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PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to what population mean, This Policy. We may update this Policy at statement, any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to population distribution, the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for jasmine the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers.

A Referral is an population distribution mean individual who requests a service via the Essay on The Struggles School, referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the what does mean, Referrals total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the statement, money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service.

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Specifications for Thesis Preparation. This entire document can be read from mean beginning to end or particular sections can be quickly referenced by using the table of contents. This guide has been prepared by the MIT Libraries, as prescribed by the Committee on Graduate Programs, to assist students and faculty in the preparation of theses. Essay On The A Foreign In High. The Institute is what distribution, committed to the preservation of each student's thesis because it is both a requirement for the MIT degree and a record of original research that contains information of lasting value. The requirements in a Foreign Language School this guide apply to what does population distribution mean all theses and have been specified both to facilitate the marketing problem statement care and dissemination of the thesis and to assure the preservation of the archival paper copy. Individual departments may dictate more stringent requirements. Questions not answered in this guide should be referred to the appropriate department officer or to the MIT Libraries (14N-118, mit-theses@mit.edu, 617-253-5136). The academic department is required to deliver the proper number of copies of the thesis to what does distribution the MIT Libraries within one month after the last day of the term in which the thesis was submitted (Faculty Regulation 2.72).

One copy is kept as part of the permanent archival collection, and referencing references the other copy is what does population distribution, reserved for of Learning a Foreign Language in High future disposition. An online catalog record, which includes the thesis abstract, is prepared for all theses deposited in population distribution mean the MIT Libraries. This information appears in Barton, our online catalog, which is accessible to researchers at other institutions through the Internet, as well as in the OCLC database WorldCat, an online international bibliographic system available to libraries and individuals worldwide. PhD and Essay on The Struggles Language in High School ScD theses are also listed (with abstract) in ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ) and Dissertation Abstracts International ( DAI ). For each thesis received by the Libraries, a digital version is what does population distribution mean, created and problem made publicly available in population DSpace@MIT (http://libraries.mit.edu/mit-theses). Copies of theses may be obtained through the MIT Libraries' Document Services (14-0551, 617-253-5668; docs@mit.edu; http://libraries.mit.edu/docs/). Students may choose to Essay on Italy Foods and Social Graces submit a born-digital PDF of the thesis via the Libraries voluntary submission portal (http://thesis-dropbox.mit.edu/vireo/start). However, the electronic version is what distribution, not considered to be the official copy.

Degree candidates must submit the required copies of their theses to the appropriate office of the department or program in which they are registered on the dates specified in the Academic Calendar. The Academic Calendar may be found in the MIT Bulletin and at http://web.mit.edu/registrar/www/calendar.html. September, February, and June are the only months in which degrees are awarded. Additional copies of the thesis may be required by the department. All theses should be turned in to the appropriate departmental office; the office will deliver the theses to the MIT Libraries within a month after the last day of term. In this guide, the copy that remains in the Archives is called the first copy . Marketing. Additional copies required for the divisional libraries (see following section) are referred to as the second and (possibly) third copies . The department may ask for copies in addition to those required for the Libraries. The student may, of course, keep personal copies. Not all departments send bachelor's theses to the Archives. What Does Population Distribution Mean. If your department does, only one copy should be submitted to the Archives. Please check the requirements of your department. Undergraduate students do not pay a library processing fee.

Number of copies: Normally, two copies are required for the Libraries one for the Archives and marketing problem a second for the appropriate divisional library. A third copy is required only when a student is submitting the same thesis to departments or programs from two separate MIT schools (e.g., Management and Engineering). What Does Population. If the departments are in the same school (e.g., Engineering Systems and Mechanical Engineering), only two copies are required. Doctoral theses only: A completed UMI/ProQuest form (see section below) with an additional copy of the title page and abstract stapled to it is also required. Most MIT theses are written by a single author. In those cases where two or more students are responsible, only a single copy (for undergraduates) or set of copies (for graduate students) should be submitted to the Archives. References. The title page of the thesis should bear the what does distribution mean signatures of all authors and thesis supervisors. Essay Of Learning Language School. (Permission to undertake collaborative thesis research must be obtained in advance from the Dean of Graduate Education [3-138, 617-253-4860, http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/joint-theses). Submission of Doctoral Thesis Abstract to International Database: UMI/ ProQuest Dissertations Theses Database.

Abstracts of all doctoral theses (PhD and ScD) will be submitted for inclusion in ProQuest Dissertations Theses , an online database used by researchers around the what population distribution mean world. PQDT can be searched by author name, subject terms, and by bharati mukherjee all words in what population the title and abstract. All MIT abstracts will contain a note stating that copies of the jasmine full text are available from DSpace@MIT or the MIT Libraries' Document Services. Abstracts should be no longer than 350 words; longer abstracts will be edited by UMI/ProQuest. Distribution Mean. Please complete the UMI/ProQuest form at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/umi-proquest-form.pdf, staple it to a copy of your title page and abstract, and submit it with your thesis. Problem. The form may printed and completed by hand or opened and filled out in Acrobat Reader, then printed. When filling out the form, choose the distribution appropriate subject categories from the list provided with the form. Please take care both in choosing terms and Essay on Italy Graces writing them (if filling out the distribution form by hand). Structure. Subject-based access to your thesis will depend on the accuracy of the information you provide and the precision with which it is does population distribution, transcribed by referencing UMI/ProQuest.

It is especially important that your name appear on this form exactly as it does on the title page and abstract of what does distribution your thesis. CHANGES AFTER SUBMISSION OF THESIS. All change made to a thesis, after the thesis has been submitted to the MIT Libraries by Radio’s Impact the 1920’s Essay the student's department, must have prior approval from the Dean of Graduate or Undergraduate Education. When the purpose is to correct significant errors in content, the student should create an errata sheet using the form and instructions at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/errata-sheet.pdf and obtain approval from both thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. If the purpose of change is to excise classified, proprietary, or confidential information, the distribution mean student should fill out the problem application form at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/page-substitution.pdf and have the request approved by the thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. Students and what does distribution mean supervisors should vet thesis content carefully before submission to avoid both scenarios whenever possible. Students receiving advanced degrees from MIT are required to pay a library processing fee: $115.00 for a doctoral thesis ($50 for processing and $65 for of Learning a Foreign Language in High School the UMI/ProQuest abstract fee) and $50.00 for all other advanced-degree theses. Undergraduate students do not pay a processing fee. Thesis charges are billed to the students account when the thesis title is entered on the degree application. Please refer to what population distribution the academic calendar on the Registrars website to review relevant deadline dates. All copies must be submitted to the students department unbound between cardboard covers; the thesis and covers should be clipped or tied together, NOT stapled or punched.

Recycled temporary covers and binder clips are available in a cabinet in the first floor stairwell of Hayden Library, near the circulation desk. The front cover should be labeled with the following information: author's name, thesis title, course, month and year of structure graduation, and which copy it is (first, second, or third). The MIT Libraries pay for the binding of theses retained in their collection. Personal copies may be bound in hard or soft cover at MIT CopyTech or many commercial binderies in the Boston area. The Institute's policy concerning ownership of what does thesis copyright is covered in jasmine by bharati mukherjee Rules and what does population distribution Regulations of the Faculty , 2.73. Organization. (http://web.mit.edu/faculty/governance/rules/2.70.html) and MIT Policies and what does mean Procedures 13.1.3 (http://web.mit.edu/policies/13/13.1.html#sub3). The following are guidelines to assist the student in determining who holds ownership of the thesis copyright: The Institute will hold ownership of the copyrights to theses if: the thesis research is performed in whole or in part by the student with financial support in the form of wages, salary, stipend, or grant from funds administered by the Institute. the thesis research is organization structure, performed in whole or in part utilizing equipment or facilities provided to does the Institute under conditions that impose copyright restrictions.. In general, students may retain ownership of thesis copyrights when the only form of support is (a) teaching assistantships (the duties of which do not include research activities) and (b) NSF and NIH traineeships and fellowships (although the trainee or fellow may be required to grant certain publishing rights to referencing references NSF or NIH). Actual determination of a student's status is made by reference to the account from what population distribution which the student receives support.

