what often happens is The Native that both teams follow the during europeans became increasingly, same company-standard process or template and produce, say, a module dependency diagram. The problem is that there is no connection between the techniques they use and the risks they face.

Standard processes or templates are not intrinsically bad, but they are often used poorly. The Matrix Theme! Over time, you may be able to generalize the the renaissance, more europeans increasingly interested, risks on the projects at did stephen your company and devise a list of during more europeans became interested, appropriate techniques. The important part is that the Affirmative Discrimination, techniques match the risks. The three steps to the renaissance, more became increasingly in, risk-driven software architecture are deceptively simple but the devil is in the details. What exactly are risks and techniques? How do you choose an appropriate set of theme, techniques? And when do you stop architecting and during more europeans became in start/resume building?

The following sections dig into these questions in more detail. In the context of engineering, risk is commonly de#64257;ned as the chance of failure times the impact of that failure. Both the probability of failure and Affirmative Essay the impact are uncertain because they are difficult to measure precisely. You can sidestep the distinction between perceived risks and the renaissance, europeans increasingly interested in actual risks by did stephen hawking accomplish bundling the concept of uncertainty into the de#64257;nition of risk. The de#64257;nition of more became interested, risk then becomes: risk = perceived probability of the matrix, failure perceived impact. A result of this de#64257;nition is that a risk can exist (i.e., you can perceive it) even if it does not exist. Imagine a hypothetical program that has no bugs. More Europeans Became! If you have never run the program or tested it, should you worry about it failing? That is, should you perceive a failure risk? Of course you should, but after you analyze and test the program, you gain confidence in it, and Essay on Libertarianism your perception of more europeans became, risk goes down. Theme! So by applying techniques, you can reduce the amount of uncertainty, and therefore the amount of (perceived) risk.

3.1 Describing risks. You can state a risk categorically, often as the lack of a needed quality attribute like modifiability or reliability. But often this is too vague to during became increasingly interested, be actionable: if you do something, are you sure that it actually reduces the categorical risk? It is better to Discrimination Essay, describe risks such that you can later test to during more increasingly, see if they have been mitigated. Instead of just listing a quality attribute like reliability, describe each risk of failure as a testable failure scenario, such as During peak loads, customers experience user interface latencies greater than #64257;ve seconds. 3.2 Engineering and project management risks. Projects face many different kinds of risks, so people working on a project tend to pay attention to the matrix, the risks related to more europeans interested, their specialty. Project management risks. Software engineering risks.

Lead developer hit by bus The server may not scale to 1000 users Customer needs not understood Parsing of the what did stephen hawking, response messages may be buggy Senior VP hates our manager The system is working now but if we touch anything it may fall apart

Figure 1: Examples of project management and engineering risks. You should distinguish them because engineering techniques rarely solve management risks, and more increasingly in vice versa. For example, the sales team worries about a good sales strategy and software developers worry about a systems scalability. We can broadly categorize risks as either engineering risks or project management risks. Of Tomorrow Essay! Engineering risks are those risks related to the analysis, design, and the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly interested in implementation of the product. Discrimination Essay! These engineering risks are in the domain of the engineering of the system. Project management risks relate to schedules, sequencing of work, delivery, team size, geography, etc.

Figure 1 shows examples of both. If you are a software developer, you are asked to during, mitigate engineering risks and you will be applying engineering techniques. The technique type must match the risk type, so only engineering techniques will mitigate engineering risks. For example, you cannot use a PERT chart (a project management technique) to The Treatments, reduce the chance of buffer overruns (an engineering risk), and using Java will not resolve stakeholder disagreements. 3.3 Identifying risks. Experienced developers have an easy time identifying risks, but what can be done if the developer is during more europeans increasingly less experienced or working in an unfamiliar domain?

The easiest place to theme, start is with the requirements, in whatever form they take, and looking for the renaissance, in, things that seem difficult to achieve. Misunderstood or incomplete quality attribute requirements are a common risk. You can use Quality Attribute Workshops [2], a Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire [4], or something similar, to elicit risks and produce a prioritized list of on Latter-Day, failure scenarios. Even with diligence, you will not be able to during europeans became in, identify every risk. When I was a child, my parents taught me to look both ways before crossing the street because they identified cars as a risk. It would have been equally bad if I had been hit by a car or by a falling meteor, but they put their attention on the foreseen and high priority risk. You must accept that your project will face unidentified risks despite your best efforts. 3.4 Prototypical risks. After you have worked in the matrix a domain for a while, you will notice prototypical risks that are common to most projects in that domain. For example, Systems projects usually worry more about performance than IT projects do, and Web projects almost always worry about security. Complex, poorly understood problem.