Questions regarding restrictions imposed on any of the Institute's facilities or equipment may be addressed to the 1920’s Essay the administrative officer of the laboratory or department or to the appropriate contract administrator in the Office of Sponsored Programs (http://osp.mit.edu/). Specific questions on permission to copyright should be referred to the Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, tlo@mit.edu). When copyright ownership is held by the student, the student must, as condition of a degree award, grant royalty-free permission to the Institute to does population distribution reproduce and publicly distribute copies of the thesis, and must place the following legend on the thesis title page: The author hereby grants to marketing MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis document in whole or in part in any medium now known or hereafter created. For such theses, requests for permission to use portions of the thesis in third-party publications must be addressed to and granted by the student author. When copyright is held by the Institute, students and third parties should contact the population MIT Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, tlo@mit.edu) to obtain permission to reuse thesis content in other publications. However, the student is authorized to post electronic versions of the students own thesis, in whole or in part, on the World Wide Web. Any further publication of the thesis in whole or in part shall be made only with the authorization of the Technology Licensing Office, in jasmine consultation with the head of the department or course in which the distribution mean student was registered when the thesis was accepted.

Regardless of whether copyright is held by the student or the Institute, the MIT Libraries publish the thesis electronically in DSpace@MIT (http://dspace.mit.edu) allowing open access viewing and limited downloading/ printing. Students may request a waiver of Institute copyright by written application to the Institute's Technology Licensing Office (http://tlo.mit.edu/). The waiver shall be granted only if the organization retained rights of the student as described in this guide are inadequate for the students needs and what does population distribution mean if a license from the jasmine Institute to the student would also be inadequate. Any such waiver of the population distribution mean Institutes copyright shall be subject to a royalty-free grant from the student to the Institute to publicly distribute copies of the thesis, in whole or in part. The student must also place the legend above on the thesis title page. Implementation: How to Copyright a Thesis. Each student should place the appropriate copyright notice on by bharati mukherjee the thesis. Copyright notice consists of four elements: the symbol c with a circle around it and/or the what does population mean word copyright, the year of references publication (the year in does population which the degree is to be awarded), the jasmine by bharati name of the copyright owner, and what does the words All rights reserved. These four elements should appear together on the title page (or verso of the title page).

student is copyright owner: 2008 Jane Doe. All rights reserved. Institute is copyright owner: 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved. See sample title pages.

A copyright notice should also appear on any non-paper material (e.g., DVD or CD) included with a thesis. Use of Previously Published Material in a Thesis. Each student is responsible for referencing obtaining permission, if necessary, to include previously published material in the thesis. This applies to most third-party materials (i.e., those created and published by someone else); it may also apply to the students own previous work. If, for example, a student has already published part of the thesis as a journal article and, as a condition of publication, has assigned title to population distribution the journal's publisher, the student has no further rights in the article. Written permission must be obtained from the publisher to include the article, or any portion of it, in business structure the thesis. Similarly, permission must be obtained to include papers written while the student was employed by a commercial company or non-profit organization if title belongs to the company or organization. A sample permission letter can be obtained from the population Office of the General Counsel (https://ogc.mit.edu/frequently-asked-questions). If the student knows, prior to publication or employment, that such material will be included in a thesis, he or she may wish to retain title to the material or to reserve sufficient rights to use the Essay and Social Graces material. Further information is available at Scholarly Publishing @MIT Libraries (http://libraries.mit.edu/scholarly/) or by contacting copyright-lib@mit.edu for what does population distribution more information. POLICY FOR TEMPORARY RESTRICTIONS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THESES.

Thesis research should be undertaken in light of MIT's policy of business structure open research and what distribution the free interchange of information. By Bharati Mukherjee. Written notification of patent holds and other restrictions must reach the Institute Archives before the thesis in question is received, since under normal circumstances all theses are open and what population available for public inspection once they have been received by the Archives. When there is good reason for delaying the distribution of a thesis, the procedures below should be followed. For additional details on procedures for temporary restrictions, please see Graduate Policies and Procedures at http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/restrictions-on-thesis-publication/. When MIT holds the jasmine by bharati mukherjee rights to any intellectual property contained in a thesis, students and their supervisors must work with the MIT Technology Licensing Office (http://web.mit.edu/tlo/www/) to determine if a patent application is to be filed. What Mean. If so, the Technology Licensing Office will notify the Institute Archives, and the thesis will be withheld from distribution for up to three months. Radio’s During The 1920’s. If an extension is required, application must be made to the Vice President for Research, who will inform the population distribution Archives if an extension is approved. When a student holds the rights to and Social any intellectual property contained in his or her thesis, application for permission to withhold a thesis must be made to the Dean for Graduate Education for does distribution graduate theses or the referencing Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses. If the hold is granted, the dean will inform the population distribution Archives, and the thesis will be withheld for a period of three months. If an extension is required, application must be made to the Vice President for Research.

A student should not embark without prior approval on a thesis that requires government restrictions. The Institute recognizes that certain government agencies which sponsor research may require that theses be submitted for security review before they can be placed in the Libraries or published. Occasionally, on completing a thesis, a student may believe that its distribution will jeopardize the Radio’s Impact during privacy or safety of the author, other individuals, or organizations. If the thesis cannot be rewritten to remove the what does problematic material, the author and supervisor should submit the thesis to the director of the program, who will prepare a recommendation for the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses, who will then consult with the Vice President for Research. The appropriate office will advise the Institute Archives of the restricted period. In all cases the restricted period should be kept to a minimum.

The title page is always considered to be page 1, and every page must be included in the count regardless of Impact during the 1920’s whether a number is physically printed on a page. What Population Distribution Mean. The entire thesis (including title page, prefatory material, illustrations, and all text and appendices) must be paginated in one consecutive numbering sequence. Theses should be prepared double-sided whenever possible. In a double-sided thesis, both sides of every page (starting with the title page and Essay on Italy Foods and Social including any pages that have been left blank) must be accounted for in the population distribution mean numbering sequence. On The Language. Therefore, in a double-sided thesis, odd-numbered pages are always on the right and even-numbered pages on what does the left. Problem. Pages with illustrations may be single-sided, but both sides should be counted. Single-sided theses should be numbered only on the front of every sheet. When using thesis templates on Athena, use caution and does population mean verify that the pagination requirements are being met. Your work will be a more valuable research tool for other scholars if it can be located easily. Search engines use the marketing problem statement words in the title, and sometimes other descriptive words, to locate works.

Therefore, be sure to select a title that is does population distribution, a meaningful description of the content of your manuscript; and when possible, use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts, Greek letters, etc., which do not appear on most computer keyboards and would make your title more difficult to search. The Effects of Ion Implantation and Annealing on the Properties of Titanium Silicide [not TiSi 2 ] Films on Silicon Substrates Radiative Decays of the J/Psi [not J/ ψ] to marketing Two Pseudoscalar Final States The title page of the first copy must bear the original signatures of the author, supervisor, and does chairman; a photocopy of the signed title page is Essay, acceptable for the second copy. The title page should contain the title, name of the population distribution mean author, previous degrees, the jasmine degree(s) to be awarded at MIT, the date the population mean degree(s) will be conferred (June, September, or February only), copyright notice, and appropriate names and structure signatures. For candidates receiving two degrees, both degrees to does distribution be awarded should appear on the title page.

For candidates receiving degrees across departments or programs, all degrees and departments or programs should appear on Essay a Foreign Language School the title page and the signatures of both department heads/committee chairmen are required. Whenever there are co-supervisors, both signatures are required. Each thesis offered for a graduate degree must include an abstract, preferably one single-spaced page, but never more than two pages (generally less than 350 words). The abstract should be thought of as a brief descriptive summary rather than a lengthy introduction to the thesis. Doctoral abstracts are submitted for inclusion in UMI/ProQuests Dissertation Abstracts International and ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ). Doctoral candidates should keep their abstracts under 350 words. Longer abstracts will be edited and shortened by UMI/ProQuest . Databases such as PQDT provide full-text searching of what mean abstracts, so the presence of significant key words in a short abstract will facilitate access. The abstract should immediately follow the title page.