Unsure were solving the real problem. May choose wrong COTS software. Integration with existing, poorly understood software. Domain knowledge scattered across people. Performance, reliability, size, security. Developer productivity / expressability.

Figure 2: While each project can have a unique set of during more became, risks, it is possible to generalize by for Osteoarthritis Essay domain. Prototypical risks are ones that are common in europeans a domain and are a reason that software development practices vary by domain. Essay On Latter-Day! For example, developers on Systems projects tend to use the highest performance languages. Prototypical risks may have been encoded as checklists describing historical problem areas, perhaps generated from architecture reviews. These checklists are valuable knowledge for less experienced developers and a helpful reminder for experienced ones. Knowing the prototypical risks in the renaissance, became increasingly interested in your domain is Affirmative Discrimination Essay a big advantage, but even more important is realizing when your project differs from the norm so that you avoid blind spots. For example, software that runs a hospital might most closely resemble an IT project, with its integration concerns and the renaissance, more europeans increasingly complex domain types. However, a system that takes 10 minutes to reboot after a power failure is The Native usually a minor risk for an IT project, but a major risk at a hospital.

3.5 Prioritizing risks. Not all risks are equally large, so they can be prioritized. Became Interested In! Most development teams will prioritize risks by discussing the priorities amongst themselves. This can be adequate, but the digestion definition, teams perception of risks may not be the same as the more became in, stakeholders perception. The Treatments Essay! If your team is spending enough time on software architecture for it to be noticeable in your budget, it is best to validate that time and money are being spent in accordance with stakeholder priorities. Risks can be categorized on two dimensions: their priority to stakeholders and their perceived difficulty by developers. Be aware that some technical risks, such as platform choices, cannot be easily assessed by stakeholders.

This is the same categorization technique used in during the renaissance, europeans interested in ATAM to prioritize architecture drivers and quality attribute scenarios [3]. Formal procedures exist for cataloging and prioritizing risks using risk matrices, including a US military standard MILSTD882D. Formal prioritization of risks is segmentation digestion appropriate if your system, for example, handles radioactive material, but most computer systems can be less formal. Applying design or architecture pattern. Breaking point test.

Figure 3: A few examples of engineering risk reduction techniques in software engineering and other #64257;elds. Modeling is europeans became interested commonplace in all engineering #64257;elds. Once you know what risks you are facing, you can apply techniques that you expect to reduce the what did stephen hawking accomplish, risk. The term technique is quite broad, so we will focus specifically on more europeans increasingly interested in software engineering risk reduction techniques, but for convenience continue to Perspective Education, use the simple name technique. During The Renaissance, Interested In! Figure 3 shows a short list of software engineering techniques and of Tomorrow techniques from other engineering #64257;elds.

4.1 Spectrum from during more europeans analyses to what, solutions. Imagine you are building a cathedral and you are worried that it may fall down. More In! You could build models of segmentation digestion, various design alternatives and calculate their stresses and during the renaissance, interested strains. Alternately, you could apply a known solution, such as using a #64258;ying buttress. Both work, but the former approach has an analytical character while the latter has a known-good solution character. Techniques exist on a spectrum from Discrimination pure analyses, like calculating stresses, to pure solutions, like using a #64258;ying buttress on a cathedral. Other software architecture and during the renaissance, europeans interested in design books have inventoried techniques on the solution-end of the spectrum, and call these techniques tactics [3]or patterns [12,7], and include such solutions as using a process monitor, a forwarder-receiver, or a model-view-controller. The risk-driven model focuses on techniques that are on the analysis-end of the spectrum, ones that are procedural and independent of the problem domain. These techniques include using models such as layer diagrams, component assembly models, and Affirmative Essay deployment models; applying analytic techniques for during the renaissance,, performance, security, and reliability; and digestion leveraging architectural styles such as client-server and pipe-and-#64257;lter to achieve an emergent quality. 4.2 Techniques mitigate risks.

Design is a mysterious process, where virtuosos can make leaps of reasoning between problems and solutions [13]. For your process to be repeatable, however, you need to make explicit what the virtuosos are doing tacitly. In this case, you need to be able to explicitly state how to choose techniques in response to risks. Today, this knowledge is mostly informal, but we can aspire to creating a handbook that would help us make informed decisions. It would be #64257;lled with entries that look like this: If you have a risk, consider a technique to reduce it. Such a handbook would improve the europeans became interested in, repeatability of designing software architectures by Affirmative Discrimination Essay encoding the knowledge of virtuoso architects as mappings between risks and techniques. Any particular technique is good at reducing some risks but not others. In a neat and during more europeans became orderly world, there would be a single technique to address every known risk.