Biographical Note and Acknowledgment. Although not a requirement, each thesis may contain a short biography of the candidate, including institutions attended and dates of attendance, degrees and honors, titles of marketing publications, teaching and professional experience, and other matters that may be pertinent. What Does. An acknowledgment page may also be included. These sections may be single-spaced. Please note that your thesis will be publicly available online at DSpace@MIT, which is Radio’s Impact the 1920’s, regularly crawled and indexed by Google and other search-engine providers.. The style of quotations, footnotes, and bibliographic references may be prescribed by your department.

If your department does not prescribe a style or specify a style manual, choose one and mean be consistent. Further information is available on the web site of the structure MIT Writing Center (http://cmsw.mit.edu/writing-and-communication-center/citation-formats/). NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES. Whenever possible, notes should be placed at the bottom of the appropriate page or in the body of the text. Notes should conform to the style appropriate to the discipline. If notes appear at does mean the bottom of the page, they should be single-spaced and included within the specified margins (see section below). It may be appropriate to place bibliographic references either at the end of the chapter in which they occur or at the end of the Essay Foods and Social Graces thesis.. The same paper size and quality, pagination, margins, notes, and illustration requirements apply to appendices.

They support the research in your thesis and should be as readable and reproducible as the rest of your work. Page numbering should continue the consecutive pagination of the thesis. For the main body of the text, including appendices and front matter, font size should be at least 11-point and should not be script or italic. Italics may, however, be used for short quotations or to highlight variables in an equation, for example. Notes and the text in tables, etc., should not be smaller than 10-point. Top, bottom, and both side margins must be at does distribution least an referencing, inch wide (1) to allow for binding and trimming. All information (text headings, notes, and mean illustrations), excluding page numbers , must be within the text area.

Theses should be prepared using both sides of the marketing paper (double-sided) whenever possible. Oversize sheets must be folded to what does distribution mean come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in during the Radio’s the 1920’s Essay binding procedure. The text of the thesis may be single- double- or one-and-a-half-spaced. The abstract, biography, notes, bibliography, and what does population distribution mean acknowledgment should be single-spaced. If you are writing your thesis on marketing Athena, follow the formatting and typeface instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by does population distribution mean typing the command olc_answers on any Athena workstation. If you are preparing your thesis on Athena, follow the instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers. When using Athena templates, be sure the format conforms to the required specifications, especially for the title page and pagination. Business Organization. Final copies should be printed on the printer Thesis (11-004), which is stocked with acid-neutral, Libraries-approved thesis paper. First copy: For the first copy the paper must be chosen for its permanence and durability. This is the copy that should bear the original signatures.

The paper must be (a) acidneutral or acid-free, (b) watermarked, (c) at what population distribution least 20-lb. weight, and (d) contain at least 25% cotton. It may contain some post-consumer waste (pcw) recycled material. The following 20lb. watermarked acidneutral papers are examples of Foods Graces those that are acceptable. Mohawk Via Bright White (available at CopyTech, 11-004) Xerox Image Elite Crane's Thesis Paper Hammermill Bond Strathmore Bond. Second copy: The paper for the second copy should be (a) acid-neutral or acid-free, (b) at least 20-lb. weight, and (c) contain 25% cotton. It need not be watermarked. The following are not acceptable for either copy: MIT bond, erasable paper, or regular paper from photocopy machines. The paper used should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other.

If there are any questions about the acceptability of paper, contact the Institute Archives (mit-theses@mit.edu, 617-253-5136). The standard size for theses is 8 by 11 inches (see section on oversized pages). DOUBLE-SIDED OR SINGLE-SIDED PRINTING. Double-sided printing is what does mean, strongly recommended. However, the paper should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other side. A single-sided illustration page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on jasmine mukherjee both sides. When creating a double-sided copy, be sure that the page numbers are either in the center or on the outside edge of each page. Charts, graphs, tables, etc., should be reduced whenever possible to an 8-by-11-inch format.

If material is not reducible, oversize sheets must be folded to come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in during the binding procedure. Acceptable 11-by-17-inch watermarked paper can be requested at does population mean CopyTech (11-004). Students may print their theses in full color. Theses containing color figures, illustrations, and photos will be scanned in color and organization converted to color PDFs for what does distribution mean inclusion in DSpace@MIT. Please be aware that heavily saturated color graphics may bleed through and compromise legibility for double-sided pages. In such cases, use of single-sided printing or heavier, less transparent paper stock is advised.. Pages containing photographs should be numbered as regular pages. A single-sided photograph page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on both sides. All graphics must respect the by bharati mukherjee 1 margins. Digital and magnetic materials such as cassette tapes, CDs, and what does population distribution mean DVDs may accompany the written text of the thesis; one should accompany each copy of the Radio’s thesis submitted . No guarantee can be given that the Libraries can preserve, reproduce, or make this information available in the future.

Therefore, when feasible, the population distribution mean information that is in these forms should also be represented in the written text of the thesis. A label containing the references author's name, the date of the population mean thesis, and the copyright notice must be applied to all material in non-paper format. The label should also include any relevant technical information, such as software or hardware specifications. Is the authors full name on the title page and the abstract? (See sections on referencing references title page and abstract.) Before submitting to what population distribution your department.

Are all necessary signatures on the title page of marketing each copy? (See section on title page ) Institute Archives and Special Collections. Technology Licensing Office. One Cambridge Center. Cambridge, MA 02142. Office of the General Counsel. Office of the Dean for Graduate Education. Dean for Undergraduate Education.

Office of the Vice President for Research. Prepared by the MIT Libraries. as prescribed by the Committee on Graduate Programs.

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Free Information Technology essays. Context/Background - The central problem for the Internet users is how to obtain accurate information for a query in an efficient and fast way. And the most efficient way to what does distribution, solve the problem nowadays is using the search engine, which is a software system that could search information from the Internet automatically and provide query services for the users. Aims - The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a crawler, an inverted index, a graphical user interface, and a reporting facility. And the second purpose is to test which ranking algorithm more satisfies the needs of users in marketing problem the search engine of the project. Method - The crawler would collect webpages which would be analyzed and what population distribution mean stored in the database. According to the information in the database, an inverted index would be built to restore all the information for the efficiency of the search engine.

And then the search engine could search the information for users in the inverted index. For the convenience of the users, a graphical user interface is used for users inputting queries and some ranking algorithms are used to satisfy users' needs more quickly. Referencing. And a reporting facility would help users know what the most users are searching. To test the search engine, the what population test case of the search engine in the project would be the webpages of 'Durham University'. When it comes to jasmine mukherjee, the second aim, several tests would be made to compare the ranking algorithms to find out the most suitable algorithm. Results ' The search engine would be evaluated using the unique general method which is based on the traditional famous evaluation method, and distribution the method evaluates the search engine according to the capability, indexing method, indexing results, and user burden. Generally, the search engine is quite a good one from the value of the factors. And the differences between PAGERANK and HITS algorithms are also analyzed that the response time of PAGERANK is less while the HITS is a query-dependence algorithm. Radio’s During The 1920’s Essay. So the user would decide the algorithm based on their queries.

Conclusion ' In the distribution project, a search engine has been made and Struggles of Learning Language in High School as a platform, the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS have been compared to population distribution, let the search engine get the better results. Finally, the factors of evaluation have been brought forward and evaluate the search engine. Keywords ' search engine, crawler, index, database, query, reporting facility, PAGERANK, HITS. With the rapidly development of the Internet technology, more and more people would like to derive information from the Internet. There are four main characters of the information in the web (Wei, 2005): hugeness, heterogeneity, dynamics, and jasmine by bharati mukherjee semi-structured. Population. What is more, the information in the web contains quantities of dynamic hyperlinks. With the features of the business organization structure information in the web, the most useful tool to search the internet is what distribution, search engine. In 1994, the earliest search engine 'World Wide Web Worm' indexed about 110 thousand webpages. However, there have been 350 million documents in structure the Internet, and the number of documents still increased by 1 million per day (Yibing, 2011). What Does Distribution Mean. According to the research by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in 2014, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation', by marketing statement, December in 2013, the number of Chinese webpages has been up to 150 billion, up 22.2 percent on last year's same period. However, the Chinese webpages are just the tip of the submerged iceberg.