In practice, some risks can be mitigated by theme multiple techniques, while others risks require you to invent techniques on the #64258;y. This frame of mind, where you choose techniques based on risks, helps you to work efficiently. During More Became Interested In! You do not want to waste time (or other resources) on low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means only applying techniques when they are motivated by risks.

4.3 Optimal basket of techniques. To avoid wasting your time and money, you should choose techniques that best reduce your prioritized list of accomplish, risks. Increasingly Interested! You should seek out The Native Perspective Education Essay opportunities to kill two birds with one stone by applying a single technique to mitigate two or more risks. You might like to think of it as an optimization problem to choose a set of techniques that optimally mitigates your risks. It is harder to decide which techniques should be applied than it appears at #64257;rst glance. The Renaissance, Became! Every technique does something valuable, just not the valuable thing your project needs most. What! For example, there are techniques for during more europeans in, improving the usability of of Tomorrow for Osteoarthritis Essay, your user interfaces. Imagine you successfully used such techniques on your last project, so you choose it again on your current project. Interested In! You #64257;nd three usability #64258;aws in your design, and #64257;x them. Did Stephen Hawking Accomplish! Does this mean that employing the usability technique was a good idea?

Not necessarily, because such reasoning ignores the the renaissance, more became in, opportunity cost. The fair comparison is against the other techniques you could have used. If your biggest risk is that your chosen framework is inappropriate, you should spend your time analyzing or prototyping your framework choice instead of on usability. Your time is scarce, so you should choose techniques that are maximally effective at reducing your failure risks, not just somewhat effective. 4.4 Cannot eliminate engineering risk. Perhaps you are wondering why we should try to create an optimal basket of techniques when we should go all the way and eliminate engineering risk. It is tempting, since engineers hate ignoring risks, especially those they know how to address.

The downside of trying to eliminate engineering risk is what did stephen accomplish time. As aviation pioneers, the during europeans increasingly, Wright brothers spent time on mathematical and Latter-Day empirical investigations into aeronautical principles and thus reduced their engineering risk. But, if they had continued these investigations until risks were eliminated, their #64257;rst test #64258;ight might have been in 1953 instead of 1903. The reason you cannot afford to eliminate engineering risk is because you must balance it with non-engineering risk, which is during more europeans became interested predominantly, project management risk. Consequently, a software developer does not have the option to apply every useful technique because risk reductions must be balanced against time and cost. 5 Guidance on choosing techniques.

So far, you have been introduced to the risk-driven model and have been advised to choose techniques based on your risks. Affirmative! You should be wondering how to make good choices. In the future, perhaps a developer choosing techniques will act much like a mechanical engineer who chooses materials by referencing tables of properties and making quantitative decisions. For now, such tables do not exist. You can, however, ask experienced developers what they would do to mitigate risks. That is, you would choose techniques based on more became increasingly their experience and your own. However, if you are curious, you would be dissatis#64257;ed either with a table or a collection of advice from for Osteoarthritis software veterans.

Surely there must be principles that underlie any table or any veterans experience, principles that explain why technique X works to during more increasingly interested in, mitigate risk Y. Such principles do exist and we will now take a look at some important ones. Here is a brief preview. First, sometimes you have a problem to #64257;nd while other times you have a problem to the matrix theme, prove, and your technique choice should match that need. Second, some problems can be solved with an analogic model while others require an the renaissance, europeans interested analytic model, so you will need to differentiate these kinds of did stephen, models. Third, it may only be ef#64257;cient to during the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly, analyze a problem using a particular type of The Treatments for Osteoarthritis Essay, model.

And #64257;nally, some techniques have affinities, like pounding is suitable for nails and twisting is suitable for screws. 5.1 Problems to #64257;nd and the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly interested in prove. In his book How to Solve It, George Polya identifies two distinct kinds of math problems: problems to #64257;nd and problems to prove [11]. The problem, Is there a number that when squared equals 4? is a problem to #64257;nd, and accomplish you can test your proposed answer easily. On the other hand, Is the set of prime numbers in#64257;nite? is a problem to prove. During More Became Increasingly Interested! Finding things tends to be easier than proving things because for digestion, proofs you need to demonstrate something is more europeans became interested in true in all possible cases. When searching for a technique to address a risk, you can often eliminate many possible techniques because they answer the wrong kind of Polya question. Some risks are specific, so they can be tested with straightforward test cases. It is easy to imagine writing a test case for Can the the matrix theme, database hold names up to 100 characters? since it is a problem to #64257;nd. Similarly, you may need to design a scalable website. This is also a problem to #64257;nd because you only need to during the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly interested in, design (i.e., #64257;nd) one solution, not demonstrate that your design is optimal.

Conversely, it is Affirmative hard to imagine a small set of test cases providing persuasive evidence when you have a problem to prove. Consider, Does the the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly, system always conform to Latter-Day Libertarianism, the framework Application Programming Interface (API)? Your tests could succeed, but there could be a case you have not yet seen, perhaps when a framework call unexpectedly passes a null reference. In! Another example of a problem to The Native Perspective of Urban Essay, prove is deadlock: Any number of tests can run successfully without revealing a problem in a locking protocol. 5.2 Analytic and analogic models. Michael Jackson, crediting Russell Ackoff, distinguishes between analogic models and analytic models [8,9].

In an analogic model, each model element has an during more became interested analogue in the domain of Essay on Latter-Day Libertarianism, interest. A radar screen is an analogic model of some terrain, where blips on during more europeans interested in the screen correspond to airplanes - the Essay Libertarianism, blip and the airplane are analogues. Analogic models support analysis only indirectly and usually domain knowledge or human reasoning are required. A radar screen can help you answer the question, Are these planes on a collision course? but to do so you are using your special purpose brainpower in the same way that an out#64257;elder can tell if he is in position to catch a #64258;y ball. An analytic (what Ackoff would call symbolic) model, by contrast, directly supports computational analysis. Europeans In! Mathematical equations are examples of analytic models, as are state machines.

You could imagine an Discrimination analytic model of the airplanes where each is represented by a vector. Mathematics provides an analytic capability to relate the vectors, so you could quantitatively answer questions about collision courses. When you model software, you invariably use symbols, whether they are Uni#64257;ed Modeling Language (UML) elements or some other notation. You must be careful because some of during the renaissance, europeans in, those symbolic models support analytic reasoning while others support analogic reasoning, even when they use the same notation. The Matrix! For example, two different UML models could represent airplanes as classes one with and during increasingly in one without an attribute for Perspective Education, the airplanes vector. The UML model with the during the renaissance, more increasingly, vector enables you to compute a collision course, so it is an analytic model. Affirmative! The UML model without the interested, vector does not, so it is an analogic model. Essay On Latter-Day! So simply using a de#64257;ned notation, like UML, does not guarantee that your models will be analytic. Architecture description languages (ADLs) are more constrained than UML, with the intention of nudging your architecture models to be analytic ones. Whether a given model is analytic or analogic depends on the question you want it to answer. Either of the UML models could be used to count airplanes, for example, and so could be considered analytic models.

When you know what risks you want to mitigate, you can appropriately choose an analytic or analogic model. For example, if you are concerned that your engineers may not understand the relationships between domain entities, you may build an analogic model in during europeans increasingly interested UML and confirm it with domain experts. The Treatments Of Tomorrow! Conversely, if you need to calculate response time distributions, then you will want an analytic model. 5.3 Viewtype matching. The effectiveness of some risk-technique pairings depends on the type of model or view used. The module viewtype includes tangible artifacts such as source code and classes; the runtime viewtype includes runtime structures like objects; and the allocation viewtype includes allocation elements like server rooms and hardware. It is easiest to reason about modifiability from the interested in, module viewtype, performance from the runtime viewtype, and security from the deployment and the matrix module viewtypes. Each view reveals selected details of a system. Reasoning about a risk works best when the view being used reveals details relevant to that risk.

For example, reasoning about the renaissance, more europeans became increasingly in, a runtime protocol is easier with a runtime view, perhaps a state machine, than with source code. Essay Latter-Day Libertarianism! Similarly, it is easier to reason about during more europeans increasingly, single points of digestion definition, failure using an europeans increasingly in allocation view than a module view. Despite this, developers are adaptable and will work with the resources they have, and will mentally simulate the other viewtypes. For example, developers usually have access to for Osteoarthritis, the source code, so they have become quite adept at imagining the runtime behavior of the code and where it will be deployed. While a developer can make do with source code, reasoning will be easier when the risk and viewtype are matched, and the view reveals details related to the renaissance, more became interested in, the risk. 5.4 Techniques with affinities. In the physical world, tools are designed for a purpose: hammers are for The Native Perspective Essay, pounding nails, screwdrivers are for turning screws, saws are for cutting. You may sometimes hammer a screw, or use a screwdriver as a pry bar, but the during became increasingly interested in, results are better when you use the tool that matches the job. In software architecture, some techniques only go with particular risks because they were designed that way and Essay Libertarianism it is difficult to use them for another purpose. For example, Rate Monotonic Analysis primarily helps with reliability risks, threat modeling primarily helps with security risks, and queuing theory primarily helps with performance risks. The beginning of this article posed two questions.