As a result, people could only use the search engines to access the information they want among such a large amount of information. The report also says that by December in 2013, the number of search engine users in China has raised to 490 million, up over 38 million on what does population, last year's same period, and the increasing rate is 8.5 percent while the use rate of the on The Struggles a Foreign in High School search engines has been to 79.3 percent. Therefore, how to search the useful and valuable information from such a plenty of information has been an important issue in the field of information retrieval and data mining. B. Search Engine. In the background as shown above, the what does distribution mean search engine has been developed and is very popular among the mukherjee Internet users, and nowadays, the search engine has been one of the most effective tools when it comes to the information retrieval. A search engine is a software system which merges almost every aspect of advanced technology, such as analysis of user behavior, natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and robot learning. The search engine would provide query services for the users after it crawls, indexes and ranks the webpages (Shuling, 2011). The query services include webpages, pictures, videos, or other types of documents. It supplies an population mean effective measure for users to Radio’s the 1920’s, search for information and navigation. Nowadays, the search engine seems to be an essential in the life of does, most people. Referencing References. If the search engine does not exist, it would be hard for people to search the information they want in the Internet.

It would be an awful thing and would lead the internet useless because everyone gets a lot of information but few is actually they want. The basic function of a search engine is to navigate information based on the content of websites and webpages. It crawls all kinds of resources and information, analyzes them automatically, gets the key words, and builds database using index. The users of a search engine inquire the database in the webpage, and the results would include all the webpages whose content match the query. What is more, the search results would be sorted according to what does population distribution mean, the importance of webpage and matching algorithm of key words (Xuesong, 2008:3).

According to 'Knowledge Management' which is written by Jawadekar and Waman (2011), 'a search engine works as the following order: webpage crawling, indexing, and searching'. First of all, automated web crawler which follows every link on the web site would retrieve and Essay Foods Graces store information from the HTML markup of the what distribution webpages. And then the business organization structure search engine would analyze the contents of does population mean, webpages to determine which type of information (text, picture') is included, and how to index them. All the information would be stored in the index database for the later queries. Once the user inputs the query in the webpage of search engine, the Essay on Italy index helps find information matching queries in the database as soon as possible. At the same time, it returns a list of best-matching webpages which contain the title and parts of text according to its criteria. However, nowadays, the search engine should work in a loop of what does distribution, crawling, indexing, and searching to update the mukherjee information in the index. The data from the report of 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation' shows that several most frequent Internet service are communication(86.2 percent), information retrieval(79.3 percent), entertainment(54.7 percent), and commercial trade(48.9 percent). The above data proves that the four Internet services have been the essential part of most people's lives. And because of the specific feature of the search engine, it solves the problems of how to search the valuable and useful information for the users, which is the main reason why people are interested in it, and the search engine become the necessary tool in what does distribution mean the people's daily life. C. Ranking Algorithm.

In the early age of the search engine technology development, the users pay more attention to Essay on The Struggles in High, whether the searched results are relevant to the query. Does Distribution. As a result, the information could only be classified as relevant or not when it comes to the keywords in on The a Foreign in High the query. Therefore, the searched results would combine as a disordered and Boolean relevant set of information. With the development of the search engine technology, there appear the ranking algorithms based on the content of webpages. The algorithm would weigh the webpages by the frequency and position of the keyword of the what does query in the webpages.

Specifically, if a keyword appears more times, the relevance between the webpage and the query would be higher; and if the position of the Essay Foods Graces keyword is more important, the authority of the webpage is higher. Therefore, the rank of the webpage in the result set would be higher. Then, the what does population distribution ranking algorithms based on the hyperlinks analysis appear. The kind of algorithms takes the methodology of Impact during, citation analysis in the traditional information index theory, which considers the hyperlinks as the does mean quotation of the webpage, and if the times of a webpage is cited more, the authority value would be higher; and if a webpage is quoted by an authority webpage, the authority value of the webpage would be higher, and finally the rank of the references webpage would be higher. Nowadays, the famous search engines such as Google take the kind of algorithms. However, the algorithm only considers the importance and authority of the webpage, but not the relevance between the content of webpages and the queries. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed by adding the computation of the population topic relevance and several other factors which might influence the ranking.

Nowadays, the ranking algorithms would exert influence on the evaluation of a search engine whether they could put the valuable and useful information at the first of the results list, which is the core problem of the search engines for the users. D. Purpose of Project. The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a web crawler which could get all the resources and information of the webpages, an index which could save data from the business organization structure crawler, a graphic user interface which is convenient for users to input a query and return the result list to does, the users, and several ranking algorithms which rank the search results. The second purpose of the jasmine by bharati project is to compare the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS to find their advantages and disadvantages and which ranking algorithm would be more suitable for the search engine in the project. Design a web crawler.

Build and maintain an index. Design a GUI (such that a user can pose queries). Implement a basic ranking algorithm (which ranks the search results for a given query). Implement a well-known ranking algorithm such as PAGERANK. Improve the GUI by what distribution mean, allowing more complicated user queries (e.g. using Boolean opereators). Implement a reporting facility that collects all searches perfomed by any user of the tool for statistical analysis. Design another well-known ranking algorithm such as HITS and compare it with PAGERANK. Implement a visual representation of the data collected by the reporting facility. A. Development of Search Engine. According to the criterion of ranking the results, the search engine could be classified as three generations (Lina et al., 2011).

The first generation search engine ranks the results according to the relevance between the webpages and the queries. And the relevance is computed by weighing and scoring the keywords in the query. The kind of search engines searches the results based on references, the content of the webpages, generally, there are two methods. The first one classifies the webpages in what population distribution the different indexes by using the traditional library information management and the users could search the results by searching the indexes. The most representative search engine is Yahoo and becomes the foundation of other websites of search engines.

The second one is based on the match between the content of webpages and the queries. It considers whether the webpages contain the keywords and the position and frequency of the keywords in a webpage to decide if the webpage is relevant with the query or not. The most representative and famous search engine is AltaVista, and the relevant technology is adopted by other search engines, and finally developed to be the problem statement basic algorithm of the search technology. However, the first generation search engines has the obvious drawbacks, the first method promises the relevance, but it is not automatic, as a result, it is does population distribution mean, not convenient for the users to use the search engine. While the second one uses the keywords in the query, which could be cheated by marketing, the spam webpages. What Population Mean. To avoid the defects, the second generation search engines are developed. Actually, the second generation search engines scores the importance of the webpage by whether it is jasmine by bharati, clicked by the users and how long the users would like to what does population mean, spend in the webpage or the number of the in-hyperlinks in the webpage. Since 1996, the researchers have started to use the method of the hyperlinks which is originated by the method of citation analysis. The citation analysis method is to analyze the citation relationship among the literatures and mark and index the literature by quotation language. In the method, if one paper is cited by more paper, the paper would be more valuable and important. And if one paper is cited by more important paper, the paper itself would be more important.

In the same way, there is similar 'citation' relationship which is called hyperlinks among the on Italy Foods and Social webpages. The signification of the hyperlink method is not only just a novel ranking algorithm, but also the algorithm is automatic, as a result, the algorithm allows users to search the big scale of the what does webpages, at the same time, the on Italy Graces algorithm also considers the what does population distribution mean relevance of the results and the speed of searching. Struggles Of Learning A Foreign. What is population distribution mean, also worth noticing is that the algorithms based on the hyperlinks have lots of benefits. However, it is not the only kind of ranking algorithms in the second generation search engines. There are still many other algorithms based on the hyperlinks adding the analysis of the content of the webpages and some other factors to rank the results. The third generation is the intelligent search engine, the main character of which is to satisfy the statement specific needs of the users.

In fact, the distribution mean second generation has been improved in the evaluation factor of precision and recall compared with the first generation and is still the mainstream in the Internet. However, the algorithms in the second generation have not considered the query, which means that once the query includes many keywords which belong to different fields, the relevance of the results would not satisfy the users. The situation requires the users to have the search skill to get better results. Essay On Italy Foods And Social Graces. As a result, the search engines need to understand and guess the intention of the users so as to help the users filter the results. The intelligent search engines shown above are the third generation search engine.

Nowadays, there are some search engines which are essentially different with the second search engines. For example, natural language search engine, clustering search engine, semantic search engine and so on. The kind of what does population distribution mean, search engines is generically called the third generation search engine. B. Problem Domain. According to 'Search Engines Information Retrieval in Practice' (W.Bruce, 2010), there are three 'big issues' in the field of information retrieval in the 1960s, and the problems have not been solved nowadays. The major core problem is relevance, which is a basic conception of information retrieval. If the index database compares a query with the information in the index simply and returns the exact match, the relevance of the Struggles a Foreign in High School results would not be good enough because different words could express the same meaning, and what does distribution mean it is called 'vocabulary mismatch problem' in information retrieval (Furnas et al., 1987). As a result, it is necessary to distinguish the concepts of references, topical relevance and user relevance. The queries are in the same topic if a query and key words in the index are topical relevant.

For example, weather and snow are topical relevant. When it comes to the user relevant, the what population distribution mean results would be based on on The Struggles of Learning School, the history records of the user. To solve the problem of relevant, researchers bring forward many retrieval models, which are the fundament of ranking algorithm. A search engine uses ranking algorithms to yield the result list. And a good ranking algorithm could find most of the query relevant results.

However, most of ranking algorithms are based on what does population mean, the static feature of the text rather than language structure, which means the ranking algorithms would consider more about the Radio’s the 1920’s number of words appearing than whether the what population distribution mean word is a noun or adjective. Some advanced algorithms consider the language structure as the references second factor of ranking the webpages while the most important is still appearing rate of words. The second core problem is evaluation problem. In 1960s, Cyril Cleverdon made the evaluation method (Cyril, 1970). He used two evaluation factors'precision and recall which are even popular now. Does Population Distribution. Precision is a factor which matches intuition and it is the ratio of relevant document of all the searched documents.

Recall is the proportion of searched documents of the whole documents. References. And there is what does population distribution mean, a hypothesis when recall is used: Given the Radio’s Essay query, all the relevant documents are available. It is obviously impossible for a large database. However, it would be useful when it comes to the smaller test collection. What is more, the clickthrough rate records the clicked documents during the process of what population distribution, search. It could be one of the evaluation factors because the clickthrough rate with other log data is relevant with relevance. But in the project, clickthrough cannot be tested to evaluate the search engine. However, the search engine company still uses relevance judgment as a supplement to jasmine by bharati, determine the population distribution mean effectiveness of the results. The third core problem is how to pay attention to the users and their needs. After all, the evaluation is statement, user-centered, which means the users decide whether a search engine is good or not.

However, keyword queries are often poor descriptions of actual information needs. For example, 'blue' might be a color or a feeling or a type of song. Therefore, lots of what does distribution, researches about interaction between users and jasmine by bharati mukherjee the search engine have been done. Finally, query refinement techniques such as query expansion, query suggestion, relevance feedback refine the query and improve the ranking results. This section describes the software requirements which include software I have selected and the reason why I selected them, and then it explains the what distribution mean architectural design of Essay on The of Learning a Foreign Language in High School, my search engine. A. Software Requirements.

The search engine is developed using Eclipse running on a Windows 8 operating system. The comparison of several kinds of technique in platforms and application of platforms are shown respectively as Table 1 and does mean Table 2 (Jing, 2010: 25). As the project might run in cross-platform, considering speed, cost, and expansionism, I choose the JSP to be my development technology. And Eclipse is convenient to debug and run the java code, so I consider it as my programming software. And I use Tomcat (a web application server developed by the same company of JSP) to configure the web environment and publish my search engine webpage. B. Essay Struggles Of Learning In High School. System Architecture. According to the basic procedure and the function of a simple search engine written above, I take the architecture shown as Figure 1, which is based on a similar figure that can be found in 'Development of Lucene + Nutch Search Engine' (Xuesong, 2008).

It is composed by 5 main modules which are crawling of webpage information, analysis of webpage content, foundation of webpage index, sorting of webpage search result, and tools and interfaces of webpage retrieval. The main modules could finish the whole webpage search engine with other information retrieval technology. Crawling of what distribution, webpage information. The software or system which collects the webpage information is problem, called a web crawler. Generally, a web crawler uses the what mean hyperlink in jasmine mukherjee the webpage to traversal of the whole Internet, which means the crawler could crawl from one HTML document to another HTML document by does distribution mean, URL references. Suppose the Internet is on Italy and Social, a super large graph whose node is the webpage and directed edge is the hyperlink in the webpage. What Does Population. And then we could use the method of graph traversal to access the Internet (Gang and Zhendong, 2010: 11-12).

Generally, the Internet graph could be traversed by two methods which are breadth-first traversal and depth-first traversal respectively. However, if the Foods and Social Graces the depth-first traversal is what does population, used, the crawler might fall in the much 'depth' of the graph (most of them would be spam or useless information) or go into organization structure, the 'black hole' (The black hole is the hyperlink of the page points to itself, or the distribution different URLs point to structure, the same webpage) of the Internet so that it could not get out to search other webpages. While we could not use the complete breadth-first traversal because the results would be affected by initial URL the user chooses to a large extent. As a result, two methods described above are not suitable in what does mean the project. Luckily, there is a third method to references, traverse the Internet which is called the preferential crawler (Bing, 2009: 201). What Mean. The preferential crawler would allocate each webpage a value of importance at the first place. And then the method would be the same with breadth-first traversal except that the initial webpage would be the jasmine by bharati mukherjee most important webpage, and the next webpage would be the second most important webpage, and so on. Now, the problem is how much each webpage values. Actually, there are many factors affecting the importance of a webpage, such as popularity of hyperlink, the what distribution mean importance of the hyperlink, average depth of hyperlink, quality of the website, and the weight of history etc. The popularity of hyperlink depends on the number and quality of backlinks which link to the current URL.

And we define it as IB(P). The importance of hyperlink is a function of string of URL. For example, the URL with '.com' or 'home' would be more important than those with '.cc' or 'map'. Referencing References. And we call it as IL(P). Then, we could define the importance of does population mean, webpage I(P) as following (Gang and Zhendong, 2010:22): In the function, a and Essay on The in High b are the parameters which adjust the proportion of IB(P) and IL(P). And the average depth of link would be guaranteed by the breadth-first algorithm. Analysis of webpage content. Generally, the webpages or the documents which are crawled by the web crawler would be analyzed at the first place for building the index later.

The analysis should filter the format information and advertisement in the webpage to get the effective document content. What Does Population. Therefore, there are two tasks in the analysis process of webpage content: analyzing the basic information of webpage and recognizing the structure of webpage content. The aim of the tasks is the same to extract effective data from the webpages and filter the spam in the Internet. Furthermore, the duplicated webpage should be deleted during analysis to avoid the same results appearing at the same time. In the index and the query of the on Italy Foods search engine, the unit is the mean basic morpheme item which could be got after analyzing the webpages or documents. And the analysis of Impact during the 1920’s, documents usually includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words.

What is more, the webpages are usually composed of HTML and JavaScript, containing large quantities of format information and accessories. What Mean. The most important thing for analysis of webpage is to business organization structure, separate the what does population distribution text information with the format information to provide materials for indexing and ranking. Besides, some important items in structure the webpage should also be noticed during the analysis. For example, all the titles, link words, blackletter type, etc. Does Population. The information would be marked during the business structure analysis for higher the weight in the process of indexing and ranking. It would be difficult and time-consuming to finish all the distribution mean items written above by checking the webpages character by character. In the project, I use the 'regular expression' to finish the process of analysis.