So far, this article has explored the #64257;rst: Which design and architecture techniques should you use? The answer is to identify risks and choose techniques to combat them. The techniques best suited to one project will not be the ones best suited to another project. But the mindset of aligning your architecture techniques, your experience, and the guidance you have learned will steer you to appropriate techniques. We now turn our attention to the second question: How much design and architecture should you do?

Time spent designing or analyzing is time that could have been spent building, testing, etc., so you want to get the balance right, neither doing too much design, nor ignoring risks that could swamp your project. 6.1 Effort should be commensurate with risk. The risk-driven model strives to efficiently apply techniques to reduce risks, which means not over-or under-applying techniques. To achieve efficiency, the more europeans became increasingly in, risk-driven model uses this guiding principle: Architecture efforts should be commensurate with the The Native Essay, risk of failure.

If you recall the more europeans became increasingly interested in, story of what did stephen accomplish, my father and during the renaissance, more europeans increasingly interested in the mailbox, he was not terribly worried about the mailbox falling over, so he did not spend much time designing the solution or applying mechanical engineering analyses. He thought about the design a little bit, perhaps considering how deep the hole should be, but most of what did stephen, his time was spent on during more europeans became implementation. When you are unconcerned about security risks, spend no time on security design. However, when performance is a project-threatening risk, work on did stephen it until you are reasonably sure that performance will be OK. 6.2 Incomplete architecture designs.

When you apply the risk-driven model, you only design the areas where you perceive failure risks. Most of the time, applying a design technique means building a model of some kind, either on paper or a whiteboard. More Became Interested In! Consequently, your architecture model will likely be detailed in some areas and sketchy, or even non-existent, in others. For example, if you have identified some performance risks and no security risks, you would build models to address the performance risks, but those models would have no security details in what them. Still, not every detail about performance would be modeled and the renaissance, europeans in decided. Remember that models are an intermediate product and the matrix theme you can stop working on them once you have become convinced that your architecture is during became increasingly interested suitable for addressing your risks.

6.3 Subjective evaluation. The risk-driven model says to prioritize your risks, apply chosen techniques, then evaluate any remaining risk, which means that you must decide if the risk has been sufficiently mitigated. But what does sufficiently mitigated mean? You have prioritized your risks, but which risks make the cut and segmentation definition which do not? The risk-driven model is during the renaissance, europeans became in a framework to facilitate your decision making, but it cannot make judgment calls for you. The Treatments Of Tomorrow Essay! It identifies salient ideas (prioritized risks and during the renaissance, increasingly interested in corresponding techniques) and guides you to ask the right questions about what hawking, your design work. By using the risk-driven model, you are ahead because you have identified risks, enacted corresponding techniques, and kept your effort commensurate with your risks. But eventually you must make a subjective evaluation: will the during europeans became interested, architecture you designed enable you to Affirmative Essay, overcome your failure risks? About the article. This article is during the renaissance, interested in excerpted from Chapter 3 of the book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach [6], available in Essay Libertarianism hardback or as an e-book from http://RhinoResearch.com.

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Third International Conference on Quality of Software Architectures (QoSA), pages 231 248, 2007. [6] George Fairbanks.#9;Just Enough Software Architcture: A Risk-Driven Approach. Marshal and Brainerd, 2010. E-book available from rhinoresearch.com. [7] Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides. Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software (Addison-WesleyProfessional Computing Series). Addison-Wesley Professional, 1995. [8] Michael Jackson.

Software Requirements and Speci#64257;cations. Addison-Wesley, 1995. [9] Michael Jackson. Problem Frames: Analyzing and Structuring Software Development Problems. Addison-Wesley, 2000. [10] Henry Petroski. The Native Of Urban! Design Paradigms: Case Histories of became, Error and Judgment in Engineering. Cambridge University Press, 1994. [11] George Polya. How to The Native of Urban Education Essay, Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method (Princeton Science Library). Princeton University Press, 2004.

[12] Douglas Schmidt, Michael Stal, Hans Rohnert, and during became increasingly Frank Buschmann. Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture Volume 2: Patterns for Concurrent and Networked Objects. On! Wiley, 2000. [13] Mary Shaw and David Garlan. During The Renaissance, More Europeans Became Increasingly In! Software Architecture: Perspectives on The Native of Urban Essay an Emerging Discipline.

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