The 'regular expression' could extract the valid information from webpages by matching texts with the 'regular expression pattern'. The module of the Struggles of Learning in High School analysis part is shown as figure 2 (Xuesong, 2008:46). Natural Language Process. Actually, the 'regular expression' just eliminates the spam in the webpages but not extract the important information. For example, in each book, the words like 'a', 'of' cannot be avoided, however, in what does population distribution mean most circumstances, these words are not the focus of the search engine users. As a result, these words could be neglected and not listed in the key words. The natural language process should also be used in the query of users.

If the user inputs a sentence as a query, the search engine would give worse results compared that break the sentence down to several key words when the natural language process is not used. So, it is marketing problem, very important to let the search engine understand the what does natural language. The first thing I dealt with is to set a list of stop words like 'of' and 'the'. These words are neither the focus of the users, nor cannot provide any information. The common of these words is referencing, that they appear very frequently so that if consider them as key words, much memory would be wasted and what population more useless results would appear. The second I have done is to neglect the business structure tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. It could be done by extracting the 'stem' of the what does distribution mean words so that the tense, the plural or other forms converting would be ignored. For example, the stem word of 'universal', 'universe', 'university', and 'universities' is 'univers'. As a result, conversion of Essay Struggles a Foreign, most words could be found and would not affect the match between the what queries and the key words in the index. Foundation of webpage index. The webpages have to be indexed for the later use.

And a better designed index could increase searching speed and locate the webpage more preciously so as to decrease the cost. Jasmine Mukherjee. The function of index is to analyze the search information, extract key words from the documents, and build the index table of documents. There are many index models in the field of search engine, such as inverted document index, vector space model, probability model and so on. And it is what distribution, very important because the structure and effectiveness are the business organization keys of web information index system. As a result, it is required to be easy to what distribution mean, implement, maintain, retrieval information quickly, and need little space. Nowadays, most search engines use the Essay and Social Graces inverted index to be the index model (Manish, 2011) because the structure is what does population, proper to response the by bharati mukherjee key words retrieval quickly. Its structure considers the key words as index key words and access entrance of linked list. Does Population Distribution. And the inverted index could determine the list of document directly through index keywords.

To get the performance of the search engine better, the inverted index is usually stored in the memory. Problem Statement. And to reduce the pressure of the memory, the document is represented by a unique document code while all the documents and their codes would be stored in the database. The basic structure of inverted index is showed below as figure 3 (Xuesong, 2008: 67). In the figure 3, the what does population distribution mean key words are the results of 'analysis of webpage content', and on Italy Foods and Social Graces the documents in the inverted index are actually the code of what does mean, documents. Each item in the structure of inverted index is an Essay Foods index item with relevant information generated by the key words.

The advantage of mean, inverted index is references, that it changes the organization of does, information to be convenient to retrieval information while other models have to search every document to find out whether the key words are included or not. Sort of results. There are a lot of webpages (web spams) which include most keywords but only the keywords. Absolutely, they are not the users' needs. To avoid the spams filling in the list of results and let the Essay of Learning a Foreign in High users find what they want as soon as possible, it is very important to sort the does mean results. Business Organization. During the sorting process, the distribution importance of the webpage itself would take effect. And PAGERANK and business HITS algorithms could calculate the importance of webpages based on the structure of the Web (Gang, 2011: 80).

A famous and popular way to sort the what population mean results is the PAGERANK algorithm. Referencing References. The results yielded by the search engine are generally sorted by the importance of the webpage itself which could be measured by the connection among webpages. The PAGERANK method suppose the Internet as a democracy environment, we could measure the distribution mean importance of webpage by the link structure. For example, when webpage A has a link to webpage B, the weight of webpage B would increase (Xuesong, 2008:235). There are two hypothesizes in the PAGERANK algorithm (Junlin, 2012: 138). One of them is statement, that if a page is what does population distribution mean, linked many times, the webpage is very important. If a webpage is linked by another important webpage, the webpage is also important. In a word, the importance could be passed among webpages. The other hypothesis is that users access webpage randomly, browse the webpage with the hyperlinks, and never go back to browse the previous webpage. As a result, the next webpage is more important than the referencing previous one.

However, there is a serious problem in PAGERANK that the PAGERANK is not query dependent so that each webpage would have the same value of PAGERANK for all queries. What is more, spam pages could link to what does population distribution, one webpage to promote the importance of the page. Besides, the third problem in PAGERANK that only uses in-links to a page and never uses out-links. To figure out the problems, we could use the HITS algorithm which defines the authority that many other pages point to the webpage and the hug that the page has outgoing links to many other pages. The basic idea is similar to PAGERANK that dig the useful information by links in the Internet.

And HITS algorithm considers authority and hug respectively that it evaluates hug based on the evaluation of authority. Finally, a weight would be assigned to the webpage. The authority is relevant with the quality of content information so as to attract many webpages to jasmine, link while the hug is relevant with the quality of hyperlink page which is provided by the webpage. The higher authority webpages a webpage links, the higher its hug would be (Christopher, 2008). And the input of the HITS algorithm is known query relevant webpages, as a result, HITS algorithm usually supplies the what does population distribution mean webpages which are relevant to the query which is unlike the PAGERANK algorithm.

It means that the number of jasmine by bharati, webpages 'HITS' searched would be more than that of 'PAGERANK'. However, there are some disadvantages in the HITS algorithm. What Does Distribution Mean. The first of all is that it is a query relevant algorithm which means it could not start calculating until the users input the Essay on Italy query. The second problem is what does distribution mean, that tightly-knit community effect could happen, which means if the query-relevant webpages link to other webpages which are not relevant and Impact link to each other, the HITS algorithm would give them a high rank so that users might not get the query relevant information. The third is that the what population structure is not stable, which means if one webpage is deleted or the few links change, the sorting according to the HITS algorithm would be great changed (Junlin, 2012: 144). Graphical User Interface. In the mukherjee section of graphical user interface (GUI), based on the famous search engine company Google, the home page would be very simple and convenient for users to search the information that he/she wants to. And my home page would be much more simply because the what does population search engine could only search the webpage and business structure text.

The current home page is what distribution mean, shown as figure 4: The users could input the words or the referencing sentence they want to search in the left text box while they could type the number of results per page (n) they want in the right text box. And a brief introduction has been given for the users to use the search engine more easily. The next webpage would show the previous n results of all the results. And at the same time the page would tell the user how many results in total, the titles of searched webpages, the contents which include the words that the user searches, the websites of searched webpages, the time when the what population webpage is crawled which is helpful for Essay on Italy and Social Graces the update of the what population distribution database of the whole search engine, and which page current webpage is. Users could also click the button to referencing, select the does population distribution mean first page, the previous page, the next page and the last page. What is more, users could decide which method to rank the results (HITS or PAGERANK). Suppose a user wants to search the jasmine mukherjee 'robot' information and what mean let the search engine return 3 results per page. They input the word 'robot' in the lefe and '3' in the right, and then press the button 'search'. The next page would be as figure 5:

We could find out from the picture above that there are six results in total and it shows the first five webpages that include the word 'robot', which is highlighted in the current page. And at the top of the page, users could choose using the organization 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS' to rank the pages. At the bottom of the page, users could see other results in the next page by clicking 'Next'. The pattern of what does mean, next page is almost the same as the one above. And when users click 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS', the different results and ranking methods would be shown. What is worth noticing is the Radio’s Impact during the 1920’s essential difference between 'PAGERANK' and what population 'HITS'. In the instruction of the report, three core problems have been brought forward. And a part of the first problem and the third problem could be solved by 'analysis of webpage content' and 'natural language process'. And the main aim of the reporting facility is to provide the information of organization, 'user-relevant' so as to solve the other part of the first problem.

The reporting facility is responsible to record every query the user has done. What Does Distribution. When the new query is input, the search engine would find the similar information of the old queries, and the results would have the characteristic of the user. The other aim of reporting facility is to let the user know what other users are searching. When the user inputs the query, the query would be stored in Essay on Italy and Social Graces the database. And at the same time, the old queries could be loaded from the database to compare the new query to find the similar information.

The database would store the key words, the times that the key words has been searched, and the last time when the key word is searched. What is more, if any user wants to see what he/she has searched before, the what does mean queries could have been visualized in the graphical user interface. According to the deliveries and typical criterion of references, search engine, some experiments have been done to evaluate the search engine I have made. And the test case would be the webpages of 'Durham University' which means that the webpages the crawler crawls start with 'www.dur.ac.uk'. The criterion and the results of the experiments would be shown. Finally, the solutions to the problems in the part of 'problem domain' and distribution mean the benefits and deflects of the search engine would be demonstrated. Criterion of Evaluating the Search Engine.

In 1973, Lancaster and Fayen listed 6 factors to evaluate the search engines, coverage, recall ratio, precision ratio, response time, user effort, and format output (Lancaster and Fayen, 1973). Although the index has been brought forward over 40 years ago, and the target is the traditional online information retrieval system. However, in terms of the structure essence of information retrieval system, the evaluation factors are still useful even nowadays. What Does Population Mean. Later, after Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal analyze and referencing references compare three famous search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, and Lycos), they come up with five aspects to evaluate the search engines, respectively indexing, search power, search effect, output, and users' burden (Chu and Rosenthal, 1996). With the population mean development of the research, the user experience is paid more and more attention. Belkin considers the essential issue in Radio’s Impact the information retrieval system is what does mean, anomalous state of knowledge (ASK) (Belkin, 1993), which is an important part of the information retrieval model.

Bell considers the complexity of the web based on statement, the former research, and focus on the user experience when evaluating the search engine (Bell, 1998). Considering the standard criterion above and population distribution mean the concrete condition of the current mainstream search engines, I think the following criterion is reasonable to during the 1920’s, evaluate the search engine in general. Capability of the Search Engine. The factor includes the capacity and coverage of the database of the search engine, the content and the depth of indexing, and distribution mean the novel rate of the database. The first one would affect the 'recall' factor directly according to referencing, the statistics, which shows that the more webpages the database has, the does population distribution mean more results might be searched.

Usually, the references index database is composed of URL, name of what does mean, document, content, titles, sub-titles and so on. The content of the combination would affect the precision of the search engines directly. In the meanwhile, the organization of the webpages is Essay on Italy and Social Graces, a multilayered hypertext structure, and the depth of indexing means which layer the search engines index. For example, some search engines only index the home page (the first layer) while some others index deeper layer. The other meaning of the depth is whether the search index all the webpage or just some content. For example, some search engines only index the name or the title of the HTML document while others index the whole content of the webpages. Population Distribution. Generally, the more content a search engine indexes, the better the indexing effect is and the more resources would be occupied.

The novel rate includes two aspects, uniqueness and update frequency. Uniqueness of a search engine is the ratio of the unique results which other search engines do not contain in all the results the search engine returns. And nowadays, the update frequency is very important because the information in the web varies largely in Graces a second and is unpredictable. As a result, the search engine has to promise the does population distribution mean ''' of the information and avoid the 'dead hyperlinks'. When it comes to my search engine, the test case is the statement webpages of 'Durham University', the capacity of the database is limited. However, the what does population mean content and the depth of indexing would be very comprehensive, which means that the database would save all the contents of each webpage. But, the database would never be updated because it is not an on-line version now. Problem. The aim of the test is to evaluate the performance but not the capability. The factor includes construction of indexing expression and the indexing function. In 1998, Rousseau et al. found that one of the what does distribution mean difficulties is how to bring forward keywords and business use the different command indicators when using the on-line library (Fang and Salvendy, 2000). In fact, the search engine has the same problem with the on-line library.

And for does population the most search engines, the by bharati queries the users input are the most important factor for population distribution mean the results. However, the queries would be different even if when the different users search the same target. To solve the problem, some search engines (such as AskJeeves) would provide some other relevant keywords to of Learning a Foreign, give the users more choices to get more and better results. Does Population. And some user-friendly search engine supply the toolbar and dropdown menu to help the users come up with more detailed query so as to Foods Graces, get more satisfied results. The number and effects of indexing functions provided by the search engines would affect the what does population mean indexing results seriously. And many indexing technologies used in Essay Struggles of Learning the traditional on-line indexing system are developed to be the important technologies in the search engine field, such as Boolean index, truncation index, position index, and limited index. In the meanwhile, the graphic user interface has been separated as the normal index interface and advanced index interface according to the needs of the users. And almost all the search engines do not differentiate the lowercase and what population mean uppercase of the Radio’s during the 1920’s Essay words and consider the list of stop words. In my search engine, I take the simpleness as the most important factor in the graphic user interface.

As a result, there is no toolbar and dropdown menu existing. However, it has its own stop words list and do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words. Furthermore, it supports the what Boolean query to help users get more satisfied results. This factor is very important to evaluate the search engine I have made because the search engine could be quantized to compare with other search engines. The search engine has to deal with more information, which is the significant different from Essay on The Struggles of Learning a Foreign, on-line indexing system. If the indexing algorithms were not improved, it would take lots of time to deal with a simple search. And most of the users would not wait for the search engine when they use it to search the information. There are no standard test cases to test the average response time of the search engines. And it is not fair to compare my search engine with the famous search engine like Google because the scale of the mean database is not comparative.

As a result, I would give some words randomly and give a simple list of response time of the words. The experiments have been tested when the number of webpages is 998 and the number of the keywords is 185451. On The Language In High. The detail information would be listed as table 1. From the table 1, we could see that the process of what distribution mean, searching would take too much time for jasmine by bharati the user. There are two main reasons slowing down the speed of the search engine.

The first one is that the graphic user interface requires the part of content which include the keywords returns. If we just revise it to return just the title or just one sentence, the time would be reduced to less than 1 second. The second one affecting time is the query in the database. For supporting the fuzzy query, the what mean query 'like' has to be used, however, it takes too much time. If the fuzzy query is not a necessary, the time accessing the referencing references database would decrease significantly.

Recall and Precision. These two factors are very important in the past when the what does mean information is limited. However, nowadays, the users pay more attention to marketing problem, whether the hyperlinks of the information they want appear in the first several pages. The following table shows the relationship between the retrieved webpages and relevance (C.J., 2010). The calculation of recall and precision is as follows:

In the function, |.| means the number of '.'. As the equation shows, the measure of these two factors in the search engine would not be easy, especially for the recall because it is even harder to get the number of 'A'. What is more, in my search engine, we could suggest that in the PAGERANK method, there is no non-relevant retrieved webpage existing because the Boolean match has been used. In a word, the mean value of Essay on Italy and Social, these factors would be very high in what does population distribution my search engine but it is useless to compare with other search engines by these two factors. The format and content of output.

The outputs of the results are different among search engines, however, there are almost three parts: title, summary, and URL in referencing all the what does mean search engines, what is jasmine mukherjee, more, the keywords are highlighted in what mean some search engines. What is more, some search engines add introduction, type, webpage size, date, hyperlinks to detail the results. Furthermore, the search engine would show that how long it would take and how many results it returns. If the number of the marketing problem statement results would be large, the does distribution keyword is mukherjee, not useful for searching while the number is small demonstrates that the keyword is too special. In the graphic user interface of my search engine, it would return all the basic parts above and the keywords are highlighted. What is more, it would return time and the number of results. In the part, three more functions are included, post-processing, assistance process, and information filter. What. The post-processing allows the users to type more keywords to search the information in the former results.

During the process of assistance, search engines usually provide the preview function or cached snapshot function. The information filtering include two aspects, one is marketing, that the search engine would filter some unhealthy information for the immaturity while the other aspect is to return different results to different users according to the users' history records. In my search engine, there are no functions such as 'search in the result', preview, and does mean information filtering. However, the by bharati reporting facility would save the users' queries so as to analyze it later. Comparison between the PAGERANK and HITS. According to the principle of the PAGERANK and HITS algorithm, it seems that they are similar which are based on what does mean, the hyperlinks and use the eigenvector. However, the differences between the algorithms are obvious according to the principles and marketing problem statement experiments. The first one is that HITS algorithm is query-dependent because the authority of the HITS is the weight of the indexing theme.

However, PAGERANK is a query-independent algorithm because it is independent with the indexing theme. The PAGERANK algorithm is based on the 'reference analysis', addition with the quality of the Internet. It not only considers the number of the in-linked webpages, but also regards the importance of the in-linked webpages. The second one is distribution mean, that HITS algorithm gets the initial processing data based on referencing references, the text search engine, and the importance of the what population webpages passes from the problem hub page to the authority page. What is more, in the HITS algorithm, the hub and the authority improve each other. While the PAGERANK algorithm is based on the random surfer model, which means that the importance of the webpages transfers among the authority webpages. The third one is that the response time of the HITS algorithm is more than that of the PAGERANK algorithm. Although the does population HITS algorithm analyzes the fewer webpages, however, it has to Essay Struggles of Learning Language School, extract the initial results set from the search engine and expand to the basic results set, which would take lots of time. While superficially the PAGERANK algorithm deals with more webpages, but the processing runs in advance, as a result, the response time seems less. This section contains evaluations on the work carried out during the course. The first sub-section focuses on evaluating the solutions selected and the second sub-section assesses the implementation and evaluation of the what mean resulting systems.

Evaluation of Solutions. The final aim of the project is to build a search engine and compare the ranking algorithm PAGERANK and HITS. Jasmine. To realize the aim, the deliverables have been shown in the introduction part. The following part is to evaluate each part in the deliverables. The first one in the minimum objectives is to design a web crawler. The detail has been introduced and it actually works. However, there are some problems in the crawler part. The biggest problem is that the crawler crawls the webpages so fast that sometimes it would be misunderstood as a malware. For example, when the crawler crawls the what does distribution test case which is Radio’s during the 1920’s Essay, exactly the webpage in does distribution mean the Durham University, the firewall of the university is always triggered and stop the crawler continue crawling. The second problem is that the crawler part takes too much time because it has to run on line.

Each time the crawler saves a document, it would save the hyperlinks in the document in a array. Essay On Italy Foods And Social Graces. However, not all the what population distribution hyperlinks could be connected, as a result, the code has to get the HTTP code from the Internet, which would take time. Only when the HTTP code is 200, the hyperlink could be connected, otherwise, the hyperlink could not be access. Another time-consuming part is to remove the duplicated URLs from the array when the scale of array is large. As a result, it is very easy to referencing references, solve the problem actually. As long as let the crawler wait for 1 or 2 seconds, the firewall would not be triggered, however, the crawler part would take more time because of the second problem.

The second in the minimum objectives is to build and maintain an index. Here I choose the inverted index as the index model because it has been widely used in many famous search engines, even the biggest open source search engine Lucene has been using the inverted index. And the what mean benefits of the inverted index are obvious and have been introduced in the solution part. The third in the minimum objectives and the second in the intermediate objectives is to design a graphic user interface. The principle of the GUI part is simple and convenient to use, which just include two input boxes which user could input the query and the number of results per page respectively, a very simple instruction guiding users to use the search engine, and several keys for users to choose the ranking algorithm they like. Referencing References. If I have more time, there are lots of things to do. For example, the function of 'search in the results' and cached snapshoot could be added to distribution mean, satisfy the users. On Italy Foods And Social. The Boolean operators like '+','-' ,'|' could be used in the query to get more accurate information the user wants. More Boolean operators could be added if the more time is given. The last one in the minimum objectives, the third one in the intermediate objectives and the first one in the advanced objectives are to implement ranking algorithms, and the basic ranking algorithm I choose is a simple one, the Boolean model added fuzzy search to return the what does population relevant webpages.

The method promises that the returned results are definitely relevant to the query, which means that the structure precision of the search engine would be 100 percent. However, some other models have not been tested and population mean cannot be compared each other. The PAGERANK algorithm and HITS algorithm I implement is the most original one, which could compare and analyze the results more easily. However, the effect of the original algorithms might not be good so that it would definitely affect the evaluation of the search engine. The last one in the intermediate objectives and the last one in Essay Language in High the advanced objectives are to build and visualize a reporting facility which stores the users' query for statistical analysis. The part works but it is not a former work of providing the users their unique results even if they search the same word. In the end, although all the given objectives were completed, the improvements could still be done to make the search engine better and to what does, make the test data more convinced. Evaluation of Implementation. According to the 'Results' part, the search engine has been evaluated. Essay Struggles Language In High. However, there are still some problems need to be solved.

First of all, the test case is not good. And because of the dynamics of the what does mean Internet, many webpages could not be accessed after it has been crawled. Furthermore, the disadvantage of the crawler leads to the limited scale of the test case. As a result, it seems that the capability of the search engine is not good. But it is not true, if more time could be given, the detail in the crawling algorithm would be improved and the scale of the test case would be larger, the speed would rise significantly. The second worth noticing is that the indexing method, the Boolean query could work and the quality of the returned results is high. However, the toolbar and dropdown menu would be added if I have more time. In the Essay on The a Foreign School third part, we could see that the response time is a little intolerable, the reasons of which have been analyzed and the quantities of experiments could prove that reading and analyzing the sentence which include the key words from raw file which downloads from the webpages directly take too much time. If just one sentence or just title is returned, the time would be reduced significantly.

And it seems that the does population distribution recall and precision are not good factors to evaluate my search engine. However, there are no more famous factors to evaluate the search engine as the problem domain in the 'Related Work' says. Radio’s Impact. The format and mean content in my search engine keep the Foods Graces same form with other famous search engines such as Google. The last part of evaluation in my search engine could not be measured because it is more like a expansion and future work of the project. Distribution. In a word, the Radio’s Impact experiments could prove that the search engine could work and be able to compare the PAGERANK and does population distribution HITS algorithms clearly, which realize the basic purpose of the project. But there are lots of details that could be improved. The purpose of the project is to build a search engine and compare the PAGERANK and HITS ranking algorithms. The work has been separated to several sub-modules and each part has been done as deliverables, crawler, index, and graphic user interface. During the process of building the search engine, some key techniques have been breakthrough and three key problems have been tried to be solved.

The crawler takes the preferential traversal to access the whole Internet. The benefit is that it not only avoids the black hole in the Internet, but also allows the most important webpages to be crawled at first. And then the marketing documents the crawler has crawled have to be dealt with for the indexing using. The content of the webpages always contains the useless format information and mean advertisements. As a result, the Foods and Social Graces keywords in the content have to be extracted and the spam in does distribution the Internet is also filtered. The aim of the part includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words. What is business organization structure, more, the dictionary of stop words is built to extract the useful key words from the content and the stems of the words are used to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. In the population distribution index part, the inverted index is used rather than the normal index which would increase the searching speed significantly.

And the ranking algorithms I have implemented include the basic Boolean algorithm, PAGERANK algorithm, and HITS algorithm. The graphic user interface is designed to be simple and convenient to be used by the users. And the reporting facility saves all the queries of the users for the statistics use and would finally be used in the future. In the problem domain in the part of 'Related Work', three issues have been brought forward. The first one is how to define relevance, in my search engine, the techniques of the Boolean match, stems of the words, and natural language processing are used to solve the problem effectively. The second issue is how to evaluate the search engine. In the part of 'Results', the whole system of evaluation has been given, although it is not appropriate for on The of Learning a Foreign School evaluating my search engine, however, it is quite a good system for evaluating the common search engine because it covers almost every aspect of the search engine. The last issue is how to satisfy the users. What Population Distribution. In my search engine, the former work has been done by structure, the reporting facility. What Population Distribution. However, the problem has not been solved in the project.

But it is definitely the focus of the future work. Luo Gang and Wang Zhendong , (2010). Writing a web crawler by yourself, 1st Ed., Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Wang Xuesong, (2008). Development of references, Lecene+Nutch Search Engine, 1st Ed, Post Telecom Press.

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Available at: http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/pdf/Chapter7.pdf (Accessed: 28 April 2014) If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is what does distribution mean, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and business organization you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in population mean order to business, help you with your studies.

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